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tion of no movements, but what are easily perforined, and which contribute also to health and pleasure.

Physiologists were long perplexed to account, “ how parts supplied with NERVES could be insensible*; and how,

hesions ;

* In the INTRODUCTION of Vol. II. we proved, from the experiments of Haller, that the viscera were INSENSIBLE (vide page page xlvi), and PATHOLOGY also confirms this opinion. Hence ulcers of the lungs are attended with little or no pain, the heart has been pierced through, and corroded, the liver has been indurated, and stones have been found in the kidneys, without the patients complaining of more than faintings and want of health. Hence schirrous and ency sted tumours are so indolent, and life is prolonged for such a length of time under them.

The examinations of dead bodies, in the immense collections of BONETUS, MORGACNI, Lieutaud, and in a late work by the ingenious and indefatigable Dr. Baillie, furnishes ample evidence how frequently indeed fatal diseases are formed in the vital organs, and in the abdominal viscera; and how often these parts are consumed by collections of pus; tumours; water; ad

&c. of which the practitioner had not the smallest suspicion. Too often indeed should we find, if the practice of opening dead bodies were more the custom, that those patients who have looked up to us for health have laboured under some fatal and incurable malady! That instead of DISEASED ACTION ;--he has DISEASED ORGANIZATION ;-incurable fcirrhosities ;-inaccesible and wide-extending abscesses ;--the heart and merabranes thickened by the fuffufion of coagulable lymph ;--parts tied together, and incapable of their juft action by adhesions ;-tubercles ;-+9neurisms; &c. &c. But what advantage, it will be said, shall we reap from such painful discoveries—but the mortification of knowing the impossibility of finding ade. quate remedies, and giving the relief expected from us.--Hold, is it not fomething, if this knowledge should prevent the practitioner from attempting imo posibilities

, whereby he aggravates mifery already too grcat, by heaping on additional mischief. Was Adrian to be blamed for causing to be inscribed on It was the great number of physicians that haftened on the


his tomb-stone,
death of the Emperor."

though all the nerves terminate in the common sensorium or brain, over fome organs the influence of the will extended, whilst the motions of others were INDEPENDENT of that principle. They allowed the propriety of the final cause, and referred it to the wisdom of God primarily, whereas philosophy should look for a second cause *, which demonstrates the same goodness, with still greater power in our beneficent CREATOR.

The solution of this difficulty was reserved for the glory of the present age. The GANGLIONS, which are hard and callous bodies attached to those nerves which supply the organs which have involuntary motion, did not indeed escape the all-prying eye of anatomy : but their uses were long wholly unknown. Conjectures were indeed formed that they were muscles capable of contractions by which the nervous spirit was accelerated and impelled forwards : but they have been since found, from the experiments of the illustrious De HALLER, incapable of such contraction, being wholly devoid of irritability, They have been represented as little brains to supply that afflux of nervous fluid which the incessant motions of

* ARISTOTLE, CICERO, Galen, Bacon, Boyle, Newton, and LOCKE, all concur in allowing that the last link in the chain of natural causes terminates at the throne of God.



organs to which they went seemed to require. Repetition and authority gave considerable weight to these conjectures, and we therefore are the less surprised Dr. JOHNSON, the learned and ingenious discoverer of their real use, should complain :

“ It requires a long series of years for the admission " of new truths. The period cannot be limited to

thirty or forty years.

“ It depends on circumstances peculiar to the age, " the subject, and the author's situation : and mine " has no peculiar advantages.

" It is thirty years since my early thoughts on the uses " of the GANGLIONS of the nerves was communicated

to my correspondents Dr. Whytt and Baron de “ HALLER ; and twenty years since, on maturer re

flection, I published an account of this discovery to

« the world.

My opinion has been filently attacked, and as filently adopted, without any explicit acknowledgment " of the author, or any direct quotation from his “ work. Several of the objections, which I have an“ swered, were communicated in a correspondence with " which I was honoured by Baron de HALLER: and

66 I have

" I have reason to think, from a letter afterwards re“ ceived, my answers were satisfactory.

My ideas were received by Dr. M.KETTRICK, " and my work ingeniously analized by the celebrated “ Tissot. I say nothing of the private, and perhaps " partial, testimonies of my correspondents.






GANGLIONS, as we before observed, are attached wholly to nerves which supply the organs which have involuntary motion, and being NON-ELECTRIC BODIES *, are the CHECKS which prevent our volitions from extending to them t, and also senfation from reaching

* If you

stimulate any nerve not supplied with GANGLIONS, all the irritable fibres will be thrown into a state of action through the whole extent of the minute ramifications of that nerve : but, on the contrary, stimuli do not affect the heart, intestines, &c. 'when applied on the nerves above the GAN. GLIONS, but acting just below them, these organs are instantly strongly affected.

+ In violent fits of passion the accumulated ele&tric fluid of the nerves however passes these barriers, and the vital organs are immediately in agitation, and Sometimes death ensues,


the common sensorium*



inspirations ;


* The effect of different PASSIONS on the voluntary as well as involuntary organs, is a subject worthy of scrutiny, and has not been enough attended to by the physiologist. Hope, fear, joy, grief, are well known to display their figns externally. The character of each man can in general be read in his face. Disocial passions, being hurtful by prompting violence and mischief, are noted by the most conspicuous external figns, in order to put us upon our guard :

and revenge, especially when sudden, display themselves on the countenance in the most legible characters. The breathing is quick, with deep

hence the swelling of the nostrils, and projecting of the under lip; the accumulated nervous electrici sses the GANGLIONs, which nature designed as BARRIERS in the more tranquil hour, and Aies to the heart, which propels with velocity the blood, which being very deeply oxygenated in its quick transit through the lungs, aids muscular exertion, inflames the eye, and reddens the countenance. The other internal viscera are also affected, and there is a suffusion of bile. In fear there is a deep inspiration, and it is long before the air vitiated in the lungs is returned, the mouth is wide gaping, the nostrils closed, and the heart receiving unoxygenated blood palpitates, the countenance is livid, the hands pale, and swooning often ensues. The serpents in Africa, according to VAILLANT, fix their eyes on a bird, and curling themselves up, so terrify these little creatures, that they are incapable of fight, and fall down from the bush or tree dead. Sorrow produces nearly the same inattention to respira. tion; hence the noftrils are drawn downwards, the mouth is half open for languid respiration, sighs are frequent, the face is of a lead colour, and the lips are pale. We shall not enter now more deeply into the question, but conclude by observing, that the external signs of passion are a strong indication that man, by bis

conftitution, is framed to be open and sincere. A child, in all things obedient to the impulses of nature, hides none of its emotions; the sayage and clown, who have no guide but pure nature, expose their hearts to view, by giving way to all the natural signs. And even when men learn to dissemble their sentiments, and when behaviour degenerates into art, there fill remains checks, that keep dissimulation within bounds, and prevent a great part of its mischievous effects. The total suppression of the voluntary signs during any vivid passion, begets the utmost uneasiness, which cannot be endured, but by the most practised villains. We may pronounce, therefore, that NATURE, herself fincere and candid, intends that mankind should preserve the same character, by cultivating fimplicity and truth, and banishing every sort of diffimulation that tends to mischief. Vol. IV.




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