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monly dark or light brown, sometimes yel. s ed schools for them; and I am going to lowish, It shines like feldspar when tell about one of these schools which I visi. broken

ted a short time since. It is in South BosUses.-Zinc has lately become abun ton. They have a large building five dant and cheap, and is often used to cover stories high, built on a hill from which you our roofs, being less expensive than lead, can see the city, and harbour, with its ves. tin or copper; and, when painted, very sels and steamboats moving in every direc. durable. But it should not be trodden tion. Perhaps you would think that the upon. Cheap fish oil and Spanish brown beautiful place would be of no use to blind are often used to paint it with.

persons, and that they might just as well When melted with copper, it forms brass. be in some dull, dark place. It is not so.

Galvanism.-Get a small piece of zinc They cannot see the beautiful scene, but and lay it on your tongue, and take a bit they can hear and feel, and when they go of silver, (as a sixpence or a shilling,) out and feel the warm sunshine, and the and lay it under your tongue; then press fresh, pure air, and hear the singing birds, the front part of each till they touch, and and the ringing bells, they are just as much you will have a very odd feeling in your pleased as you would be. tongue. This is a slight shock of galvan In this large building are collected se. ism, which is a strange thing that cannot be venty-five or eighty of those blind boys and seen, but is about us, in every thing and in girls from all parts of the country. They us, and commonly does no harm, but it all live in this place, and have teachers to may be so used as to produce very power teach them everything which they can ful effects. It is much like electricity, or learn. They learn very fast : and I fear lightning, in some respects, and has some that very many of you, who have two good thing to do with magnetism, for it will eyes, would feel ashamed of your igno. make a magnet of a piece of iron while rance, if you were reciting with these poor passing through it. Professor Morse's } blind children. They are almost all good Magnetic telegraph works by this means. musicians, and sing and pray on different

He sends a quantity of galvanism by a wire kinds of instruments very finely. This is s from one city to another in less than a { a great blessing to them in their dark hours, 3

second, and has a piece of steel at each 3 and cultivates their feelings, causing them end, which draws up a steel rod when it is to forget their lonely situation. They have magnatized, and drops it when it is not, a school four hours in a day, and learn to and a pen at the end makes a mark read and write ; also arithmetic, algebra, 3 every time, which stands for a letter of geography, grammar, history, &c. the alphabet, and so it spells out what. Do you think it strange that blind chil. ever is to be communicated.

dren can learn to read ? I will tell you how I have no more room to-day to speak they do it. They read with their fingers. S of metals; but I would ask my young Their books are printed on thick paper, and

readers, whether minerology is worth are printed with the paper wet, so that the knowing.

letters are raised up. Supposing the large

letters in this paper were raised up a little A LETTER TO CHILDREN.

from the paper, so that you could feel them. MY YOUNG FRIENDS.—Did you ever see They move their fingers over these raised a blind person ? Have you ever thought letters, and soon learn to read very fast. In of their situation ? When you look upon the same way, they learn geography, and the beautiful green grass, the trees, rivers, everything else. They have maps and and everything which is pretty, have you globes, with the rivers, mountains, towns, ever thought of those who never saw any &c. raised ; and by moving their fingers of these things? There are many such in over them, learn the situation of countries world, who cannot see a particle of light, and places, so as to answer all the ques. but live always in darkness. When they tions in geography as well as you can. I go out in the bright sunshine, everything heard them read, and recite in geography is as dark to them as the blackest midnight and arithinetic, when I was there. They to you. Only think for a moment how also learn very many other things. The lonely they must be. They must have girls can sew, knit, braid, and do many some one to lead them about, to keep them kinds of house work; and the boys do many from danger which they cannot see. Do s kinds of work in shops, such as making s you not pity them ? Kind-hearted chris. } brooms, brushes, mats, &c.—Christian Retian men have pitied them, and have found. s flector.

400

THE AMERICAN PENNY MAGAZINE.

POETRY.

For the Amer. Penny Magazine. Lines written on the Birth of a Child. With face half strange, but half well kown, The liule one appears Amidst our smiling circle borne, But pays our smiles with tears.

We thank the Giver: but we look With trembling down the course, Where tends this feeble intant brook To ocean's billows hoarse.

O, shun that rocky procipice! Bend not your current thcre, Though many a channel's thither worn, It dashes to despair.

THE GREAT FIRE IN NEW YORK.

One of the most destructive fires that ever prevailed in this city broke out in New Street, on Friday night, July 16th, and soon extended to Broadway, which it crossed above the Bowling Green, and to Garden and Broadstreets and Exchange Place. The amount of property destroyed, chiefly in large stores, is estimated at from ten to fifteen millions. Nearly five millions are insured, a large proportion of it, though not the greater part, in England. It is believed that most of the insurance offices will be able to pay their losses, and perhaps all; though some of them must give up nearly on quite their whole capital.

The buildings burnt were about 300 stores, two large hotels, and a number of private houses. Several dead bodies have been found, and it is feared that more lives were lost. Three whole cargoes of tea, which

had been landed, are among the merchandize 3. destroyed.

An awful explosion took place in one of New-street stores soon after the fire commenced, which extended the flames, and terrified the firemen ; otherwise, it is thought, the conflagration would have been soon suppressed.

Turn, turn your tiny stream along Where this sweet slope descends Through perfumes rich and heavenly songs Yon noble river bends.

There many an ancestor's bright life In lines of light are given, Your sole inheritance, my babe But the rich gift of heaven.

Come with us flow, through holy scenes, And pour a current pure ; With us imbibe no stain from earth, Still moving strait and sure.

HOME. I would fly from the city, would fly from its

care, To my own native plants and flowerets so fair, 3 To the cool grassy shade and the rivulet

bright, Which reflects the pale moon in its bosom of

light. Again would I view the old cottage so dear, Where I sported, a babe, without sorrow or

fear; I would leave this great city, so brilliant and

gay, For a peep at my home on this fair summer

day. I have friends whom I love, and would leave

with regret, But the love of my home, oh!'tis tenderer yet, There a sister reposes unconscious in death, 'Twas there she first drew, and there yielded

her breath : A father I love is away from me now, Oh! could I but print a sweet kiss on his

brow, Or smooth the gray locks to my fond heart

so dear, How quickly would vanish each trace of a tear! Aitentive I listen to pleasure's gay call, But my own happy home-it is dearer than

all.-Selected.

# Editors receiving this paper in exchange, reinvited to reinsert the following advertisement ; THE AMERICAN PENNY MAGAZINE

AND FAMILY NEWSPAPER,

Edited by Theodore Dwight, Jr. Iy published weekly, at the office of the New York Express, No. 112 Broadway, at 3 cents a pumber, (16 pages large octavo,) or, to subscribers receiving it by mail, and paying in advance, $1 a year. The postage is now Free for this city, Brooklyn, Harlem, Newark, and all other places within 30 miles; only one cent a copy for other parts of the State, and other places within 100 miles ; and i 1-2 cents for other parts of the Union. Persons forwarding the money for five copies, will receive a sixth gratis. Editors known to have published this advertisement, with an editorial notice of the work, will be supplied with it for one year. By the quantity, $2 a hundred. The work will form a volume of 832 pages annually.

Postmasters are authorized to remit money without charge.

But, if more convenient, simply enclose a One Dol. lar Bili, without payment of postage, and the work will be sent for the year.

We particularly request the public to remember that no person is authorized to receive mor.ey in advance for this paper, except the Editor or Publishers and an Agent in Ohio and the five south-western counties of Pennsylvania, who will show an attested certificate, signed by the Editor.

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AMERICAN PENNY MAGAZINE,

FAMILY NEWSPAPER.

New York, SATURDAY, AUGUST 2, 1845.

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I EDITED BY THEODORE DWIGHT, JR. /

Express Office, 112 Broadway.

THE FALLS OF NIAGARA.Many of our readers, while on their travels Like all other pictures of Niagara, this is far this season, will doubtless be gratified by havings from satisfying the eye, or conveying any adequate some of the principal statistics relating to Niagara idea of the majestic object it represents. The ready at hand, to refresh their memories. Those magnitude of nature is there altogether too diswho stay at home could hardly find a subject more proportioned to the size of any print, especially a fitted for agreeable reflection in the heats of sum small one ; and a slight error in the line of the mer, than the greatest cataract in the world, with its descending water conveys too much the effect of resplendent foam and cooling vapors.

a mill-dam. In fact the sight of the cataract itself

Vol. I.

[graphic]

3 seldom produces a full impression, untils

leisure has been taken to compare the mighty mass of water with some standard ; but, when once an adequate idea has been

formed, when the eye has at length s adopted a true scale, then, and ever after,

something like a correct estimate is entertained of the sublimity and magnificence of

the scene. ? The following extract we make from the

Northern Traveller, a work heretofore pubS lished in six editions by the editor of this 3 Magazine,

THE FALLS OF NIAGARA,

From the American Side. See Print.
On the American side a bridge crosses a
frightful part of the rapids to Bath Island,
B and another thence to Goat Island. Part of a

bridge remains, which extended to Terrapin
Rocks, and beyond 10 the brow of the cata.
ract. By it you may reach the Stone Tower,
to the top of which a winding staircase leads,
affording a most impressive view of the

awful scene below. ? The Biddle Staircase, erected at the ex. 3 pense of the late Nicholas Biddle, of Phila

delphia, leads from Iris Island to the bottom s of the precipice. You descend first by stone 3 steps 40 feet, between stone walls, then by 3 88 steps under a wooden cover, which brings

you to three pathways with some steps, which conduct to the water's edge, whence the view upward is most imposing.

Several picturesque and romantic avenues and rocky recesses are to be seen at different parts of ihe river's banks.

The height of the fall on this side is 160 feet perpendicular, but somewhat broken in several places by the projecting rocks. It extends 300 yards to a rock which interrupts it on the brow of the precipice. A narrow sheet appears beyond it, and then comes Goat Island, with a mural precipice. Be. tween this and the other shore is ihe Grand Crescent, for which see a few pages beyond. The long bridge to the island, which commands many fine views of the falls, rests on wooden piers sunk with stones.

The staircase conducts safely to the bot. tom of the precipice; and boats may row up near to the cataract.

THE FALLS OF NIAGARA

From the British Side. There are large Inns and Hotels on the Canadian side of the river, situated as near the falls as could be desired. One stands on what ought stricily to be called the upper bank, for ibat elevation appears to have once formed the river's shore. This is the larger 3 house; the galleries and windows in the S rear command a fine view of the cataract, ? although not an entire one, and overlook the 3 rapids and river for several miles above. S

Following a footpath through the pastures behind this house, the stranger soon finds himself on the steep brow of the second bank, and the mighty cataract of Niagara suddely opens beneath him.

Table Rock is a projection a few yards from the cataract, which commands a fine view of this magnificent scene. Indeed it is usually considered the finest point of view. The height of the fall on this side is said to be 174 feet perpendicular; and this height the vast sheet of foam preserves unbroken, quite round the Grand Crescent, a distance, it is estimated, of 700 yards. The distance from Table Rock to Termination Rock is 153 feet. Goat Island divides the cataract, and just beyond it stands an isolated rock. The fall on the American side is in breadth 900 feet, the height 160, and about two thirds the distance to the bottom the sheet is broken by projecting rocks. A bridge built from the American side connects Goat Island and the main land, though invisible from this spot.

It may be recommended to the traveller to visit this place as often as he can, and 10 view it from every neighbouring point; as every change of light exhibits it under a different and interesting aspect. The rainbows are to be seen, from this side, only in the afternoon; but at that time the clouds of mist, which are continually rising from the gulf below, often present them in the utmost beauty.

Dr. Dwight gives the following estimates, in his Travels, of the quantity of water which passes the cataract of Niagara. The river at the ferry is 7 furlongs wide, and on an average 25 feet. The current probably runs six miles an hour; but supposing it to be only 5 miles, the quantity that passes the falls in an hour, is more than 85 millions of tons avoirdupois ; if we suppose it to be 6, it will be more than 102 millions; and in a day would be 2400 millions of tons. The noise, it is said, is sometimes heard at Toronto, 50 miles. Table Rock is 66 feet below the level of Lake Erie.

The Rapids begin about half a mile above the cataract. The inhabitants of the neigh. borhood regard it as certain death to get once involved in them. Insiances are on record of persons being carried down by the stream ; but no one is known to have ever survived. Indeed, it is very rare that the bodies are found. Wild ducks, geese, &c. are frequently precipitated over the cataract, and generally reappear either dead or with their legs, or wings broken.

The most sublime scene is presented to the <bserver when he views the cataract from below; and there he may have an opporinnily of going under the cataract. This scene is represented in the plate. To render he descent practicable, a spiral staircase has been formed a litile way from Table Hock, supported by a tall mast ; and the stranger descends without fear, because his view is confined. On reaching the bottom,

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a rough path among the rocks winds along at the foot of the precipice, although the heaps of loose stones which have fallen down, keep i: at a considerable height above the water. A large rock lies on the very brink of the river, about 15 feet long and 3 feet thick, which you may climb up by means of a ladder, and enjoy the best central view of the falls anywhere to be found. This rock was formerly a part of the projection above, and fell about 30 years ago, with a tremendous roar.

In proceeding nearer to the sheet of falling water, the path leads far under the excavated

bank, which in one place forms a root that Roverhangs about 40 feet. The vast column

5 of water continually pouring over the preciSpice, produces violent whirls in the air; and pihe spray is driven out with such force, that

no one can approach to the edge of the cataract, or even stand a few moments near it, without being drenched to the skin. It is also very difficult to breathe there, so that persons with weak lungs would act prudently to content themselves with a distant view, and by no means to attempt to go under the cataract. The celebrated navigator Captain Basil Hall, on a visit here in 1827, found that the air under the cataract is not compressed ; but he considered the gusts of wind more violent than any gale he had ever witnessed. Those who are desirous of exploring this tremendous cavern, should altend very carefully to their steps.

In the summer of 1827, an old schooner called the Michigan, was towed by a rowboat to the margin of the rapids, where she was abandoned to her fate. Thousands of persons had assembled to witness the descent.

A number of wild animals had been inŞ humanly placed on her deck, confined, to pass

the cataract with her. She passed the first fall of the rapids in safety, but struck a rock at the second and lost her masts. There she remained an instant, until the current turn. ed her round and bore her away. A bear here leaped overboard and swam to the shore. The vessel soon filled and sank, so that only her upper works were afterwards visible. She went over the cataract almost without being seen, and in a few moments the basin was perceived all scattered with her frag. ments, which were very small. A cat and a 3 goose were the only animals found alive s below.

The Burning Spring. About half a mile above the fails, and within a few feet of the rapids in Niagara River, is a remarkable Spring. The water, which is warm, tur. bid, and surcharged with sulphurated hydrogen gas, rises in a barrel which has been placed in the ground, and is constantly in a state of ebullition. The barrel is covered, and the gas escapes only through a copper

tube. On bringing a candle within a little s distance of it, the gas takes fire, and con

tinues to burn with a bright flame until

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LIVELY SKETCHES OF ITALY.
Neapolitan Invective.

NO. I.
(Selected from an unpublished Journal of Tracts, for

the Am. Penny Magazine.) While in quarantine at Naples, I accepted an invitation to visit the Lazaretto, a curious little island, with subterranean passages and store houses, under the guidance of a native of the country. The following specimen of his manners and language will give a pretty correct idea of many of his countrymen.

The old man, though evidently vexed at the interruption made by some of the guard boats, did not allow a word to escape him until the whole party were landed at a little platform on the yellow volcanic rock, round which the water raved like madness in chains, from time to time, as the swell came in, at intervals of a minute or two. One Inight have supposed it was the uproar and apparent danger which kept him from his usual volubility on trying occasions. At last, as we stood on the rock, at a place where a dark cavern opened, and one of no very in. viting appearance, and saw the dashing of} the waves, which almost reached his feet, we felt as if the danger was by no means over. Not so with the old man. He took only time enough to pry into the condition of things around him; and, having peeped round one projecting corner of the rocks, then another, afterwards felt his way into the excavation, and finally penetrated into it, leading us through to a little garden above. He then drew his pipe from his pocket, and lighted it with his steel, fint and iouchwood; then laid his hand over the bowl, so that the wind could not affect it, and seemed deliberately to set himself about the work of faultfinding and upburthening heart.

In many men, and in most countries, it is s believed, passions like those he felt are ultered in an instant; and, if repressed for a little lime, only to subside and become more managable. In Naples it is different. To postpone the gratification of them appears in no wise to diminish their force, or to cool their ardor. Still, to let them pass off without a volley of abuse or complaint, is a thing out of the question. It is considered one of those things which can in no way be dispensed with. He began, therefore, between the puffs which he gave his pipe, to growl out a few symptoms of discontent, which grew louder, longer, and more passionate, until he lashed himself suíñiciently into a rage to spring upon his feet, and ejaculate and gesticulate with all his might. The pro

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