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away the fuperfluous matter, and removes the rubbish. The figure is in the stone, and the sculptor only finds it. What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the human soul. The philosopher, the faint, or the hero, the wise, the good, or the great man, very often lie hid and concealed in a plebeian, which a proper education might have dif-interred and have brought to light. I am therefore much delighted with reading the accounts of favage nations, and with contemplating those virtues which are wild and uncultivated; to see courage exerting itself in fierceness, resolution in obftinacy, wisdom in cunning, patience in fullen.
ness and despair.
Men's paffions operate varioufly, and appear in different kinds of actions, according as they are more or
rectified and swayed by reason. When one hears of Hegroes, who upon the death of their masters, or upon changing their service, hang themselves upon the next tree, as it frequently happens in our AMERICAN plantations, who can forbear admiring their fidelity, though it expresses itself in so dreadful a manner? What might not that savage greatness of foul, which appears in these poor wretches on many occafions, be raised to, were it
rightly cultivated * ? And what colour of excuse can there be for the contempt with which we treat this part of our species; that we should not put them upon the common footing of humanity; that we should only set an insignificant fine upon the man wlio murders them; nay, that we should, as much as in us lies, cut them offe from the prospects of happiness in another world as well as in this, and deny them that which we look upon as the
proper means for attaining it? It is therefore an unspeakable blessing to be born in those parts of the world where wisdom and knowledge flourish; though it must be confessed there are even in these parts several poor uninstructed persons, who are but little above the inhabitants of those nations of which I have been here speaking; as those who have had the alvantages of a more liberal education, rise above one another by several different degrees of perfection. For, to return to our statue in the block of marble, we see it sometimes only begun to be chipped, sometimes rough hewn, and but just sketched into an human figure; sometimes we see the man appearing distinctly in all his liinbs and features ; sometimes we find the figure wrought up to great elegancy; but feldom meet with any to which the hand of a Phidias or a PRAXITELES could not give several nice touches and finishings.
* A Portuguese negro, says Abbé RAYNAL, in his History of the European Settlements, who had fled into the woods to enjoy the liberty which was his natural right, having learned that his old master was arrested, and likely to be condemned for a capital crime, came into the court of justice; assumed the guilt of the fact ; suffered himself to be imprisoned ; and was executed instead of his beloved master!
DEMOSTHENES was extremely affected with the honours paid to the orator CALLISTRATUS, and still more with his supreme power of eloquence; and not being able to resist its charms, he gave himself up wholly to it, renounced all other studies and pleasures, and, during the continuance of CALLISTRATUS at Athens, made all the improvement he could from his precepts. The first efsay of his eloquence was against his guardians, whom he obliged to refund a part of his fortune. Encouraged by this, he ventured to speak before the people, but with very
ill success. He had a weak voice, a thick way of speaking, and a short breath; notwithstanding which his periods were so long, that he was often obliged to stop in the midst of them for respiration. This occafioned his being hissed by the whole audience. As he withdrew in the utmost confusion, Satyrus, an excellent actor, who was his friend, met him ; and having learnt the cause of his dejection, he assured hiin that the evil was not without remedy, and that the case was not so desperate as he imagined. He desired him to repeat some verses of Sophocles or Euripides to him ; which he did. Satyrus spoke them after him, and gave them such
graces by the tone, gesture, and spirit, with which he pronounced them, that DEMOSTHENES found them quite different from what they were in his own manner of speaking. He perceived plainly what he wanted, and applied himself to acquiring it.
His efforts, to correct his natural defect of utterance, and to perfect himself in pronunciation, of which his friend had made him understand the value, seem almost incredible, and prove, THAT PERSEVERANCE CAN SURMOUNT ALL THINGS. He stammered to such a degree, that he could not pronounce some letters, and was so short-breathed that he could not utter a whole period without stopping. He overcame these obstacles by putting small pebbles into his mouth, and pronouncing several verses without interruption; and with going up steep and difficult places, so that at last no letter made him hesitate, and his breath held out through the longest periods. He went also to the sea-side ; and