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act shew, and the schedules, A, B, &c. which are attached to it. The expense of the police is borne by those who pay for the pasture licenses, by those who pasture the Public lands.

This is in the nineteenth century of the Christian æra; but it would do very well for the fourth century before it, or any other time. It is, perhaps, not new, for the Roman system of pasturing the public lands, if it was efficient, must have resembled it. The Romans would not only provide that the rents were duly paid, but that a man did not get any advantage beyond that for which he paid. Like political circumstances may produce like political results. The British system has certainly not been framed by persons who drew any hints from the Roman system, but it resembles it as to the management of the pasture land; and, so far, there is nothing new under the sun.





With Notes and Appendices, Cambridge, 1844. 8vo.

by Richard Shilleto, M.A. THE union of innovation and compromise is, now-a-days, too frequent to excite surprise, even if met with in an edition of a Greek classic. Nevertheless, Demosthenes' speech with two rows of notes under it, one in Latin and the other in English, presents a rather motley appearance, and forcibly recals Butler's humorous lines: It was a party-coloured dress

Of patched and py-balled languages;
'Twas English cut on Greek and Latin,
Like fustian heretofore on satin;
It had an odd, promiscuous tone,

As if h' had talked three parts in one.

Mr. Shilleto writes his critical notes in Latin, because it has a better supply of technical terms; his explanatory ones in English, because our own language has a nearer affinity to Greek than the Latin. It must be acknowledged, however, that some of the English is rather πονηροῦ κόμματος, and hardly an improvement on the hybrid Latin it is meant to supersede; e. g. in § 218: "This woman, in the first instance, merely quietly to drink and eat dessert they tried to force, I should suppose." Nay, in spite of its asserted superiority in explanation, in Mr. Shilleto's hands it is sometimes even ambiguous, as in § 28: "What, then, did you not then at the very time set about informing and instructing us of this?" Which words do not, like the text, necessarily imply a negative. Notwithstanding these minor objections, however, Mr. Shilleto's edition is a useful one, and his notes are, in general, judicious. We subjoin a few remarks on some of his readings.

§ 34, p. 350 (Reiske). “ οὐχ ὡς ὅδε Φωκέας ἀπώλεσε.” ὅδε, says Mr. Shilleto, "is evidently Philip, not Æschines;" and consequently translates: "Not that Philip ruined the Phocians by himself (which I grant; Philip has done so; let them make the most of it, &c.)." But if that was what Demosthenes granted, Mr. Shillito has neglected to explain how he could possibly have added the word wo0er ("how should Philip

have done it?")-which cannot there be rendered by ovdauwç. Had he been speaking of Philip, too, he would have used éxtivos, as he does throughout the oration, with, we believe, only one exception (in § 122), where we find ỏ dè (not ödɛ). The demonstrative is here used, dɛikriKoç, and contemptuously, and the meaning of the passage seems to be, "But it behoves you to look to this point, whether these ambassadors, so far as their powers reached, purposely ruined every thing on which the safety of the Phocians depended, not whether this fellow here, in his individual capacity, destroyed them-how should he?" That this is the meaning is plain from the context, since Demosthenes sets out with the proposition that a very insignificant person, when employed, like Æschines, in a public capacity, may effect a great deal of mischief. It must be allowed that the construction of c is rather anomalous, but not more so if referred to Eschines than if to Philip. If odɛ were, indeed, to be referred to the latter, we should at least read anλeσev av, with Schaefer.

§ 39, p. 352. прaoréρovs―Tɩvós, “More mild than any thing. I do not remember a similar expression." Neither do we, and therefore read with some of the MSS. Tɩvás, i. e. "became quite other and milder persons"-ironically. We do not see the appositeness of the passages quoted from Thucydides. In that from lib. VII. c. 29, μãλλov has, we suspect, no reference to οὐδεμιᾶς ἥσσων, but belongs to αδόκητος and dɛvý, though the sentence is rather asyndetous, viz. "and that misfortune, inferior in magnitude to none, and more than any other unexpected and dreadful, fell upon the whole city." In like manner in the other passage from lib. I. 138: ἦν γὰρ ὁ Θεμιστοκλῆς βεβαιότατα δὴ φύσεως ἰσχὺν δηλώσας καὶ διαφερόντως τι ἐς αὐτὸ μᾶλλον ἑτέρου ἄξιος θαυμάσαι—the μᾶλλον belongs to ἄξιος, and the passage may be rendered: "For Themistocles had most incontrovertibly displayed his strength of mind, and was considerably more worthy to be admired for this quality than any other man." αὐτό is used for the demonstrative τοῦτο, as it frequently is in Thucydides (Cf. lib. 1. 2 and 68; lib 1. 18, &c.).

§ 51, p. 355. Nǹ Aía ȧdiкhow y'ony. Mr. S. reads with Bekker adhow, translating: "Certainly I shall not, I replied, else if I do, I shall act unfairly." But surely Demosthenes would then have said μà Aía, not vý; and therefore we do not know whether the vulgate be not preferable.

§ 118, p. 374. For dwaiwę áñoλwλévai кpivɛtai, Mr. S. proposes to read δικαίως απόλωλε· ναί, κρίνεται : thus giving και a negative sense, to introduce an objection from the dicasts, viz. "Nay, you will say, he is undergoing a trial upon this point: that point is not decided, it is being tried." But, granting that the Athenians could be such very matter-of-fact people, as to be thought capable of making an objection

like this, which destroys the whole oratorical force of the passage, in which Demosthenes anticipates his verdict, we have very strong doubts whether vaí can be used in this way, unless where it is followed by an adversative particle, as dλλà, or dè. And this, indeed, is the case in all the instances adduced by Mr. S. in his Appendix D, with the exception of those in which it is used with an oath, or with an imperative, and which are beside the point; or where in reality no negative at all is implied, as in the example from the Perso, 738, the Philoctetes, 372, &c. The vai always affirms, though an objection or limitation may be afterwards made by dλλà or dé; "that is true, but, &c." In the example from the Cyclops of Euripides, 147, we should certainly read ral with Hermann. We therefore cordially concur in Wolf's emendation, dikaios; and just so we find written at the end of § 120, καὶ τρίς, οὐχ ἅπαξ, ἀπολωλέναι δίκαιος.

We must now quit Mr. Shilleto's book, but cannot do so without remarking, that the way in which it is printed is a disgrace to the Cambridge University Press. To the long list of errata prefixed to the volume we could add near a score from our own reading.


THIS is the title of a philological or classical Journal, which was commenced at Paris at the beginning of the present year, and is to be continued in parts, appearing every other month. We have observed, for some time past, that classical studies are gradually reviving in France, and the present undertaking is a pleasing symptom of it. The first part of the Revue de Philologie opens with a paper, by M. Letronne, on the time of the accession and coronation of the Ptolemies, based on a passage of the celebrated Rosetta Stone, in the British Museum. The second paper, by M. Dübner, is a dissertation on a MS. containing the commentary of Probus on Virgil, accompanied by an unedited fragment of the same commentary. The third paper is the first part of the report which M. Ph. Le Bas sent to the minister of public instruction, on the results of his travels and investigations in Asia Minor. Then follow two reviews; one by Theob. Tix on Boissonade's edition of Babrius, and Dübner's Animadversiones critica de Babrii, &c.; and the other, by L. Renier, on Egger's Latini Sermonis vetustioris Reliquiæ selectæ. The part concludes with a number of short notices and a list of recent publications.

HESIODI THEOGONIA. Librorum MSS. et veterum Editionum Lectionibus Commentarioque instruxit D. J. Van Lennep. Amstelodami, 1843. 8vo. (London: Williams and Norgate.)

A NEW edition of Hesiod's Theogony cannot be but very acceptable to the friends of Greek literature, who must have felt how much there yet remained to be done after the first edition of Göttling's Hesiod. The present edition of the Theogony, prepared by the veteran of Dutch scholars, leaves little that can be reasonably desired. M. Van Lennep has collected a very complete critical apparatus, and constituted the text of his author with great care. We are glad to find that he has wisely resisted the temptation to introduce many conjectures into the text, as well as abstained from that rash criticism of some modern scholars, who reject a vast number of verses in the Theogony as interpolations. The various readings and critical notices are given under the text, and the explanatory commentary, which contains many valuable mythological investigations, forms the second part of the work, from p. 127 to p. 396. It is only to be regretted that the editor has neglected to add an index to the work, which would have considerably enhanced its usefulness.

GRIECHINNEN UND GRIECHEN, nach Antiken Skizzirt von Theod. Panofka, mit 56 bildlichen Darstellungen. Berlin, 1844. Folio. (London: Williams and Norgate.)

DIE HEILGÖTTER DER GRIECHEN. Von Theod. Panofka. Berlin,


1845. 4to.

THE first of these interesting publications consists of two parts, each being a lecture delivered in the Wissenschaftliche Verein of Berlin. The one contains a sketch of the life of Greek females, from their birth to their death. The account is based partly on the ancient writers, and partly on representations found on ancient vases, mirrors, &c. The second part treats of the life and occupations of men, in the same The whole treatise gives, in a small compass, a lively picture of ancient life, and is a good specimen of the use which may be made of the monuments of antiquity in illustrating the manners and customs of the ancients. Much archæological lore has been collected and compiled by earlier scholars, but it is only in our days that we have been enabled to read the artistic representations of the ancients in the same manner as we read their written monuments. To read and understand them requires an intimate acquaintance with the writings of the ancients, which, in their turn, receive light, in innumerable passages, from the facts, thoughts, and ideas represented in works of art.

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