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dead with the ill fate of those that were led back again to chains and torture, declared “ the former to be happy,” and gave “ their pity" to the sufferings of the latter.

When HANNIBAL perceived that this contrivance had produced in the minds of all the arıny the effect that was intended from it, he came among the soldiers, and then addressed them as follows: “ I have offered this spec“ tacle to your view, that, when you have discerned “ your own condition in the fate of those unhappy cap" tives, you might more clearly judge whạt resolutions were

most proper to be taken, and in what manner you might best form your conduct in the present cir“ cumstances. For, in the combat which you have

seen, and the prize proposed to the conqueror, is dis" played a perfect image of that state into which you

yourselves are now brought by fortune. Such indeed “ is your situation, that you must either conquer, or 66 be flain in battle, or else fall alive into the


of your enemies. By conquest, you will obtain a prize

not of horses and military habits, but the whole “ wealth and riches of the Roinan empire ; and will “ then become the happiest of mankind : and if you

were to fall in battle, you will then only die ; with

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out being first expofed to any kind of mifery; and

contending, to your latest breath, for the most glo6 rious of all victories. But, on the other hand, in case

you are conquered, and the love of life should flatter you with the hopes of being able to escape by flight,

should even consent upon any terms to live “ after your defeat; it is manifest, beyond all doubt, " that nothing but the extremity of wretchedness can “ await you: for surely there is none ainong you, “ who, when you have considered how vast a length of “ country you have traversed, what enemies have op

posed you in their way, and what large and rapid “ rivers you were forced to pass, could be so wholly 66 destitute of all sense and judgment as ever to be per« suaded, that it was possible to regain your several “ countries. I conjure you, therefore, to lay aside all 6 such hopes; and, in judging of your own state and “ fortune, to retain those sentiments, which


have “just now shewn with regard to the condition of the

captives. As in that case you declared both the man " that conquered, and him who fell in the combat, to be happy, and pitied those who were reserved alive; “ fo your business now is, to conquer, if it be possible; " and if not, to die; and on no account to entertain


66 even

to even the smallest expectation or thought of life, in * case you are conquered. And if you will heartily “ embrace these sentiments, and carry this resolution * with you into action, there is indeed no room to “ doubt, but that you must both live and conquer.

For no troops were ever known to be defeated, who

had once been fixed in this determination, either by “ neceffity or choice. But that, on the other hand, an

army which, like the Romans, see their country

open to them on every fide, and ready to receive all " those that can escape by flight, must necessarily fall “ beneath the efforts of men, whose only hopes are “ placed in victory."

When we feel ourselves hurried off by any uncominon effect, let us try to investigate the cause, and ask ourselves why we are thus delighted, thus affected? Effects indeed strike us, when we are not thinking about the cause ; yet may we be assured, if we reflect, that a cause there is; and that too a cause intelligent and rational. In that part of the Philippic of DEMOSTHENES it is the antithesis that heightens the description; which is still more forcibly exhibited in the spectacle contrived by the Carthaginian general, and in his harangue.





On the antithesis often depends much of the beauty and clearness of history. We will take an example from Tacitus.

The night in both camps was busy and unquiet.

The BARBARIANS passed their time in jollity and carousing ; warlike songs and savage howlings kept a constant uproar, while the woods and vallies rung with the hideous found.

In the ROMAN camp the scene was different : pale gleaming fires were seen; no sound, save that of low and hollow murmurs ; the soldiers lay extended at length under the palisades, or wandered from tent to tent, fatigued and weary, yet scarce awake.

CÆCINA was disturbed by a terrible dream : he thought he saw Quintillius Varus, who had been slaughtered with his whole army, emerging from the fens.

ARMINIUS, at break of day, observing the baggage of the Roman army in their march stuck fast in a morass; the soldiers gathering round in tumult and dis3


order; the eagles in confufion; he ordered his men to make a vigorous attack ; and by gnashing and mangling the horses, made a dreadful havock.

Goaded by wounds, and not able to keep their legs on a slimy soil, which was made ftill more flippery by the effusion of their own blood, those animals in their fury overturned all in their way, and trampled under feet the wretches that lay on the ground. The chief distress was round the eagles; to support them under a heavy volley of darts was difficult, and to fix them in swampy ground impossible. CÆCINA, exerting himself with undaunted vigour to sustain the ranks, had his horso killed under him. The barbarians were ready to surround him, if the first legion had not come up to his affistance,

At length the rage for plunder, natural to savages, turned the fortune of the day. Intent on booty, the GERMANS desisted from the fight.

The Romans seized this opportunity, and towards the close of the day, they gained a station on solid ground. Their distress, however, was not at an endi entrenchments were to be raised; earth to be brought; their tools for digging and cutting the soil were lost; no tents for the soldiers; no medicine for the wounded ; 5 Q2


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