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whilst the waves were in the most violent agitation, fie pronounced harangues, to accustom himself, by the corrfused noise of the waters, to the roar of the people, and the tumultuous cries of public afsemblies.

DEMOSTHENES took no less care of his action than his voice. He had a large looking-glass in his house, which served to teach him gesture, arid at which he used to declaim, before he spoke in public. To correct a fault of shrugging up his shoulders, he practised standing upright in a narrow pulpit, over which hung a point in such a manner, that if in the heat of the action that motion escaped him, it might admonish and correct him.

His application to study was no lefs surprising. To be the more removed from noise, and less subject to diftraction, he caused a small room to be made under ground, in which he shut himfelf up sometimes for whole months, thaving half his head and face, that he might not be in a condition to go abroad. It was there by the light of a small lainp he composed the admirable orations, which were said by those who envied him to smell of the oil. He rose early in the morning, and used to say that he was forry when any workman was at his business before him. We inay judge of his efforts to acquire excellence, from his copying Thucydides's

history history eight times, in order to render the style familiar to him. SECT. LX.

From all this pains he became--the copious--the nervous--the majestic--orator,--who possesses the powers of elocution in their full extent.

This is the man whose enchanting and diffusive language was so much admired by listening nations, that they tamely suffered eloquence to rule the world;-but an eloquence whose course is rapid and sonorous !-an eloquence which every one gazes at and admires, and de{pairs to equal!

This is the eloquence that bends and fways the paffions !

This the eloquence that alarms and fooths them at her pleasure !

This the eloquence that sometimes tears up all before it like a whirlwind; and at other times steals imperceptibly upon the senses, and probes to the bottom of the heart ! The eloquence which ingrafts opinions that are new, and eradicates the old, and such was the eloquence of this great orator!

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GICERO'S ACCOUNT OF HIS OWN STUDIES,

Qui ftudet optatam cursu contingere metam,
multa tulit fecitque puer.

Hon.

When HORTENSIUS was in the height of his glory I made, says Cicero, my first appearance in the Forum, The Marfic war breaking out, HORTENSI US served the first campaign as a volunteer, and the second as military tribune. We had scarce any body left at the bar but L, MEMMIUS and Q. POMPEIUS, who, though far from being orators of the first distinction, were yet tolerable

Besides these I had the benefit of hearing the harangues of C. CURIO, who was chosen tribune of the people. To him Į may add Q. Metellus Celer, who, though certainly no orator, was far from being destitute of utterance : but Q. VAŘIUS, C. CARBO, and Cn. POMPONIUS, were men of real elocution, and might almost be said to live upon the Roftra. C. Ju, LIUS too, who was then a Curule Ædile, was daily employed in making speeches to the people, which were composed with great neatness and accuracy. As to the other speakers, there was not one, who had gained more than a common acquaintance with those parts of literature, which feed the springs of eloquence :--not one who had been thoroughly nurtured at the breast of Philosophy, which is the mother of every excellence either in deed or speech :--not one who had acquired an accurate knowledge of the civil law, which is fo necessary to direct the judgment of the orator :--not one who was complete master of the Roman history, which would enable him, on many occasions, to appeal to the venesable evidence of the dead :- not one who could entangle his opponent in such a neat and humorous manner, as to relax the feverity of the judges into a smile or an open laugh :-not one who knew how to dilate and expand his subject :-not one who knew how to enliven it by an agreeable digreffion :-not one who could roufe the indignation of the judge, or extort from him the tear of compassion, which is undoubtedly the first per

ones.

composed

I therefore spent the remainder of my time away from the Forum, and was employed in reading, writing, and private declaination.

The next year, that I might acquire a complete knowledge of the principles of jurisprudence, I attached 6

myself

fection of an orator.

myself to Q. ScævoLA, who though he did not choose to undertake the charge of a pupil, yet by freely giving his advice to those who consulted him, answered every purpose of instruction to such as took the trouble to apply to him.

In the succeeding year Philo, a philosopher of the first name in the academy, with many of the principal Athenians, having deserted their native home, and fled to Rome, from the fury of Mithridates, I iminediately became his scholar, and was exceedingly taken with his philosophy; and, besides the pleasure I received from the great variety of sublimity of his matter, I was still more inclined to confine myself to that study; because there was reason to apprehend that our laws and judicial proceedings would be wholly overturned by the conti, nuance of the public disorders. Then also I attended the lectures of Molo the Rhodian, who was newly come to Rome, and was both an excellent pleader, and an able teacher of the art.

The three following years the city was free from the tumult of arms. HORTENSIUS, of course, was the first speaker in the Forum. Antistius too was daily rising into reputation, Piso pleaded pretty often, POMPONIUS not so frequently, CARBO very seldom, and Phuif

PUS

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