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SHADE TREES. In many parts of our country there is a S grea: want of trees for shade, for timber and for fuel. It would require but little expense, time or labor, to supply this want in a few s years. If every man should plant but one tree in a year, how important a change would soon appear! If a few individuals in any place should undertake to improve their neighborhoods in this manner, with public spirit enough to overlook merely selfish views, and to aim at the benefit of all, village streets and public squares, many a school house and church yard would soon show a pleasing improvement.
Shade-trees are healthful as well as orna. mental, and increase the value of property in a place, by rendering it a more desirable residence. Landholders, and others interested in the increase of towns, would consult their own good by this cheap and very profitable improvement. The example, when once set, is naturally imitated; and what one begins, others will continue or complete. Shady walks and rides have thus been extended, especially in New England, from town to town, and froin county to county; and, in proportion as they exist there and elsewhere, they are admired and valued. In certain foriegn countries also 3 we find attention paid to this subject. It forms part of the charming study of Ornamental Gardening, on which many pleasing volumes have been written, and in which different tastes have prevailed; but that of nature, long most popular in England, has made great ad. vances on the continent.
In some places a tree is placed in private grounds, or in the village grove, on the birth of every child, who looks upon it through life in a sense its own. The avenues to certain towns and villages are shaded by rows of trees, 3 as are those leading to chataux or country } seats. Hills, mountains and other uncultivated tracts in Germany are to some extent now covered with planted trees, under the care of men scientifically educated at the universities expressly for the business, who direct when to plant, thin out, trim and cut down different portions in their season, when to turn in cattle to pasture or browse, and who apply with ad-3 vantage their knowledge of botany, geology and other branches of knowledge. Yet vast tracts of land in Europe, especially in Spain
} and Italy, are totally destitute of timber, and 3 consequently stripped of their soil by the ļ
washing of rain. Such negligence is excusable in nations deprived of the means of in-3 struction : but Americans should know better and adopt a more wise and prudent course. A beginning may be made this year as well as at any future time; and the easy act of / putting a seed into the ground, or that of transplanting a young tree, or protecting valuable shools while liable to destruction, will soon and long be repaid. We are in debt to some of our predecessors for fine trees which they have spared if not planted. Let us show our gratitude by making similar provision for the benefit of our successors.
In choosing shade-trees, we should have in view adaptation to the situation, quickness of growth, beauty of form and foilage, freedom from the attacks of insects, length of life, then value of timber, and it not in exposed situations, excellence of fruit.
SNAKES AND RABBITS.-Mr. George M. Ful. me, writing from Pomona, South Carolina, to the Columbia Carolinian, states that on the 28th ult. he found a large black snake, about six feet long, which had a half-grown rabbit by the head in the act of swallowing it. The snake was killed, and Mr. Fulme gives this account of what followed : “As soon as I struck the snake, on looking back I found the rabbit coming up, and it stopped immediately at the dead snake's head. I moved it away four or five yards with my foot, but it in. stantly returned to the snake's head. I then moved the snake, and the rabbit still pursued it, and I left it. About 6, P. M., I returned to the place, together with all my pupils, and the rabbit remained in the identical position in which I had left it. My son moved it again, but it immediately returned to its post at the snake's head, and we left it a second time, still charmed by the continuing spells of ibe dead serpent. I returned to the spot the next morning, but could find no trace of the rabbit. Now, can any one tell what secret power lies hidden in ihe organization of a serpent which caused this incident ?
Teras Lands.—The superficial area of Texas, as defined by the statute of the first Texan Congress, is in round numbers, 397,000 square miles, or 254,284,166 acres. The total amount of land covered by scrip, issued by the various Land Commissioners, is slated to be 43,543,970 acres, less than half of which gives the holder a valid title to the land. The total amount of public domain still subject to location and unsurveyed, is nearly 182,000,000 of acres.
DISEASED POTATOES IN ENGLAND.-A simi. lar disease to that so much complained of in Holland, it is stated, attacked the potato crop in various parts of England.
THE MOLE-CRICKET. This is a singular species of the cricket, 3 fore they often gnaw holes in wet woolen and the most destructive. Like the quadru stockings and a prons that are hung to the fire. ped aster which it is named, it is subterranean
These animals are not only very thirsty, but
very voracious, for they will eat the scumin its habits, and works its way through
mings of pots, yest, and crumbs of bread, and 3 the ground by two fore legs of a peculiar kitchen offal or sweepings of almost every deconstruction. We copy the following descrip scription. tion from Vol. 74, of Harper's Family Li
In the summer they have been observed to }
fly, when it became dusk, out of the windows brary.
and over the neighboring roofs. This feat of It often infests gardens by the sides of activity accounts for the sudden manner in canals, where it is an unwelcome guest to which the often leave their haunts, as it does S the gardener; so much so, that a German also for the means by which they come into
author of an old book of gardening was in houses where they were not known before, duced to exclaim, “Happy are the places especially new-built houses, being pleased where this pest is not known." These crea with the moisture of the walls; and besides, tures also occasion great damage among the the soliness of the mortar enables them to plants, &c., in kitchen gardens, by burrowing, burrow and mine between the joints of the and by devouring the roots, which causes bricks or stones and to open communications them to wither. The peculiar shape of their from one room to another. It is remarkable
fore-arms is well adapted for the purposes that many sorts of insects seem never to use s of burrowing, hoth by their great strength their wings but when they wish to shift their
and breadth. They are turned outwards, quarters and settle new colonies. When in like their namesake's, the mole, to whose the air, they move in waves or curves, like habits they are very analogous, and enable woodpeckers, opening and shutting their wings the insects when sought for to burrow with at every stroke, and thus are always rising very greai rapidity, leaving a ridge in the and sinking. When their numbers increase surface as they work; but they do not form to a great degree, they become pests, flying hillocks as the mole. These animals preler into the candles, and dashing into people's for their haunts moist meadows, also the faces. In families at such times, they are sides of quiet and running water, and like Pharoah's plague of frogs, in their bed. swampy wet soil.
chambers, and in their beds, and in their ovens, The House Cricket.
and in their kneading troughs.--Nat. History. Tender insects, says White, that live abroad, ?
Crystals. - When bodies crystalize, either enjoy only the short period of one summer, or else doze aivay the cold, uncomforta
they generally increase in bulk; but when ble monihs in profound slumbers; but the they become solid without any appearance house crickels, residing, as it were, in a tor of crystalization, diminution of bulk very rid zone, are always aleri and merry; a good frequently accompanies the change. Christmas fire is to them what the heat of the dog-days is to chers.
Heat In Plants.—The teniperature
of the interior or the trunks of trees, is in "Around in sympathetic mirth,
general nearly that of the soil from which Its tricks the kitten tries;
they draw their nourishment.
ETIOLATION.- When plants grow in the As one would suppose by their living near
dark, they arc said to be etiolated, and fires, they are a thirsty race, and show a great
their color is white.- When such a plant propensity for liquids, being frequently found
is exposed to sunshine, it speedily begins to drowned in pans of water, inilk, broth or the assume a green color.-N. Y. Farmer ard! like: whatever is muisi they alleet, and there. Mechanic.
The Interior of a Chinese Mansion. Many of the peculiarities of Chinese character and habits excite our curiosity. They seem to invite us to penetrate into their dwellings, and observe them at home: but their extreme jealousy of strangers has hitherto repelled almost every approach that has been made towards such an intimacy. As for the habitations of the poorer classes, (which is a term apparently applicable to
the great mass of the people,) there is little S to attract the eye of a civilized observer:
for the degree of education which is generally diffused, is so limited to the mere rudiments, or rather there is so little beyond offered by Chinese books, so little inducement to apply the mind to any branch of reading, that fewer traces of civilization are visible among the people at large, than our wishes might lead us to expect. The principal cause is perhaps more distinctly to be seen in the female sex. It is to them that we owe the attractions of our own homes ; and they alone can render the table and the fireside what they should be, in any clime or any nation.
Among the wealthy classes in China we find the women considerably elevated in the scale of sobiety, in some respects; and there, as might be expected, are to be found corresponding improvements in the domestic arrangements. The intercourse of trade has in some instances partly broken through the confirmed national antipathies, and a few foreigners have been permitted to catch glimpses of private life in China.
The following description of the plans on which the houses of the wealthy are constructed, and of the interior decorations and arrangements, we copy from “The Chinese,” a new edition, by John Francis Davis, Esq., Governor of Hong-Kong:
- The apartments of the Chinese are by no means so full of furniture as ours in England ; and in this respect they have reached a point of luxury far short of our own. Perhaps, however, they are the only people of Asia who use chairs : these resemble the solid lumbering pieces of furni. ture which were in fashion more than a century ago, as described by Cowper :
But restless was the chair, the back erect Distress'd the weary loins, that felt no ease.'
“ Cushions with hangings for the back are sometimes used, of silk, or English woollens, generally of a scarlet color, embroidered in silk patterns by the Chinese women. Near the chairs are commonly placed those articles of furniture which the Portuguse call cuspadores, or spitting boxes,
rendered necessary by the universal habit
Vertice fumum.' [The revolving flames tremble, waving the dirty smoke.') The variety, and in the eyes of a Chinese, the beauty of the written character, occasions its being adopted as an ornament on almost all occasions. Caligraphy (or fine hand-writing) is much studied among them ; and the autographs of a friend or patron, consisting of moral sentiments, poetical couplets, or quotations from the sacred books, are kept as memorials, or displayed as or naments in their apartments. They are generally inscribed largely upon labels of white satin, or fine-colored paper, and almost always in pairs, constituting those parallelisms which we shall have to notice under the head of literature and poetry.
" In the forms of their furniture, they often affect a departure from straight and uniform lines, and adopt what might be called a regular confusion, as in the division and shelves of a book-case, or the compartments of a screen. Even in their door-> ways, instead of a regular, right-angled aperture, one often sees a complete circle, or the shape of a leaf or of a jar. This, however, is only when there are no doors required to be shut, their absence being often supplied by hanging screens of silk and cloth, or bamboo blinds, like those used in India.
" Their beds are generally very simple, with curtains of silk or cotton, in the winter, and a fine musquito net during the hot months, when they lie on a mat, spread upon the hard bottom of the bed. Two or three boards, with a couple of narrow benches or forms on which to lay them, together with a mat and three or four bamboo sticks to stretch the musquito curtains of coarses hempen cloth, constitute the bed of an ordinary Chinese.
" It may readily be supposed that, in the original country of porcelain, a very usual ornament of dwellings consists of vases and 3 jars of that material, of wbich the antiquity is valued above every other quality. This taste has led to the manufacture of factitious
S: famous strong ships, well-manned, and im.
possible to be better officered. We left them complete in full three years' provisions, stores, and fuel, besides five bullocks, which we killed there for them."
antiques, not only in porcelain but in bronze and other substances, points on which strangers are very often egregiously taken in at Canton. The shapes of their tripods, and other ancient vessels, real or imitated, are often fantastical, and not unlike similar vestiges in Europe. In these they place their sticks of incense, composed principally of sandal-wood dust, which serve to perfume their chambers, as well as to regale the gods in their temples. The Chinese are great collectors of curiosities of all kinds; and the cabinets of some individuals at Canton are worth examining.”
Turning to the large print on the page, we see an apartment of spacious size and length, well proportioned, well lighted by fine windows, formed and disposed nearly as in an European or an American dwelling of a superior order ; decorated with large pictures, symmetrically placed, and offering a variety of tasteful scenes, with evidence that
the rules of perspective are not disregarded } by their respectable artists. We see fine,
large specimens of their ancient porcelain manufacture, with well-proportioned chairs, thbles and footstools, one of the last of which bears one of those inscriptions before referred to; while the occupations of the inmates denote that propriety of manners which belongs to their class and station in the scale of civilization. While sipping their tea, with small supplies of food before them, a servant is seen approaching with a fresh supply through one of the broad, circular doors before described, which offers a remarkable, and as has been said, a pecu. liar characteristic of their style of building.
We cannot but repeat, in closing these s brief remarks on the subject before us, that
we not only may, but ought to look upon a scene like this with a reflection, that we are bound to exert ourselves to send into thousands of such habitations the blessings of truth and knowledge.
Ceylon.—Major Rogers, of the English army, residing in Ceylon, was instantly killed in June last, by a flash of lightning. He is said to have been a great elephant. hunter, having shot about twelve hundred of those animals in that island.
The CHOLERA has prevailed in an un. common degree on the Sutlej river, in India.
MADAGASCAR.—The Queen has ordered that all Europeans there must become naturalized, or quit the island; and two British frigates have gone thither to protect the English.
Tea. The cultivation of tea has been commenced in Ceylon. Some persons believe that the plant loses its flavor out of China.
THE LARGEST SUSPENSION BRIDGE IN IN. DIA, near Calcutta, lately fell, without in. juring any person.
Last ACCOUNTS FROM Capt. FREMONT.-3 A letter has been received in this city from Captain Fremont, dated from Bent's fort, on ihe Arkansas, the 2d of August. The party were all perfectly well. They ex. pected to remain at the fort some days, from which they would, at their leisure, give a detailed account of their plans and move. ments.-Wash. paper.
WARSAW, ILLINOIS, was under martial law at last advices. A gang of counterfeiters had been discovered," four arrests made, and the parties lodged in jail, which was guarded by seventy men.. After an examination, they were required to go to prison until court, or give bail in the sum of $12,000, which was not forthcoming.
ANOMALY --There is a liquid that has the greatest den ily a little above thirty-nine degrees. If we heat it above that point or cool it below it, in either case it expands. This liquid is water.
ARCTIC EXPEDITION.-Sir JOHN FRANKLIN (the British Explorer,) and his ships had been heard from as late as July 11, near Greenland, in warm weather, surrounded by icebergs.A correspondent says, on the 26th June, “when we entered Davis's Straits it became very fine, and we saw the slupendous mountains of West Greenland, covered with ice and snow; also, three large icebergs, which in a few days thickened upon us, but fortunately we had generally leading winds, which enabled us to
ihread ihem without danger. We left the s discovery ships at Whalefish Island, Disco,
on the i2ih, all in good health and high spirits as to their future enterprise--full of 3 hope as to their ultimale success. They are
HEAT.-This word is used in the English language to express two different things. It sometimes signifies a sensation excited in our organs, and sometimes a certain state of the bodies around us, in consequence of which they excite in us that sensation.