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the old Admiral, who has a very fine counte. nance, with two angels blowing trumpets and holding a crown over his head, and two palm branches and a display of arms on each side.]

Mr. Schoolcraft presented an ancient Indian kettle, found near St. Mary's, concealed in a cave, and believed to be 250 years old.

EXTRAORDINARY SAGACITY OF A CAT.-We have the following anecdote from an unquestionable source, and assure our readers that the statement may be relied on.

New Haven Courier. A gentleman of this city had two cats upon his premises, related by the ties of mother and daughter-both of which were blessed with a litter of kittens at about the same time. Not many days after, the two mothers were observed sitting together in the shed, and intently eyeing each other, as if holding a consultation. After the lapse of several minutes thus spent, the younger cat returned to her kitten, one only having lived, and brought it towards the old cat, which still kept ber place. This kitten she placed directly before her mother, and then sat down not far from it. The two parents looked again at each other for some time, when the elder retreated, leaving the kitien where the other had placed it.

The mother again took up her mewing offspring, and once more approached her recu. sant companion, when the same ceremony was repeated, with a similar effect. This occurred several times, when the elder cat, as if influenced by the mute appeal of the mother, took up the strange kitien thus forced upon her charity, conveyed it to the spot where her darlings were deposited, and, to all appearances, adopted it as her own.

The younger cat, having thus seen the object of her solicitude provided for, retired slowly to her straw, where she was soon after taken with a fit, and almost immediate ly died. We leave it for naturalists to explain, whether the invalid cat was aware of her speedy dissolution; or whether, what we call instinct, in the lower order of animals, does not occasionally approach very near to what is termed reason among the human species.-New Haren Corrier.

It was stated, at the Convention of Geologists at New Haven, last week, that the velocity of sea-waves, engendered by earihquake, is not far from thirty miles a minute: twice the velocity of sound. The earthquake of Lisbon threw a succession of 36 enormous waves across the Atlantic to the shores of Antigua in 10 hours. Ten successive shocks at exact intervals of 35 minutes.

Professsor Silliman stated that letters which he had received from Professor Agassis, of Switzerland, announced the intention of that distinguished geologist to visit this country in the course of a few weeks.

Manufacture of Sleel Pens. In the first place, Nat sections of steel are cut out, of the shape required, by a stamping press ; ; they are then placed under another press, which pierces the holes and cuts the slits; and they are then struck in to their convex shape by a third press. They are then to be polished and tempered, which is man. aged in a peculiar apparatus, consisting of a fly-wheel and box, in which the pens are placed, and to which a motion is given, resembling that exhibited in shaking mate. rials together in a bag.

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a box, shaken, and brought to a blue color, being carefully watched, and the heat les. sened whenever a shade of yellow is ob. served on their surface. The split is then completed by touching the sides with a pair of pincers. Some idea inay be given of the greater rapidity with which steel pens are made than the quill, when we state, that of the latter an expert pen cutter can only make six hundred a day; whilst with the recent steel pen machines, as many may be made in a single hour with the greatest ease.

The steel of which these pens are made is frequently alloyed with some other metal, in order to improve the elasticity, and in some cases to prevent rust; but the steel alone employed in England for making pens, amounts to one hundred and twentyfive tons annually, which is equivalent to about three hundred millions of pens! a number cnploying such an immense amount of labor and ingenuity, as to be scarcely credible, did not the Parliamenta. ry returns attest the fact.--Selected.

MAXIMS. Maintain dignity without the appearance of pride.

Persevere against discouragements.
Keep your temper.

Be punctual and methodical in business, and never procrastinate.

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AN EXCELLENT MOVEMENT.--At a public meeting of the citizens of Woonsocket, held a few days since, the following judicious preamble and resolution were adopted :

Whereas, it is currently reported that, in one of our neighboring villages, "a man made during the last year $1500 by minding his own business, and $500 by letting other people's alone;" therefore

Resolved, That we recommend to some of the good people in our village to try the experiment, not only as a source of emolument to themselves, but of satisfaction to their neighbors.

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POETRY.

MY MOTHER.

By Fanny Forrester. Give me my old seat, mother,

With my head upon thy knee; I've passed through many a changing

scene, Since thus I sat by thee. Oh! let me look into thine eyes

Their meek, soft, loving light Falls, like a gleam of holiness,

Upon my heart to-night.

Spring is Coming. By Mr. Nack, who was deaf and dumb from his

childhood, Spring is coming! Spring is coming! Birds are chirping insects humming, Flowers are peeping from their sleeping, Sireams escaped from winter's keeping, In delightful freedom rushing, Dance along in music gushing, Scenes of late by deadness saddened, Smile in animation gladdened ; All is beauty, all is mirth, All is glory upon earth, Shout we then with Nature's voice, Welcome Spring! Rejoice! Rejoice!

Spring is coming ; come, my brother, Let us rove with one another To our well-remembered wild-wood, Flourishing in Nature's childhood; Where a thousand flowers are springing, And a thousand birds are singing ; Where the golden sunbeams quiver On the verdure-girdled river ; Let our youth of feeling out, To the youth of Nature shout, While the waves repeat our voice, Welcome Spring! Rejoice! Rejoice!

I've not been long away, mother ;

Few suns have rose and set,
Since last the tear-drup on thy cheek

My lips in kisses met:
'Tis but a little time, I know,

But very long it seems,
Though every night I came to thee,

Dear mother, in my dreams.
The world has kindly dealt, mother,

By the child thou lov'st so well;
Thy prayers have circled round her path,

And 'iwas their holy spell Which made that path so dearly bright,

Which strewed the roses there, Which gave the light, and cast the balm

On every breath of air.
I bear a happy heart, mother,

A happier never beat;
And even now new buds of hope

Are bursting at my feet.
Oh, mother! life may be a “dream :"

But, if such dreams are given
While at the portal thus we stand,

What are the truths of Heaven?

THE SECRET OF GREAT WORKERS. — Sir Samuel Romilly, always tranquil and orderly, had an incessant activity ; he never lost a minute: he applied all his mind to what he was about. Like the band of a watch, he never stopped, although his equal move. ments, in the same way, almost escaped obe Servation.-Dumoni.

If the law of kindness be written on the heart, it will lead to that disinterestedness in little as well as great things-that desire to oblige and attention to the gratification of others—which is the foundation of good manners-Locke.

A desire to please is a better teacher of manners than a dancing master.

I bear a happy heart, mother,

Yet, when fond eyes I sec,
And hear soft tones, and winning words,

I ever think of thee.
And then the tear my spirit weeps

Unbidden, fills my eye;
And, like a homeless dove, I long

Unto thy breast to fly.
Then I am very sad, mother,

I'm very sad and lone;
Oh! there's no heart whose in most fold

Opes to me like thine own!
Though sunny smiles wreathe blooming

Tips,
While love-tones meet my ear;
My mother, one fond glance of thine

Were thousand times more dear.

THE AMERICAN PENNY MAGAZINE

AND FAMILY NEWSPAPER, Is published weekly, at the office of the New York Express, No. 112 Broadway, at 3 cents a number, (16 pages lorge octavo,) or, to subscribers receiving it by mail, and paying in advance, $1 a year. The postage is one cent a number for all parts of the State, or within 100 miles of the city, and one and a half cents for greater distances. Persons forwarding the money for five copies, will receive a sixth gratis. Editors known to have published this advertisement, with an editorial notice of the work, will be supplied with it for one year. By the quantity, $2 a hundred. The work will form a volume of 832 pages annually.

Postmasters are authorized to remit money without charge.

Then, with a closer clasp, mother,

Now hold me to thy heart;
I'd feel it beating 'gainsi my own

Once more before we part.
And, mother, to his love-lit spot,

When I am far away,
Come oft-100 of thou canst not come-

And for thy darling pray.

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THE SAILOR'S HOME. We gave a print of this new and valua- j

GOTTENBURG, Oct. 2, 1844. institution in the 9th number of this Maga- 3 To the Superintendent of Sailor's Home : zine, (page 137,) with an account of its { My Dear Sir--Although unknown to you, plan history and effects, to which we refer

I venture to write and ask of you the favor

to take care of the accompanying parcel for those of your readers who have not read it.

my beloved son, J. E. E., from whom I Having now procured a more picturesque lately received a letter in which he speaks view of it, we here present it, with the fol very highly of the Superintendent of the lowing letter lately received by the estima

Sailor's Home, without mentioning your ble superintendent, from a widow lady in

name. He told me you had given him a i

Bible, and many other precious books conSweden, whose son found it indeed a "home," } taining the word of God, and rules for a in an affecting sense of the word.

? Christian's conduct. O, my dear sir, it is a de mammamun

242

THE AMERICAN PENNY MAGAZINE.

widowed MOTHER that now writes you, and my feelings at this moment, as well as when I first read my son's letter,) are inexpressible; you must therefore excuse my plain and imperfect acknowledgement for all your kindness towards my dear boy. He is young, and had been led astray, but the Lord in mercy led him to you, and he is now in the right way, through your kind infinence.

May Heaven's best blessings forever rest upon you and yours. Accept a rejoicing mother's eternal thanks for having restored to her her long lost son. May I ask of you the favor to keep the parcel until my son's return from Canton, which he told me in his letter would be in a twelvemonth.

Begging your pardon for having encroached upon your time and patience, I remain, dear sir, with a mother's gratitude, Yours, most sincerely,

And obliged,

HELENA EP.S. The parcel contains several religious books, my likeness, a bead chain and several letters.

H. E.

Sailor's Magazine. This is but one case out of many in which the exertions made for Seamen, here and elsewhere, have proved successful. For a short and simple narrative of another kind, we refer to the extracts from the Anniversary reports, on another page of this number.

the apprehensions we had formerly known, but by the reflection that thousands around us were in the same happy condition, and had experienced a similar change in their prospects.

My time was variously occupied during my stay in Athens. I had much to say and much to listen to, first in the family, and af. terwards among their friends, to whom I was soon introduced. Then my curiosity soon led me to the various spots and monuments which attract every traveller.

What changes have taken place in Athens ! and some of the strangest are caused by the influx of foreigners. French, English and German shops are open on all sides, and these languages are heard in every street. The large hotels are kept by foreigners, and conducted in the style of London, Paris and other cities of western Europe. Many foreign residenis are also found-families who have purchased or erected mansions, and taken up their permanent abode in the city or its environs, attracted by the beauties and associations of the place, the mildness of the climate, and the salubrity of the situation. Many of these foreigners have the aspect of refinement and intelligence, as well as of wealth or competency; and they are, with reason, regarded by the Greek inhabitants as a welcome and valuable acquisition to the population.

How striking is the reflection, amid such crowds of forigners congregated in this famous capital, that, less than three hundred years ago, the opinion prevailed in Europe, even among the most learned men, that Athens had been razed to its foundations! Her monumenis, her very localities, it was supposed, had no longer any trace except in books. Such a mistake was the effect of Turkish barbarism and European torpidity combined. Clark informs us that the work of Martin Crusius (about 1580) confirmed that error, and that the first traveller who truly described Athens in modern times was De la Guilletière, a Frenchman, who published a book in Paris in 1675. After being four years a slave in Barbary, he paid a visit to Athens, in company with several other Europeans, and gave a very accurate, sensible and interesting description of the city and its antiquities. In the year when this volume appeared, Wheeler, an Englishman, set off for Greece, accompanied by Dr. Spon ; and both, in their published journals, while ihey disparage their worthier predecessor, copy froin him without the least acknowledgment. Dr. Clark is of the opinion that De la Guillitière (or Wils let, as the same name has become changed in England,) is properly to be regarded as the first writer who acquainted Europeans with the existence of Athens and her remains, as Crusius had hardly excited any attention, though nearly an hundred years his predecessor, and he, as has been remarked, encouraged the prevailing opinion that she was no more. De la Guillerière, however, made many mistakes in the inscriptions that he at

FOREIGN TRAVELS.
Greece in 1844 ; or, A Greek's Return to his

Native Land-a narrative, edited by Theo-
DORE DWIGHT, JR.

CHAPTER VII.
Interesting objects and scenes in and about
Athens.--The modern city long unknown in
Europe.-Early modern accounts of Athens.-
Some events of the late war.

The reader can easily imagine something of what the feelings of a Greek may naiu. rally be, when, after a long absence from his native country, he finds himself not only in Greece again, but in the centre of Greecein Athens. Afier the scenes I had witnessed in my childhood, in a distant island of the country, then far from the great body of the nation, exposed to the savage enemy, and most of the time completely within their power, and after a long absence in another continent, it was delightful to realize the perfect peace and security now so happily established among my countrymen. My enjoyment was enhanced, not only by my restora. tion tu my family, and the contrast of our condition and prospects with the sorrows and

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tempted to copy, which is not much to be wondered at; but his descriptions, and especially his map, are spoken of in high terms.

It may appear almost incredible that such ignorance should have prevailed on a subject of this nature ; for why should not some reports be brought from Athens by the many merchants who then, as at other times, had ipiercourse with Greece, even if in small numbers ? Dr. Clark gives one reason-which is, that the name was so disguised by foreign corruptions as to be no longer recognized. The few Italian traders who visited the har. bor of Piræus, called Athens Setines or Sethina, by which no one could certainly recog. nize it ; " and yet," says Guilletière, in speak. ing of the ancient cities of Greece, “no one has preserved its name with better success than Athens has done : for both Greeks and Turks call it Athenai."

Of all the cilies of Greece, none perhaps was the scene of so many changes and of so many sieges, in the course of the late war, as Athens. The beginning was made in 1821, when the insurgents in the Morea and the sailors al sưa had done enough against the Turks to excite their countrymen in every quarter. There had long prevailed a comparatively good understanding between the ivo parties in this city. The Turks, of course, held possession of the Acropolis : but the Grecks were the chief part of the population of the city wlich lav at i's feet, although that was garrisoned by a moderate body of troops.

When the sale of the country began to appear alarming, the Greeks dwelling in the city and in the country for many miles around, fled to the coast, and embarked for Salamis and other cafe places. After a short time, such of the men as meditated something for the nation, returned and traversed the plain of Attica in bands, depredalins, or wavlaring, surprising and cutting off' smail parties of the enemy who ventured to expose themselves. Tlie banks of the Cephisus, so celebrated in tines of Athenian splendor, now became the scene of a caulicus but bloody paruzan warfare ; but the Turks were 100 few ofien 10 Venture from the city walls, which were soon destined to an assault by the Grecks. One nicht in June, 1821, they were attacked, and with such spirit that the town was soon in their hands. They then pressed ille siege of the Acropolis, and the Turks had begun to suffer from iamine, when a Mahomedan army, under Omer Pasha, arrived and dove them back to Salamis. But this inhuman commander committed the most barbarous atrocities. He sent out to ravage the country, and had the remaining inhabitanis tortured, treaied with every indignity and cruelty, and put to death in various ingenious modes, to increase their sufferings. His men often amused themselves with hunting down the poor peasants with horses, making sport of

Their fears, and cutting them in pieces, or : shooting them when weary of their sport.

But in June, 1822, the army had retired,

and the Turkish garrison in the Acropolis were suffering severely from the want of water. Their only spring, just outside of the walls, was in the possession of their enemies. After a time they capitulated; but many of them were massacred, in retaliation for the recent atrocities of their countrymen at Scio, at the instigation of refugees from that scene of horror.

When the Turks next invaded the Morea from the norih, they passed by Athens without waiting to besiege the Acropolis, and would have left Corinth also unmolested, had not the garrison deserted it from fear.

In 1826, while Gouras bad command of the Acropolis of Athens, Col. Favier occupied the city for some time, with his disciplined troops; and be proceeded hence with them, on his unsuccesstul expedition against Eubea. In July, Kiulahi Pacha came down with a Turks ish army, occupied the Musæum Hill, and began to bombard the city and Acropolis. He had two long and bloody battles with Col. Favier's corps and a body of Greeks, whom he drove back with extreme difficulty, though with a vast numerical superiority.

In October, when the Acropolis alone was in possession of the Greeks, and they were suffering severely from disease, as well as the loss of many men, a timely reinforcement forced their way in at night, bravely led by Grigiottis. Afier this, however, the garrison were more closely besieged than ever, so that for a long time not a word of communication was held, even with the government. The most energetic exertions were then made for their relief, and to drive back the Turks. Col. Gordon landed at the Pyræus, and occupied the hill, supported by the steamboat Perseverance, and alierwards by the frigate Hellas. Karaiskakis afierwards came down from the north, and Favier cut off the Pacha's communication with the sea of Negropont, while the Greeks and many foreigners, newly arriv. ed, assembled to partake in the recovery of Achens. Lord Cochrane was present with his frigate. and in the general command. Karaiskis was unfortunately mortally wounded just ai the moment when advantages had been gained, and his practical skill was needed to counteract the European ideas of Cochrane. Shortly after, the flower of the Greek army, which had imprudently encamped on ihe open ground in the plain, preparatory to an attack on the Turks, was overwhelmed by their charge, and all the Greeks were driven to a precipitate retreat.

There appears to have been a difference in the dispositions of the Turkish commanders. Kuitakhi Pacha, who so long was at the head of their armies in Allica, was a brave and skilful soldier, without the inhumanity of a wild beast. He was not guilty of the prac. tices of his predecessor, Omar Pacha, who rendered himself and his soldiers abominated to the extreme, by the scenes of cruelty of which he made the country the theatre.

But I have not room to go into the many

s

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