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s believe that here had been an important for. S however, has excited the attention of curious

tress in ancient times, though ihe present observers long before our day; for Aristotle is
wal's are said to be Venetian. We had not said to have committed suicide, by drowning,
time to go up and examine the structure, or because he was unable to account for this
to enjoy the fine and extensive view from the strange anomaly of nature.
summit. The hill is so near the bridge, as A somewhat important historical fact has
completely to command it; and not only that, been proved, by ascertaining the depth of
but also the city at the other end of it. This water at this place. While Xerxes had his
place, so imporiant in the history of the isl. fleet stationed in the gulf of Volo, off the
and, still retains its ancient name, Chalcis, northern end of Eubea, 480 years before
(pronounced Halkees, which is, as formerly, Christ, he lost a squadron on the eastern 3
a noun of the third declension. Of curse, coast, in one of the storms still the dread of
when I wished, in speaking of the city by the sailors on that havenless part of the island.
way, to say of Chalcis, it was necessary for The rest of the fleet pursued the Greeks, who
me to say « Halkédos"-to Chalcis, “ Hal. were crossing the Euripus, and passed through
kéde;" and when I made it the object of a this narrow strait. Now, as the depth of
verb or preposition, I must say “Halkéda.” water there is only three feet between the
The reader should bear in mind that the mo main land and the rock, and seven between
dern Greeks pronounce d like th in this.

the rock and the island, the largest of Xerxes' We passed along by the foot of the hill; vessels must have been of very moderate size. and, in crossing the bridge, (which is only Agamemnon, as Homer tells us, collected about twelve feet wide,) we enjoyed a fine the Grecian teet at Antis, when preparing for view to the left, up the sea of Eubea ; for in the expedition against Troy; and, although that direction, as well as the other, there is a the site of that ancient city has not been assudden expansion of the water, which ex certained, it is believed to be still marked by tends to the north far and broad, between some of the most remarkable of the ruins in two ranges of lofty mountains. It is evident the vicinity of Chalcis. A little south of the from that spot, at the first glance, that this town are some of the remains I have menmust always have been, as it is now, the tioned, constructed of stones of great magni. main and indeed the only point of frequent tude, and belonging to that massive style communication between the continent and found in different parts of Greece from the Eubæa. Here passed the ancient Athenian highest recorded antiquity, and denominated armies when they approached for the con. the Cyclopæan. They are near a large and quest of the island; here they doubtless forti. convenient harbor, which is a good one, cenfied themselves above the bridge; and hereby tral enough for a general rendezvous, and, at they retreated when compelled to abandon the same time, nothing is known of the place their possession, by the strength of the rising that seems to discountenance the supposition. islanders, aided by their allies, or when called We found the town of Chalcis with narrow back by the invaders of their own city.

streets and many old Turkish houses, left Spon, who crossed this bridge in 1675, de standing through the war, and now inhabited scribes it particularly. He says its whole by Greeks, who had before been confined to length is but thirty paces, and it has a tower a suburb, with the Jews. There were some in the middle, under which he went, then buildings of recent date; for the place is one crossing a draw between the tower and Chal of considerable trade, as a large part of the cis, through which gallies pass.

products of the island find their way to the A late French writer gives the distance from continent through it. Of this we saw evi. 3 shore to shore as 110 feet, with a rock in the dence as we passed through the streets; for

midst, and says the lions of St. Mark are still there was a considerable display of wool,
to be seen on the Venetian walls of the for honey, figs, almonds, and other fruits.
tress, on the hill before mentioned. He adds, We proceeded to a hotel, where I took up
on the authority of a Jesuit, who resided my lodgings, with most of my fellow travel-
there some years ago, and paid particular at. lers. My brother, having a friend in the town

tention to the ebb and flow of the water whom he wished to visit, accepted an invita{ through the narrow passage, that it some tion 10 lodge at his house. I was pretty well

limes runs at the rate of eight miles an hour,
He mentions that there is a daily lide, al. rate, as my food and lodging cost but half
though there is none in the Mediierranean; a dollar. Having time cnough for a walk
but the irregularity is so great, that no calcu after our arrival, I made a circuit of the town,
lation can be made of the time of high or low and sa w many remains of antiquity.
water, except at the new and full moons, or Many of the Samians, who have left our
of the number of risings and falls in twenty. native island to take up their abode in free
four hours, though they sometimes, in the Greece, have congregated at Chalcis. They
quarters of the moon, amount to eight and have been provided with land by the govern-
even fourteen. This phenomenon is doubt. ment, and, in connection with the fourteen
less owing to the pressure of the water into families of their fellow-islanders resident in
the narrow channel, which is a mere funnel, Athens, have a representative in the national
by the winds as they blow from different congress, whose name, if I recollect, is Ly.
points and with different forces. This subject, curgus.

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SIGNOR MUZZI'S BALLOON.

Or Arial Navigation by Atmospheric Pressure. We have before noticed the exhibition of sport, birds could not be sustained, and the Signor Muzzi's balloon, and now present our direction of ærostats would be impossible.' readers with pictures of it, in several different s “For many years my attention has been positions, with other figures to illustrate the 3

directed to the study of the works of eminent

} men who have distinguished themselves in principles on which it is constructed. We

the art of æronautics, both as experimentalists copy below some of his own remarks:

and as writers; and after careful investigation " The existence of a point of support in

of their productions, and having made many the air is no chimera; without a point of sup- Ş experiments, and constructed different models,

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which have been destroyed, mended or re- 2 newed, and after minute observations of the flight of different volatiles, I succeeded finally in constructing a model on a very simple sys. ten), based on a physical law, which triumphantly solves the problem of steering ærostatic machines through atmospheric currents.

By this system, I obtained the decomposition of the ascentional and descensional vertical force of balloons independent of any such mechanical contrivances as oars, sails, wheels, spirals, or steam power.

. This new system of giving a direction as S 3 desired, consists of inclined planes, so disposed

as to cause the propulsion of the balloon through the air one mile per minute.

It is neither ambition nor thirst of money that prompted me to write these pages, but an ardent desire to see the advancement of a science which does not certainly deserve to become the object of ignorant speculators, or to be discouraged by any sensible man.

Let me hope, then, that among the lovers of knowledge and national honor, among those who possess pecuniary means and are able to spare a small portion for the execution of the first ærial voyage at the will of a man, some may be found willing to unite with the inventor; and as I have no doubt many will be s so disposed, I feel confident they will communicate with the author in order to construct a large machine.” . (To be concluded.]

THE AMERICAN PENNY MAGAZINE.

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In the Mina country, each town has its mark, which is put on every inhabitant: as those speaking the Houssa language have a line, with three or four upward branches from each corner of the mouth ; those of Kano have as many short perpendicular lines; the Sacatoos, (on a branch of the Niger,) several divergent lines; the Yago or Nariby, opposite them, four horizontal and four perpendicular ones, while their women have a more complicated ornament on the cheeks; the Ashantees, upright lines on the cheeks and forehead; the Calaboos, on the gulf of Benin, near the Niger, two large spotted diamond figures on the breast and stomach ; and the Eboes, an arrow over each eye.

There is less tattooing south of these. The Kabindas, on the Congo, use it for ortament, and some of the Sundis or Mayombas, north of Loango, between 39 and 40 S. latitude, have a scarred mark from each shoulder to the centre of the breast, and other arabesque figures of different descriptions.

On the eastern coast, there are but two tribes from the equator to the Hottentots ; and of these the Maqua or Mozambique negroes have a horse-shoe mark on the forehead, and one on each temple; and the Caffres, by some unknown process, produce a row of warts or pimples from the middle of 3 the forehead to the end of the nose.

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THE PAPER NAUTILUS. This is is one of the most delicate of all I countrymen, who have visited the Mediterthe larger sized shells; and, being also ranean, have not had their attention partic. very curious and found in but few localities, 3 ularly directed to this curious animal, al. it is rarely to be obtained in a perfect state. though it has been peculiarly admired by A friend, who possesses both science and many writers, even from early times. taste, gave us, some time since, an inter. The shell is single, or univalve, nearly esting account of an excursion he made in in the form of a semicircle, striated over the island of Minorca, to procure specimens with lines or channels tending towards the of the Paper Nautilus. He took a walk spire, and so formed as to offer a deep and of about four miles, to a retired cove, where, narrow cavity for the body of the animal. he was informed, the curious animals were This is a mollusca, that is, one of the soft, most frequently found, and observed num. boneless kind, like most of what we call bers lying on the shore, all of them broken. shellfish. Not being attached to the shell, He succeeded in procuring several shells it has been supposed by many not to be its 3 of uncommon size, from a Spanish fisher. original proprietor. The Hermit Crab, of man, who was in the habit of meeting with the West Indies, and the Hermit Snail of them almost every day. Many of our } our own sea coast, so well known to natu

ralists, are sea insects, which are produced and live without shells, and have not the power of forming them, yet they are ac. customed to enter such as they find unoc. cupied, of proper size and shape to fit them, and to dwell in them, carrying them about as long as suits their convenience, changing from time to time to another and another.

The opinion, however, appears to gain ground, that the nautilus shell is not the production of some unknown animal at the bottom of the sea, seized upon by a naked mollusca on being thrown up by the waves,

after the death and decay of its original 3 proprietor. So thin and delicate a shell

could hardly be expected to endure the action of water without the care of an intel. ligent and cautious steersman, such as is always found in possession of it. The shells occupied by the animals above named are usually hard and substantial, as the buccinum, trochus, &c. Yet it is difficult to account for the production of a shell by an animal not more closely connected with it than, indeed so wholly detached from it.

The Paper Nautilus, however, chiefly attracts the attention by its singular habits, 80 often spoken of, of sailing like a ship upon the surface of the sea.

in pleasant weather, to catch the breeze, when it blows so gently as scarcely to ruffle the surface of the water; and at the same time trails after it a number of long, stringy arms, which seem to serve the double purpose of capturing its food and steering its course. Few objects in the animal kingdom are more striking and pleasing, than that presented by a fleet of these singular creatures, with sails spread, and gliding away together, like a covey of ducks, or more like a squadron of miniature ships.

To ships, indeed, they bear so strong a resemblance, that the ancient tradition respecting them is still repeated, with an acknowledgement of its credibility, viz. that the first idea of navigation was derived from them.

We may add here, that an English lady residing at Leghorn a few years ago, took pains to procure several living specimens of the paper nautilus, which few persons have ever been able to obtain, and ascertained the fact, beyond all doubt, that they are the sole and original occupants and architects of their curious habitations.

The Red Fish.

From Erenmalm's Travels. The Laplanders of the mountains find on the heighis lakes abounding in fish. They never spread their nets without drawing in them several species of fish, but particularly of Red-fish, which they call Rod-fish.

As this species is different in Lapland from many other known elsewhere under the name of Red-fish, I shall here subjoin a description of it:

They took one in our presence; it was only nine inches long, though it sometimes may be two feet in length. This fish, in general, has the form of a trout. On each side are two broad streaks, distinct, of a dusky color, and crossing each other. The first, formed by little points, situated very near to one another, and of a dark green, commences near to the head, and proceeds along the back-bone, terminating about the middle of the tail. The second streak, commencing at the fore part of the fin, which is situated on the back, extends to below the belly, where it is of the color of a lemon: a little beyond is seen a third streak, shorter and of the same color, but not so strong. The back is dyed like that of a small marbled perch, and the belly is of a fire color, s which varies in the two great divisions made on each side, by the two streaks which ex. tend to the right and left along the body. This color is more dusky on the fore part of

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