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THE PINNA. This is one of the bivalves, or double s This marine silk is prepared for manushells, of which the most extravagant things ? facture by twice soaking in tepid water, and have been believed and recorded. Roman then in soap-suds, after which it is spread writers gravely declared, that the animal in to dry. While drying, it is rubbed by hand, habiting it was confederate with one of a dif-S and afterwards combed. In spinning, one 3 ferent kind, a small shrimp, which acted the thread of common silk is put with two or part of scavenger and spy for the pinna; s. three of this; and then it is manufactured running about to make discoveries of its into stockings, gloves, and sometimes larger enemies, (particularly the cuttle-fish,) and garments, being washed in lemon-juice and also of its prey, and, when in danger, taking water, gently beaten with the hands, and refuge within its shells. The copy below smoothed with a warm iron, to give a finish. from “ Lessons on Shells," is a translation of The English name of the Pinna, is the lives by a Latin poet, on this fanciful fiction. Sea-wing. Its surface is often wrinkleds The story probably grew out of the fact, and crossed with low ridges. that such crustaceous animals are sometimes found shut up in bivalves; though it is pro The “Cherokee Advocate" contains the bably the effect of accident. We occasion. proceedings of a meeting for the promotion ally find small crabs in oysters.

of agriculture among the Cherokees. The

meeting was addressed by Rev. S. Foreman, The Pinna has thin and fragile shells, of who drew a contrast between the state of ag. a long triangular shape, and both of the

riculture as it is now found among the Cherosame size and shape, without any hinge,

kees, and what it was comparatively a few fastened together, near the small end, by a

years ago, when they planted their little crops

of corn, beans, potatoes, &c., by using the long ligament—and gaping at the other.

shouider blades of the deer, instead of the From the latter, proceeds a tuft of strong 3 plow and hoe ; and enumerated some of the fibres, with which it holds itself to stones advantages that would be likely to result to and other objects at the bottom of the sea, to the people from the formation of an Agriculretain its place. This is called its byssus, tural Society, in the cultivation of the soil, or beard, and resembles silk so much that its

management of their household affairs, in the is collected and manufactured for similar

rearing of stock and the dissemination of usepurposes. It is produced, as that made by

ful information on a variety of subjects inii.

mately associated with their present condition. the silk worm, from a shining, gummy fluid, secreted by the animal, which adheres to what it touches, and, on being drawn,

FOREIGN AND NATIVE CRIMINALS.- In the forms a fine fibre. It is said that the Pinna

St. Louis prison, in August, 122 men and 16 S

women were confined, for breaches of the city performs this movement several thousand

ordinances. Of these, 13 were Americans, 1 times in making its byssus.

Scotch, and 87 Irish. mun

WONDERFUL ESCAPE.-An English pa- i which amounted to 20 rupees (or about per, the Western Times, relates the follow- } £2 sterling.) It merely contained a news. { ing incide.t:

paper, which some friend of his in London

had inclosed in half a sheet of paper, and “Budleigh Salterton has been the scene

addressed to him when his vessel was in of a most thrilling incident. Six infant

London, expecting that it would find him in s children, on Wednesday morning, got into

St. Katharine's dock. His vessel, however, a boat on the beach, and a mischievous boy

sailed before the letter could be delivered, shoved it off. The boat drifted away to sea

and it followed him-first to Hobart Town, before the children were missed. Terrible

next to Sydney; thence to Bombay, Madras, s was the agony of the mothers when they

and Calcutta ; thence to the Mauritius, and, knew it. The preventive men went off in

finally, back again to Calcutta, where it all directions; every boat w s on the look

caught him, after having travelled 30,000 out ull far into the night.Daylight re.

miles, and occupied on its tour one year and turned, and still there was no tidings of the

eight months. helpiess children ; the day wore away, and still nothing was heard about them; they

Sale of Paintings, fc. at the Bonaparte were lost either in the expanse of the wide

Mansion, Point Breeze, New Jersey. - The ocean, or buried within its insatiable depths.

sale of paintings and statuary, the collection

of the late Joseph Bona parte, Count de SurA Plymouth trawler fishing yesterday

villiers, took place at the Mansion, and was morning early, saw something floating at

well allended. the distance ; he bore down to it, and dis. Toilet of Venus, by Natoire, (5 feet 6 inches covered it to be a boat-and in the bottom loog by 6 leet 5 inches high,) sold for $325 the six children, all cuddl d in like a nest

A Calm : Morning Scene, by Joe of birds, fist asleep. God having merci.

seph Vernet, (8 feet 4 inches by 5) fully given them that blessed solace, after a

sold for

950

Two Lions and Faun, by Rudav of terror and despair. The trawler

bens, (7 feel 8 inches by 4 feei 7)

2,300 took them on board, feasted them with bread

Landscape : Bay of Naples, by S. and cheese, anit gladılened their despairing Denis-ihis is a superior painting, little hearts with a promise to take them (7 feet 3 by 5 feel 2)

1,000 home. Between three and four in the af A Dutch Fair, by Francis Frank, ternoon, the trawler was seen in the offing

(5 leei 9 by 3 feet 7)

250 s with the boat astern. All eyes were turned

The Entrance into the Ark, by Bas. sano,

225 towards him ; the best spy glass in the town

The Lion caught in a Net, by Ru was rubbed again and again, and at last they

bens, (6 leet 3 inches long, by 4 feet made out it was the identical boat.

8 inches high,) sold for

1,800 The news flew through the town-the

Marble Bust of Pauline, Sister mothers came frantic to the beach, for there

of Napoleon, by Canova,

260

Young Diana and Hound, a fine 3 were no children discerned in the boat;

sculpture, by Bartuline, 3 feet 6 inches none to be seen in the sloop. Intense was

high,) the agony of suspense; and all alike shared Antique Bronze Casting: Stork and Frog, it with the parenis. At last the trawler from the Ruins of Pompeli,

came in, and the word went round they're Antique Bronze Hauk and Ania { all safe,' and many stout-hearted men burst

mal, from the Ruins of Pompeii, 130

Medici Vase of Porphyry, (3 feet
into tears, women shrieked with joy and be-
came alınost frantic with their insupportable

1 inch high ;) do. do. 'slighily dam.
aged,

200 s happiness. It was indeed a memorable day -and a prayer, eloquent for its rough sin

The sum total of the sales was $10,885 cerity, was offered up to Almighty God, who, in his infinite mercy, had spared these

THE OREGON SETTLERS, it is said, last year innocent children from the perils and terrors

raised a surplus of 100,006 bushels of wheat. s of the sea during that fearful night. Five of A grist mill with three run of stones was put

these children were under five years of age, in operation at Wallamette Falls this year. the sixth is but nine years old.”

Dr. Abernethy, formerly of New York city,

had been elected Mayor of Oregon City at the Post OFFICE PERSEVERANCE.-ADVEN

Falls. He had gone to the Sandwich Islands

lo procure merchandise, which was scarce. TURES OF A NEWSPAPER.-An apprentice ? } lad, on board an English vessel in Calcut- 3

Anti-Rent TAJALS.-At Delhi, N. Y., 93 sta, had lately a packet presented to him 3 persons have been indicied, and several new

through the Post Office, the postage of 5 arresis have been made.

350

130

PARENTS' DEPARTMENT.

SCHOOL AT HOME. Many will say the thing is impossible. But let us try first, if we feel the need of a better school than we can command, and decide afterwards. Experiment will enable us to come to a decision on which we can better rely. Some who have tried it, have come to a very different conclusion; and, if we review the lives of some of the most distinguished men, we shall find them, more or less of their time, regularly instructed at home by their fathers or mothers.

We often have our attention directed to the important influence exercised by parents, especially mothers, on the character and lives of their children; and yet, in most instances in which such influence has been traced, it has been exerted only in the usual modes, and on the common occasions of life. Few have tried the more systematic and regular plan necessary to a school. How much more might, in most instances, have been done, if such a course had been pursued. Few parents know, few mothers are prepared to believe, how much they can do, how well qualified are they for this task. 3 If they could once become convinced of this, and of the pleasure which the prac. tice would yield them, not in one, nor two, but in a score of ways, they certainly would do, what we long to see them do, begin s without delay and without faint-hearted doubting, the task of almost all the most important to their children.

“ How shall I begin? What books shall I use? What rules shall I adopt ?" I fancy I hear these questions by maternal affection, not insensible to an appeal in be. } half of her lovely charge. Begin in almost any manner you please, and with any books you find at hand. I will mention Colburn's Sequel—a liule, but comprehen. sive collection of exercises in mental arith- s metic. You will find questions in it adapted to children of every age: we may say of s men and women too. Perseverance will gradually give your children greater readiness at solving questions in arithmetic with 3 that kind of exercises, than any other. Let them, however, daily use the slate and pencil besides,“ doing sums," and committing rules to memory out of some other books— 3 almost any other.

Get a geography and atlas—we have many valuable modern ones. The old ones

are deficient in maps, and questions to be 3 answered on the map; Morse's, Mitchell's, s

Olney's, Woodbridge's, Huntington's, &c. S inn

&c. For advanced pupils, Woodbridge and Willard's, Malte Brun's, &c. For little children, Parley's, or other primary geographies.

For spelling and reading, a lesson every day in a defining spelling.book, or, for older children, a dictionary. Some instructive and entertaining book should also be used for the same purposes; and, in our opinion, the Bible or Testament also. Some persons find objections to these; but, after 3 much early and late experience, and long reflection, we think there is no profanation, no irreverence in the eyes of the child, and no evil effect to be apprehended in the serious use of the scriptures in this way. We are much more afraid of their not being familiar enough to the rising generation.

Books of travels, natural history, (ive hardly know whether to prefer heasts, birds, fish or insects, shells or plants ;) but make ? everything as familiar as you can ; get by all the hard words, for the few first years, as much as possible, and show specimens whenever you can. Encourage them, in play.hours, to plant flowers, water and guard them, collect leaves of different shapes, and to enquire into the properties, history, &c. of all natural objects.

Writing compositions should be begun as early as the child can write words in the first character, and be ever afterwards continued, on slates or paper. This exercise combines writing, spelling and grammar, while it exercises the observation and memory. It often, also, matures the mind in its opinions on important subjects, while it trains it to the use of its powers. Composition may be directed in different ways. “A simple anecdote at first may be narrated by the teacher, and written down in a few words by the child. Or he may be required to begin with unaccented words, as : “Write down, my dear, the names of five things you saw this morning, on five words, showing what you have done, on five kinds of fruit, birds, &c.

But it will be said: “I do not know half that these books contain ; I fear I should appear but a dull scholar, if set to recite from them myself.” And do you suppose that all the teachers are so wise when they begin? Far from it, I assure you. How many of them, indeed, go more or less by the books : and, indeed, never become independent of them ?

The Census of Troy shows a population of 21,681 gain since 1840, or 2,347, or 12 per cent.

MISCELLANEOUS. CALIFORNIA.—The Californians have recenuly nullified the Mexican tariff. Since Michletorena has been driven out of Califorpia, the province bas been independent.They seni the General and his troops to San Blas, at an expense of $11,000, and after that in their own right took possession of the archives, and made a division of the office.

The number of emigrants arriving at California was very large, all along the coast, and the emigrants are all against Mexico. A leiter dated Monterey, June 1st, says that the last great battle between the Mexicans and Californians, was fought in February, with cannon on each side and plenty of small arins. The cannonade was kepi up for the greatest part of two days. Loss, four horses. The men were wiser, keeping out of the way of cannon balls and grape. They only like the latler (under the same name) when distilled.

It is probably one of the healthiest and pleasantest spois in the world. The only draw back to continuing this encampment, is the scarcity of wood and water-the former, the troops haul about three miles, and the latter is quite brackish. They purchase Mexican ponies at from $10 10 $30. The waters abound with fish and oysters, both of a supe. rior kind, and the prairies adjacent with rich flavored venison. Large and lat beeves are slaughtered daily for the use of the troops.

It is supposed Gen. Taylor will wait two months in his present position, to know what the Mexicans will do. If they do nothing, our government will send a commissioner io Mexico, to lay down the boundary of the two countries. If Mexico refuses to receive the commissioner, and blindly turns away from a peaceable settlement, then our forces will immediately occupy the mouth and borders of the Rio Grande, and establish ibat as the boundary, whether or no.

The MEXICAN GENERALS. — Bustamente, who has just been appointed by Herrera, the head of the Mexican army to operate against Texas, was formerly the leader of the Centralists, in Mexico. He was put down by Paredes. When Paredes was expelled from Mexico, he resided for some time in Phila. delphia. He is about 50 years of age, and bas the reputation of being brave and mode. rate. He was the first to pronounce against Santa Anna in the revolution of last vear.

General Arista, having been banished from Mexico, look up his residence in Cincinnati. When expelled, he was a Colonel of lancers, and he is now regarded as the best Cavalry officer in Mexico. While in Cincinnati,-finding himself without resources, he applied himself to the tin and copper making business, and became in five years he spent in that city,) a first rate workman,

FROM CORPUS CHRISTI.- A letter dated at 3 Corpus Christi the 30th August, says that

General Taylor's forces there numbered 1900 { efficient men.

His tents are pitched on a piece of table land that reaches about a quarier of a mile to a range of hills; at a distance of half a mile from the crest of these he has stationed, as an out guard, a force of one hundred and twenty tried Texans. Maj. Gally, commanding the volunteers from New Orleans, is entrusted with guarding the extreme left, whilst

the extreme righ: is safely guarded by ColoSnel Twiggs, commanding the 2d Dragoons.

The centre is composed of the 3d, 41h and 7th Š Regiments of Infantry. s The Commanding General has thrown up a

field work, a wall of shells and sand, six feet thick and three hundred yards in length, on bis right. In case of an overpowering attack from this quarter, the iroops stationed on side

of this wall are to retreat behind it. The » whole length of the line along the shore oc

cupied, appears to be about one mile and a 3 half.

The New York State AGRICULTURAL FAIR commenced at Ulica on the 18th of September.

An open lot, about a mile from the railroad, was selected, and 10 acres enclosed. Four large buildings were erected. One called “Floral Hall," and is intended for the exhibition of fruits, flowers, and other horticultural productions. This building has been very tastefully decorated with greens-the ladies being the artists. The second is the “ Ladies' Hall;" the third for specimens of mechanical skill and ingenuity; and the fourth for the use of the farmers, and the rich products of the dairy.

The Electro Magnetic Telegraph was in full operation upon the gaound. The wires are extended on ihe main line as far as Herkimer, and the posts are up the entire distance to Lille Falls. When the Telegraph is completed through to Albany, our Ciica friends can ascertain the doings of the Albanians about six minutes before they take place! So much for writing by lightning! Franklin never dreamed so far as thai!

The mechanics of Utica got up an opposition creditable to them so far as regards the * number and excellence of articles.

PennsyLVANIA now produces annually, 15,000,000 bushels of wheat, and 45,000,000 bushels of other grain, and is capable of increasing the amount four-fold. She will send to market this year 2,000,000 tons of anthracite coal, yielding a return of $7,000,009.She manufactures three-fourths of the iron made in the whole Union, and has the means of supplying the consumption of the world. The state has a bituminous coal field, through which the main line of canal passes, for one hundred and thiriy one iniles, containing one thousand square miles, or 6,000,000 acres : when all Europe contains only two thousand square miles of bituminous coal land.

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Important from China. The fine ship Rainbow, Capt. Land, from Canton 5th of June, made a very extraordina. ry voyage out and home. She left New York on the first of February. This is her first voyage.

[From the Friend of China.] On Sunday afternoon, a fire broke out in a theatre within the walls of the city. The theatre formed the centre of a square, to which there was only access by one narrow lane.

The audience endeavored to escape by the lane, but the crowd from without were trying to force their way into the square, the greatest confusion prevailing.

The lives were lost by the fire, the falling timber, or by the crowd and suffocation. The bodies are so horribly mutilated, their friends cannot recognise them.

By the Mandarin's books, the total number of killed is 1,257, including 52 male and female actors; the wounded are estimated at 2,10n.

Thirty years ago, a similar accident hap. pened at the same theatre. At that time the authorities forbade dramatic performances by the inhabitants ; the present company are out. side people. It is anticipated that an edict will be issued, strictly prohibiting all such exhibitions in future.

A large portion of the dead are females ; and it is feared that not a few were murdered by the robbers that infest the city, on pur. pose to obtain bracelets and other ornaments.

Fire at Canton, and loss of 2,000 lives.Hing Kong, May 28.- About ten on the evening of Saturday, a fire-or we may rather say fires-broke out in the sheds erected along the water side, where the Military Hospital and other public building are in the course of erection, destroying a large quantity of timber and all the door and window frames for the Hos. pital, which were only finished that day.The fire spread rapidly, seizing upon the mat roof over the buildings, which was quickly burned or torn down.

About two hundred men were landed from H. H. S. Castor, Plover, and Minden, and were of great service in checking the confiagration, by pulling down the sheds and houses.

There is reason to believe that the fire was the work of incendiaries.

Hong-Kong, May 15.-When Hong Kong was ceded to her Majesty, most of the British merchanis resident in China were induced to build houses and stores on the Island, in the reasonable expectation that a large junk trade would immediately spring up, similar to that the Chinese carry on with the comparatively distant ports of Batavia and Singapore. They have been disappointed. Free intercourse with the five ports is all a delusion—that is, we can visit these ports, but not a native ves. sel nor a native merchant can come to Hong

Kong. We see junks passing through the harbor on their passage to and from Macao; we also know that large fleets of them visit the Islands for articles of traffic which they could better obtain here, without the danger and delay of a long voyage—but here they do not come. The cause of this is no secretthey dare not irade at Hong-Kong. The much lauded treaty made by Sir. Henry Pottinger completely checks the slightest approach to that description of commerce which must have almost been calculated upon.

CANTON.--On the 2d of May, the Canton Baptist Missionaries opened a Medical Dispensary in that city, in a house a few streets off from the foreign factories. Crowds of patients continue io attend. The Dispensary is always opened with prayer in Chinese, and each patient receives a tract and Christian teaching. A system of exiensive book distri. bution throughout the city having been put in operation, the Dispensary is also used as a book depository for the present.

Our native preachers find no hindrance in their work.

SHANGHAI.—The Rev. Mr. Medhurst, dres. sed as a Chinaman, is on a long tour in the country, where it is hoped he will meet with success.

Opium is carried up the river in Mandarin boais, with the Mandarin's flag flying at the masthead. It is said that some new arrangements have been made with the authorities, and now the drug is landed openly in bags immediately helow the foreign factories.

From Honan province, there are accounts of an earthquake which demolished about ten thousand houses, killing upwards of four thousand people. Circulars with the particulars, are selling in the streets of Canton.

The Board of Punishments has just submit. ted to Government the names of lifiy individuals who are condemned 10 suffer death for various offences, some for having sold, others for having smoked, opium. The Board hunbly apply to the Sovereign to decide whether these malefactors oughi not rather to be transported instead of being strangled. The iniperial assent to this proposal has been obiained, but the law denouncing death to all smokers and sellers of the drug remains in force, al. though the execution is suspended.

PRIMITIVE.-Judge Morris, in his History of the 'Town of Litchfield, Ct., says:

"The first use of the violin in this town for a dance, was in the year 1748. The whole expense of the amusement, although the young people generally aliended did not exceed one dollar, out of which the fiddler was paid. When this instance of profusion took place, parents and old people exclaimed that they should be ruined by the extravagance of the youth. In the year 1798, a ball, with the customary entertainment and variety of music, cost $160, and nothing was said about it.Such has been the difference in the manners of Litchfield within half a century."

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