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fax, hemp, &c., and declared that they } grew thrifiily, without cultivation, and av. eraged better than our best crops, nurtured
with the skill and labor of man : the spon. ; taneous crop of wheat, averaged from 40
to 80 bushels per acre, and when the ground had been well prepared, 121 bushels had 3 been the product. He has made a day's journey through a field of oats from three to five feet high, and the dry stubble of the previous season gave evidence of an aver. age growth that year of from 5 to 8 feet. For clover, hemp and flax, the soil was equally adapted.
For herdsmen, the country bordering on the Pacific was unequalled. Grazing was good the whole year, grass averaging from 2 10 3 feet high. A lazy Mexican, hardly worthy to be ranked as a human being, owned more horses than could be found in any one county in the United States, the cattle being valued principally for their hides. Vessels of eleven different nations he had seen there at one view, and thus was afforded a market for the products of the country. For want of space, we pass his remarks on the fisheries and fur trade of The country, and several other interesting topics.
He spoke of the country as abounding with every variety of fruit and flower, fish, flesh and fowl; but of man, the native there, is degraded, uncivilized, and inert, unable of appreciating the bleesings with which he was surrounded, and hence he inferred that it was the duty of Americans to plant the tree of Liberty there, that the sons of Freedom from the four quarters of the earth might gather beneath its branches, and render California, what she is capable of being made, the garden of the earth.
elsewhere; it everywhere keeps alive, by secret agents, Jesuits, and others, the assailant spirit of Pa pistry, and feeds the luxury of the most demoralized court in Europe, in the midst of a famishing population.”
In 1831, a victorious insurrection was stopped by an Austrian army, and a Cardinal plenipotentiary of the Pope signed a complete amnesty, which the Pope denied and violated.“The Pope is the handle of a sword, Austria the point, and it hangs over all Italy. The Pope cluiches the soul of the Italian nation, Austria the body."
“We are a people of from 21 to 22 millions, known from time immemorial by the same name,-as the people of Italy; enclosed by natural limits, the clearest ever marked out by the Deity-the sea and the highest mountains in Europe; speaking the same language, varying from each other less than do ihe Scotch and the English ; having the same creeds, the same manners, the same habits, with modifications not greater than those which in France, the most homogeneous country on the earth, distinguish the Basque races from the Breton ; proud of the noblest tradition in politics, science, and art, that adorns Europe an history ; rich in every source of material well-being that, fraternally and liberally worked, could make ourselves bappy, and open to sister nations the highest prospect in the world."
“We have no flag, no political name, no rank among European nations. We have no common centre, no common laws, no common market. We are dismembered into eight states.-Lombardy, Parma, Tuscany, Modena, Lucca, the Popedom, Piedmont, the Kingdom of Naples-all independent one of another, without alliance, without unity of aim, with. out organized connection between them.Eight lines of custom houses, without count. ing the impedimenis appertaining 10 the ad. ministration of each stale, sever our material. interest, oppose our advancement, and forbids us large manufactures, large commercial activity, and all those encouragements to our capabilities that a centre of impulse would afford.
"Prohibitions, or enormous duties check the import and export of articles of the first necessity in each state of Italy. Territorial and industrial products abound in one province, that are deficient in another; and we may not freely sell the superfluities, or exchange among ourselves the necessaries. Each different system of currency, of weights and measures, of civil, commercial, and penal leg. islation, of administrative organization, and of police registration divide us, and render us, as much as possible, strangers to each others
" And all these States among wbich we are stationed, are ruled by despotic governments, in whose working the country has no agency whatever. There exists not in any of these States, either liberty of the press, or of united action, or of speech, or of collective
LIVING SKETCHES OF ITALY-No. 6. Oppression by the Papal Government.--The
general state of Italy. -The popular party. By Mazzini. “ The uncertainty of the law and other causes tend to the depreciation of property, through high and changeable duties. “ Commerce is swallowed up between the monopolist and the smuggler; industry is shackled by exclusive privileges; enormous taxes, direct and in
direci, hinder agriculture; the treasury, when ? not plundered, is given in scandalous pensions
to idle prelates, to servants digraced, but paid to save their masters from shame; secret agents, and women of ill-lite, courtezans 10 the cardinals.'"
And here is more for Americans to note: the treasury of Rome “ maintains a large part s of the congregation of the Propaganda; fo?ments political plots in Spain, Portugal, and
petition, or of the introduction of foreign books, or of education, or of anything.”
One of these States, comprising nearly a fourth of the Italian population, belongs to the foreigner- to Austria ; the others, some from family ties, some from a conscious feebleness, tamely submit to her influence.From this contrast between the actual condia tion and the aspirations of the country, was produced the National Party, to which, sir, I have the honor to belong.
The National party dates a long time back in Italy. It dates from Rome from that law of the empire that admitted every Italian to the rights of citizenship in the capital of the known world. The work of assimilation, which then instinctively began, was interrupted by the invasion of the northern hordes. Two or three centuries sufficed, and our com. munes were established, the work was resumed. From the Consul Crescentius to Ju. lius 2d., or to Dante and Machiavel, all were devoted to the union of Italy ; for which the sons of the Austrian Rear Admiral, the two Bandieras, were basely tempted to land in Calabria last year, and shot,-probably in consequence of the opening of Mazzini's letter by Sir. James Graham.
Temperance among the Whalemen.—The Sailors' Magazine for September, has a letter from Honolulu, in the Sandwich Islands, which mentions that several whale ships have lately visited that port, the crews of which are wholly or chiefly active, as well as decided friends of temperance. The correspon. dent saw the pledge, with its signatures, framed and hung up as the cabin Ornament ; and he informs us, that the ship Benjamin Rush, Friend Gifford, master, while in port carries the temperance flag at mast-head.
At a temperance meeting held at that place, a sailor made the following characteristic appeal to his companions :
"Shipmales ! look out for the devil; for he does not keep a watch below, but is all the time on deck, at work."
When Bonaparte made the north of Italy one S Kingdom, the greatest harmony and prosperi. ty were the immediate consequences. The government of Europe appealed to the National party when they proposed to overthrow Napoleon ; Austria in 1809, made promises to it; Gen Nugent promised them an "independent government four years later;" and next, England proclaimed “the liberty and in. dependence of Italy,” but all these promises were forgoiten.
Italy is a vast prison, guarded by a certain number of gaolers and gendarmes, supported, in case of need, by the bayonets of men whom we don't understand, and who don't understand us. If we speak, they thrust a gag in our mouths; if we make a show of action, they platoon us. A petition signed collectively, constitutes a crime against ihe State.
When you, Englishmen, have a reasonable object to attain, you have the great highway of public opinion to your steps; why should yon digress into the bye-lanes of conspiracy, or into the dangerous morass of insurrection ? You put your trust in the all-powerfulness of truth, and you do well; but you can propogate this truth by the press-you can preach it morning and evening in your journals—you can insist upon it in lectures-you can popularize it in meetings; in a little while it stands menacingly on the hustings, whence you send it to your parliament, sealed in The majority. We Italians have neither parliament nor hus. iings, nor liberty of the press, por liberty of speech, nor possibility of lawful assemblage, nor a single means of expressing the opinion stirring within us.”
Fifteenth Meeting of the British Association for the advancement of Science.
(CONTINUED.) GIGANTIC Bird.—The Secretary read a pa. per from Mr. Bonomi, “ On a Gigantic Bird sculptured on the Tomb of an Officer of the Household of Pharaoh.” “In the gallery of organic remains in the British Museum are two large slabs of the new red sandstone for. mation, on which are impressed the footsteps or tracks of birds of various sizes, apparently of the stork species. These geological speci. mens were obtained through the agency of Dr. Mantell from Dr. Deane, of Massachu. setts, by whom they were discovered in a quarry near Turner's Falls. There have also been discovered by Capt Flinders, on the south coast of New Holland, in King George's s. Bay, some very large nests measuring iweniyo? six feet in circumference and thirty-two inches in height; resembling, in dimensins, some that are described by Capt. Cook, as seen by him on the north-east coast of the same island, about 14 souih lavitude. It ? would appear, by some communications made to the editor of the Athenæum, ihat Prof. Hitchcock of Massachusetts had suggested that these colossal nests belonged to the Moa, or gigantic bird of New Zealand; of which several species have been determined by Prof. Owen, from bones sent to him from New Zealand, where the race is now extinct, but possibly at the present time in habiting the warmer climate of New Holland, in which place both Capt. Cook, and recently Capt. Flinders, discovered these large nests.
Between the years 1821 and 1823, Mr. James Burton discovered on the west coast or Egypuan side of the Red Sea, opposite the peninsula of Mount Sinai, at a place called Gebel Ezzeit, where for a considerable distance, the margin of the sea is inaccessible from the Desert, three colossal nests within the space of one mile. These nests were not
in an cqual state of preservation ; but, from S deluge, this gigantic stork was an inhabitant one more perfect than the others, he judged of the delta, or its immediate vicinity; for, them to be about fifteen feet in height, or, as as these very interesting documents relaie, it he observed, the height of a camel and its was occasionally entrapped by the peasantry rider. These nects were composed of a mass of the delia, and brought with other wild anof heterogeneous materials, piled up in the imals as matters of curiosity to the great form of a cone, and sufficiently well put 10 landholders or farmers of the products of the gether to insure adequate solidity. The di. Nile-of which circumstance this painted ameter of the cone at its base was estimated sculpture is a representation, the catching of 5 as nearly equal to its height, and the apex, fish and birds, which in these days occupied which terminated in a slight concavity, meas. a large portion of the inhabitants. The birds ured about two feet six inches, or three feet and fish were salied. That this document in diameter. The materials of which the gives no exaggerated account of the bird may great mass was composed were sticks and be presumed from the just proportion that the weeds, fragments of wreck, and the bunes of quadrupeds, in the same picture, bear to the fishes ; but in one was found the thorax of a men who are leading them; and, from the man, a silver watch made by George Prior, a absence of any representation of these birds London watchmaker of the last century, cel in the less ancient monuments of Egypt, it ebrated throughout the East, and in the nest may also be reasonably conjectured they disor basin at the apex of the cone, some pieces appeared soon after the period of the erection of wollen cloth and an old shoe. That these of these tombs. nests have been but recently constructed was sufficiently evident from the shoe and watch With respect to the relation these facts bear of the shipwrecked pilgrim, whose taitered to each other, I beg to reinark that the colos. clothes and whitened bones were found at no sal nests of Capts. Cook and Flinders, and great distance ; but of what genius or species also those of Mr. James Burton, were all on had been the architect and occupant of the the sea shore, and all of those about an equal structure Mr. Burton could not, from his own distance from the equator. But whether the observation, deterniine. From the accounts Egyptian birds, as described in those very anof the Arabs, however, it was presumed that cient sculptures, bear any analogy to those these nests had been occupied by remarkably recorded in the last pages of the great stone large birds of the stork kind, which had de book of nature, (the new red sandstone for. serted the coast but a short time previous to mation,) or whether they bear analogy to Mr Burton's visit. “To these facts," said any of the species determined by Prof. Owen Mr. Bonomi, “I beg to add the following re- ? from the New Zealand fossils, I am not qualmarks:
ified to say, nor is it indeed the object of ibis Among the most ancient records of the paper to discuss; the intention of which primeval civilization of the human race that
being rather to bring together these facts, and have come down to us, there is described, in to associate them with that recorded at Gethe language the most universally intelligi
zah, in order to call the attention of those ble, a gigantic stork, bearing, with respect to
who have opportunity of making further rea man of ordinary dimensions, the propor.
search into this interesting mailer." tions exhibited in the drawing before you, which is faithfully copied from the original
Mr. H. Strickland remarked, that the indocument. It is a bird of white plumage, stances of gigantic birds, both recent and fosstraight and large beak, long feathers in the
sil, enumerated by M. Bunomi, though inter. tail; the male bird has a luft at the back of
esting in themselves, had little or no mutual the head, and another at the breast; its hab
connexion. The artists of ancient Egypt were its apparently gregarious. This very remark wont to set the laws of perspective and pro- s able painted basso-relievo is sculptured on the
portion at defiance, so that the fact of ibe wall, in the tomb of an officer of the house birds here represented being taller than the hold of Pharaoh Shufu, (the Suphis of the
men who were leading them by no means Greeks,) a monarch of the fourth dynasty,
implied the former existence of colossal birds who reigned over Egypt, while yet a great
in Egypt. Indeed, in this very painting the part of the delta was intersected by lakes
foot of a human figure is introduced, probably overgrown with the papyrus --while yet the
that of a prince or hero, wlose proportions smaller ramifications of the parent stream
are as much larger than those of the birds in were inhabited by the crocodile and hippopo.
question as the other human figures are smaltamos-while yet, as it would seem, that fa.
ler. He considered the birds here figured to vored land had not been visited by calamity,
be either storks, or demoiselle cranes, or nor the arts of peace disturbed by war, so the
egrets, all of which are common in Egypt. sculpture in these tombs intimate, for there is
The gigantic nests found by Mr. Burton on neither horse nor instrument of war in any
the coast of the Red Sea deserved further one of these tombs. At that period, the pe
examination ; but the size of a nest by no riod of the building of the Great Pyramid,
means implied that the bird which formed it which, according to some writers on Egyptian
was large also, for the Australian Mega pomatters, was in the year 2100 B. C., which, dius, a bird not larger than a fowl, makes a 3 on good authority, is the 240th year of the ? Dest of enormous proportions.
lest cloud on the verge of the horizon was? instantaneously perceptible, and that of a breeze four or five miles off could also be readily perceived.
SOUNDS UNDER WATER.—“On the Sounds produced by one of the Notonectidæ under Water," by Mr. Ball. When suspended in the water, about four inches below the surface, it emitted three short chirrups, and then a long, cricket-like sound. It appears, the sounds are emitted in the evening and night, and are so loud that they may be heard in an adjoining room, and are continued during the night.
RAILWAY GRADIENTS.—Mr. Fairbairn read a communication on the subject of Railway Gradients, the object of which was to show the importance of economizing the first cost of railways, by introducing steep gradients in difficult districts, whereby the expenses attendant on tunnels, viaducts, and lofty em. bankments, would be avoided; whilst the author showed that the desired speed might? be obtained by increasing the power of the locomotive.
SAVINGS BANKS.-Mr. G. R. Potter read a S “ Sketch of the Progress and Present Extent of Savings Banks in the United Kingdom ”Afier a few preliminary remarks on their political and moral value, he stated that these institutions owed their origin to Miss Priscilla Wakefield, who in 1804 induced six gentle. men residing at Tottenham to receive deposits from laborers and servants, paying 5 per cent, as interest. Four years later eight persons, half of whom were ladies, took upon themselves the same responsibility at Baih. The first savings bank regularly organized
was formed at Ruthwell, Dumfriesshire; its $ success led to many imitations, so that before
any legislative provision had been made for their management, there were seventy savings banks in England, four in Wales, and four in Ireland. The deposits are found to be greatest in the years when provisions are cheap and abundant. Next to Middlesex, Devonshire exhibited the greatest amount of depos. its in proportion to the population.
The Bishop of Norwich directed attention to the evidence afforded by the savings bankss of the improved condition of Ireland. Signor Enrico Meyer gave an account of the moral effect produced by savings banks in Tuscany, and related some facts confirming the great national value of the temperance movement in Ireland.
Freezing in Red-hot Iron,-“Experiments on the Spheroidal State of Bodies, and its Application to Steam Boilers, and on the Free. zing of Water in Red-hot Vessels,” by Prof. Bouligny.-Prof. Boutigny, who made his communication in the French Language, first proceeded to show that a drop of water projected upon a red-hot plate does not touch it; but that a repulsive action is exerted between
the plate and the fluid, which keeps the latter 3 in a state of rapid vibration. At a white S heat, this repulsion acts with the greatest
energy, whilst it ceases, and the ordinary 3 process of evaporation takes place at a s brown-red heat. The temperature of the
water whilst in the spheroidal state is found 3 to be only 96°, and this temperature is mainstained so long as the heat of the plate is
kept up. To bring this water to the boiling 3 point, to 212 degrees,) it is therefore necessary > to cool the plate.
"On the Heat of the Solar Spots,” by 3 Prof Henry, of Princeton College, New Jer.
sey.--Sir D. Brewster read an extract of a letter which he had just received from Prof. Henry, who had recently been engaged in a series of experiments on the heat of the sun, as observed by means of a thermo-electrical apparatus applied to an image of the luminary thrown on a screen from a telescope in a dark room. He found that the solar spots were perceptibly colder than the surrounding light surface. Prof. Henry also converted the same apparatus into a telescope, by placing the thermo-pile in room of the eye-glass of a reflecting telescope. The heat of the smal.
A Royal Tribute to American Ingenuity.Dr. G. O. Jarvis, of Middletown, Conn. the inventor of a useful surgical apparatus for reducing discolations, known as the “ Adjuster," has received from the hands of Prince Albert, as President of the “ Society of Arts," the largest gold medal ever bestowed by or in the gift of the Society. The medal is of the value of £15 sterling. He is the first American on whom such an honor has been conferred.
NATURAL HISTORY.—The following are the subjects of the principal papers in the August number of the London Annals of Natural His. tory :
Notes of a microscopic examination of the Chalk and Flint of the South-east of Eng. land, and the mollusca found in them. By Mantell. Apparently many exist too small for our microscopes.
The Genus Mylodon. Prof. Owen.
British Diatomaceæ. John Ralfs.
Proceedings of the British Association, Royal Society, Asiatic Society, Botanical Society of Edinburg
RETURN OF SALMON. — Several salmon, marked by Lord Glenlyon on a previous year, have been caught again in the Tay, showing that at least some fish return to the streams they have visited before.
A WASP'S NEST. This is the form, though by no means the size of the nest of that species of wasp called the Vespa Nidulans. To many of our readers it will not seem strange, when they are told, that some of our native wasps make nests not less curious than this, and of the size of a man's head : indeed, sometimes considerably larger. It is cut open to show the cells.
The wasp exhibits a degree of ingenuity, skill and industry, in the plan and construction of its nest, not much inferior to that of the honey bee, and it is chiefly uwing to the utter useless of all its labors to man; that it attracts less attention, and exciies in us, from our earliest years, only feelings of dislike and apprehension.
There is a great diversity in the form, size, and situation of wasps' nests. Some of the solitary wasps construct a short tube in some obscure corner, sinking it partly into the ground, and elevating it partly above. They make this the place of deposit for their eggs, which they lay alternately with living catepillars, which they bring to the spol, and so confine them that they cannot move. These are stores of food for the larva of the wasp, which begins to devour them when it leaves the egg, and changes its form by the time it has eaten its allowance.
But most of the wasps whose nests we observe, construct them of a substance closely resembling brown paper, which is said to be fabricated of the fibres of balf-decayed wood. With surprising exactness the busy little insects shape this thin material into any form they please, first into a horizontal tier of cells, resembling those of a honey comb in size and shape, then placing many similar tiers half an inch apart beneath, all the openings being upward, and then enclosing the whole in suc
cessive coats, of a globular or oval form, which bid defiance to the rain, even in the longest equinoctial storms. Some nests have been calculated to contain 16,000 cells, and to be filled with young wasps three times a year.
The nests of the wasp differ from those of the bee in one very material particular: they are mere depositories of the eggs, and not of honey. They are therefore regarded as mere nuisances wherever they are seen, and noihing is looked upon with more jealousy than the first appearance of their curious constructions when found, as they often are, under the eaves of our houses. Yet we have known them to remain for several years in such a situation, without causing any ground of complaint to the inhabitants ; for, while unmolested, the insects are generally peacable and harmless.
SEMI-ANNUAL Book TRADE SALE.- Most of the principal booksellers in the Union are now in the city, or are represented by agents at the great Trade Sale, which is conduc. ted with a great deal of spirit. Of the five? great sales which occur yearly in the Uni. S ted States—there are two here, two in Philadelphia, and one in Boston,)-proba. bly this is the most important. The heaviest transactions are consummated in this city now, instead of Boston which used to be the mart at which they were carried on. The Book trade, which used to be carried on in a small way by country merchants and pedlars, is now a distinct business in al. 3 most every village, and the consequence is, that an attractive literature is offered to the public, who patronize the enterprising book ? seller ; thus enabling him to furnish them with the publications of the day as they is. sue from the press.
The difference between the auction prices and the prices at which the trade generally dispose of books, will yield the dealers a profit of from 25 to 33 per cent ; this profit we are informed, may be realized in jobbing, the retail price, giving a still greater gain.
One of the principal effects of these sales is to exchange and intermix the productions of New York, Philadelphia, and Boston, so that each of these places becomes a market, for the disposing of the productions of others, the advantages of which must be apparent to all.-Express.
Many of the works are nuisances.-Ed. P. Magazine.
COMMENCEMENT.--The exercises of Commencement at the University in Cambridge, on Wednesday, were attended by the usual concourse of spectators, constituting a large representation of the liierary portion of Boston, and embracing also a number of distinguished visitors from other States.