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THE CARRIER PIGEON. The Carrier Pigeon has probably done any deviation from the course. There is much to direct attention to the flight of birds, another point equally more essential—that which is connected with several inquiries is, that we have the same bird at both ends

of particular interest. This bird has afford of the route. Now, how can all these be 3 ed more and better opportunities than almost satisfactorily ascertained ? A little reflec

any other, to ascertain with precision, facts tion will satisfy any one that it is difficult necessary to build upon. We have a multi to bring all these to bear on any particular tude of birds around us in the summer, and case.

almost every individual of them disappears What motive can we give a bird to fly to ? in the Autumn. Is it possible they can fly any particular place? The gay and beau

to the warmer countries, a thousand or more tiful tenants of the air we can murder with miles south ? Many persons have doubted our assassin weapons, or capture by stealth it; and, when we consider the speed of some, and hypocritical guile. We can condemn we find it difficult to answer all the objections. them to long and bitter captivity, under preMany show us only a short and feeble flight, tence of love for their graceful forms and being incapable of sustaining themselves long motions, theirsplendid and delicate plumage, on the wing How can they be certain of or the charming melody of their voices. finding food when they want it, if they make We can teach some of them movements frequent stops? Why are they not seen on which excite even our own wonder, and their passage? These and other questions · which flatter us to believe that we have subhave led to many inquiries and observations. jected their will to that of man-often the

One of the mostimportant points to be settled great tyrant of the lower creation. But in iş is, the distance which a swift bird, of any vain we trust to our authority over them

kind, actually flies in a given number of when at liberty. Once in their native element, Ş hours. Now, to determine this, several they cast off all thought of allegiance. Only

conditions are requisite, and they are such the Falcon, when well trained, and a few

as very seldom occur combined. We must other birds, will ever go and return at the s I know the distance, and the moments of start command of a master; and then in flights? is ing and arriving. We ought to know, also, too short to satisfy the inquirer in the cases 3 whether there was any delay on the way, or alluded to. We want some bird so strongly wennemmenemunninn

attached to its home as to return to it with s ris is about 100 leagues; and a gentleman out delay, whenever removed from it, and once sent notice of his arrival in the latter set at liberty. Even this would be of little city, to his friends in the former, by two avail, unless it could be applied to some use, Carrier Pigeons, one of which arrived in which would make it profitable. These two hours and five minutes, and the other conditions are fulfilled by the carrier Pige nine minutes after it, makirg above 150 on; and he has this additional property, of miles an hour, or 2 1-2 miles a second, soon forming an attachment to a new abode. a rapidity almost incredible for any animal.

Hence he has been employed, for many Audubon, however, expresses the opinion years, in carrying important information that our wild Pigeons fly half as fast as this from city to city, and even from country to rate; and they are sometimes killed near country : literally fulfilling the proverb of New York with rice in their crops, which the wise man, “ The birds of the air shall proves, almost without doubt, that they carry the matter."

must have flown 300 or 400 miles in six Cases have occurred in which rumors of hours, as that is the distance to the nearest battles and other important transactions, rice regions in the southern States. have circulated in distant places, at periods There is something irresistibly pleasing after their occurrence, far too short for trans in the idea of sending a message of kindness mission by any human means then in exist and love to a distant friend, by so rapid and euce; and the only explanation of it was, faithful a messenger. He will not mingle by supposing they had been sent by pigeons. with the business of the world while on his 3 We lately heard of such a bird being shot in way, he will have no intercourse with its Europe, with a bit of paper attached to it, inhabitants. He will not be exposed to ininscribed with signs of unknown import, terruptions ; our design cannot be frustrated which were supposed to mark the price of by any unfriendly hand. Our commissioner certain stocks, or prizes drawn by a lottery. will execute our will, in spite of any attempt

And here we are reminded of a trick to seize or terrify, to deceive or to injure him. attempted by a young friend, while be ? He is one inaccessible to bribery and temptacalmed off the island of St. Helena, during tion, and is liable to make no error on his the time when it was the residence of

route. Men of wealth and power may Bonaparte. A sea-gull having been caught be betrayed by their messengers, or apon board, he wrote a letter to Napoleon, prehend disappointment or delay in their requesting him to be prepared to embark the safe arrival, though half their estates were following night, in a boat to be sent for him offered to ensure it. But my humble from some ships of war which would lie off little message will be borne through the the island for his rescue. This note was 3 sky, as true as the arrow to its mark, by as tied to the bird, which flew straight for the bearer whose heart is as pure as the down land as soon as released; and, although no that covers it. How many a king and account was ever received from it, it may conqueror would have given whole provpossibly have attracted notice, been shot, Sinces or mines of gold and diamonds, to and caused some anxiety among the officers. secure such certainty and despatch !

The Carrier Pigeon flies in circles, or rather in ellipses approaching circles-why Domestic Yeast.-Persons who are in is not certainly known. Some say it is for the habit of making their own bread, can the purpose of distinguishing its intended easily manufacture their own yeast, by route. But it is not to be conceived that it attending to the following directions : should recognize a landscape by looking boil one pound of good flour, a quarter of down upon it from the air, after having seen a pound of brown sugar, and a little salt, portions of it only from a road. Indeed its in two gallons of water for one hour. journeys from home usually allow it little or When milk-warm, bottle it close, as it nothing of that privilege. This circuitous or will be fit for use in 24 hours. One pound rather tortuous flight must greatly increase of this yeast will make eighteen pounds of the time of passage, so that the direct journey bread. might be made in a time considerably less; and that is probably the way in which most The venerable Pear Tree, on the corner 3 birds move in their migrations.

of the 3d Avenue and Thirteenth st., planted But let us attend to one of the interesting s about 200 years ago, by Gov. Stuyvesandt, facts which have been reported by those and of which the trunk and branches are who have made experiments with this yet in good preservation, has, as we learn remarkable bird.

from the American Agriculturist, borne a The distance between Cologne and Pa- S considerable quantity of fruit the past year.

THE AMERICAN PENNY MAGAZINE.

S Orange Groves of St. Michael. sented that he had been a teacher, to which

The orange plantations or quintas of St. { his habits and his conversation bore witness. Michael (the largest of the Western The editor of this paper had long and nuIslands, or Azores) are of large extent, merous interviews with old Paul, as he was always encircled by a wall from fifteen S called, and obtained minute statements from to twenty feet high, and within a thick > him respecting his own country people, and plantation belt of the faya, cedar-tree, fern, some adjacent nations. These statements birch, &c., to protect the orange-trees

have never been published, but some of the from the sea-breezes. The trees are pro most important facts derived from him have pagated from shoots or layers, which are been communicated to the American Ethbent at the lower end into the ground, and S nological Society. Specimens of his lancovered with soil until roots begin to guage (the Serecule) were printed a few strike, when they are separated from the years since, which were thought quite valuparent stem, and transplanted into a small able by the Geographical Society of Paris. excavated well about three feet deep The following extract from the notes before (lined with pieces of lava, and surrounded 3 us, are inserted here as a specimen of the at the top by plantations of laurel, young communications of “ Lamen Kibby,” as he faya, and broom), until the tender orange called himself :plants are sufficiently strong, at which DISEASE AND PhysiciANS IN NIGRITIA.-3 period the plantations immediately round There are certain diseases which I have them are removed, and each plant begins

seen among other African people, which to shoot up and flourish, after which no

are unknown among my countrymen. The farther care is taken of it, beyond tarring worst of these is called Cuna. It covers occasionally the stem, to prevent injury by the whole body with yellow spots, and insects; and it in time spreads out with destroys the hands and feet. It is, howthe majestic luxuriance of a chestnut tree. ever, curable ; but I do not know by what

In this country it only requires seven means. I have seen it among Africans in 3 years to bring an orange plantation to this country. In South Carolina a man had

good bearing; and each tree, on arriving it, named Cæsar, who afterwards went to at full growth a few years afterwards, will Natchez. He had come from Africa when then annually, upon an average, produce young, and lived in Edgefield district, at the from 12,000 to 16,000 oranges: a gentle distance of two miles from me. He lost man told me he had once gathered 26,000. both his hands and feet from the disease. The crops are purchased, previous to their The Mansara resembles the small pox, arriving at a state of maturity, by the mer producing pustules, and leaving marks as chants, who ascertain the value of the large as the end of my finger. It is not, year's probable produce, through the me however, fatal : when old people have it, dium of experienced men, and then make it makes them lame. their offer accordingly. The men thus em In our country we have physicians who ployed to value orange crops, gain a liveli are men of learning. While I was at colhood thereby; and such is the skill whereto lege, several of my fellow students were they attain, that by walking once through preparing for that profession. Medical a plantation, and giving a general glance students did not study all the books which at the trees, they are enabled to state, with were put into my hands, as the Alsarah and the most astonishing accuracy, on what some others; they become very skilful, and number of boxes the merchant may cal can cure the fever called Cuna, in a minute. 3 culate.-Boid's Western Islands.

Their course of study is much shorter than

that pursued by many, and they do not atAn Interesting African.

tend the highest institutions, but reside with In the years 1833 and 1834, an aged practising physicians, and have not time to African spent several months in the city of study the books taught there. New York, under the charge of the Coloni With their business and medicines I have zation Society, who had received him from no acquaintance. I only know that they his late master in one of the Western States, are often successful in their treatment, and to be sent back to his native country. He that their medicines are not nauseous, was a native of the kingdom of Foota, where nor their applications violent. They have he had spent thirty or more of the first years nothing like salts, and medicines of that kind; of his life. He bore a high character, and they, however, do not acquaint their patients was intelligent and educated in the Mahom- s with the names or nature of the medicines ? edan schools of his country. He repre- } they administer; and I was never informed

og fennman

of them. They never give pills, but often me, and made me pay a good round sum in potions, being able to mix their medicines gold, which is the money commonly used.

with drinks so that they cannot be tasted. The amount, however, I do not exactly re{ You may even take them in water without member. They never would think of taking

perceiving any taste. They also cook them more than the worth of five or ten dollars. with the patient's food and administer them 3 in that manner. From their effects, I know that some of the remedies thus taken are at

DANDELIONS. once purgative and emetic. How much better their practice is than yours! American medicines are bitter, and I never would take any except salts; and that is quite bitter enough.

Other nations in Africa also have physicians, even the Coffry (that is, Caffres, or 3 pagans). They use plants for medicines,

and are what you call herb-doctors. I have been assured by people who knew them, that they administer their remedies in an instant, and often with very good success. For myself, I have had no personal acquaintance with them. Every nation indeed has physicians.

Our physicians judge of the state of their patients by feeling the pulse, which is call-ed, in the Serecooly language, taparah.

a, a seed dandelion ; b, do. naked : , a seed, stem The taparah rek, or dancing pulse, indicates 3

and gossamer. high fever. Sickness is called wateh, and medicine safarah. In Arabic amareely The sight of this familiar flower, we premeans sickness, and talamareely long sick. sume, will strike many of our readers with sickness. The latter is called by the Sere pleasure. It is associated with the recolleccoolies watenguesong-kelo ; and they have tions of childhood, and with the scenes, the 3 two names for a physician, Jarandun and companions and the feelings of early days Safaranah, while they call his house Jare in spring, the childhood of the year. These can. While speaking of these subjects I impressions are such as it would be in vain

recollect, what I have not thought of in a to attempt to describe. We could go no S long time before, that the doctors have a further than to describe the spots where house to keep their medicines in.

this flower abounds, the green fields and While I was at Bundoo I was once ill, meadows, the grassy plats and grassy banks, and sent for a physician. He bled and cup the village lawns, the pasture lots, the or- s ped me; but those operations were perform chard walks and borders of the brooks, the ed with caution and gentleness, not as in this city square, the neglected garden, or the country, where they thrust in their instru- 3 humble yard of a lowly cottage. We must ments carelessly, and kill many a patient. leave it to the mind to fill up the rest. For a pain in the left side they cup you on Perhaps there are none of our plants which 3 the opposite side, or rather partly on the are more perfect strangers to the house and back, under the right shoulder-blade.

the flower pot, and yet none which we hear Cupping is performed by our African phy so often pronounced worthy of them. How sicians in this manner :-First they take a often has the remark been made and assentrazor, and make many small incisions in the ed to, that if the dandelion were a rare exskin, by hacking it slightly with the point. otic, it would be one of the most cherished They then soak a gourd in hot water until it and admired! But, distinguished as it is is soft, put a little cotton into it and set it for its simple richness and beauty, its early on fire, apply it to the spot, and let it remain appearance, which makes it doubly weluntil it becomes full of blood and drops off. come, and its peculiar change of aspect with

There is one point in which the practice the advance of the season, the associations of our physicians differs from yours. We of childhood greatly increase its interest, and never pay until the patient is cured; and the still more the lessons which may be drawn physician would never receive pay if he from it of instruction and moral improvement. could not cure. Here you pay when the We will allude here only to the plain and man is dead. The Bundoo physician cured ' beautiful example it presents of one of the

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BREAD FRUIT. Loaves of bread growing on a tree! s man in all ages : all these ideas are raised There is something pleasing and curious in § in the mind when we hear of the bread the idea! Perhaps there is nothing in the fruit. entire vegetable kingdom which more na To think then of a tree, which obviates turally or more strongly excites the inter all the difficulties to which the production est of one unaccustomed to it than the of a loaf of bread is liable, which saves bread fruit. The usefulness of bread, its to man all the labor, care, and anxiety, 3 value, so universally known, the expense attendant on procuring his principal arand labor necessary to produce it, the ticle of sustenance, presenting it to him ? forethought, self-denial, and perseverance, by the simple act of “ yielding her fruit of the farmer ; the knowledge and care in its season,” naturally excites a peculiar 3 necessary at every stage of the culture of interest in every mind. Bread grows on a the precious grain ; its preservation and tree! That is enough to rouse a lively preparation ; with a snowy whiteness, curiosity. agreeable taste and wholesome nature, 3 In Ellis's Tour in Polynesia we find a 3

which adapt it so pre-eminently to be very particular description of this tree and 3 what it is, the chief and favorite food of its fruit, which we shall copy hereafter.

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