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authority from those writers who were contemporary, or nearly with the flourishing period of the Greek drama.

And here, as a work almost exclusively devoted to the subject of Greek tragedy, it is impossible to pass over the Poetics of Aristotle. Now it must be admitted that in his description of the different parts of tragedy, the Stagirite does not expressly mention dancing. But neither does he mention the acting of the tragedian. To a Greek mind the term chorus would just as necessarily imply the dancing of the choreutæ, as that of prologue, episode, &c., would the gestures of the actor; and therefore it was equally superfluous, especially in so short a treatise, to mention either. But there are passages in the work which clearly shew that Aristotle understood dancing to form a part of tragedy. Take the following. Εἰσὶ δέ τινες (τέχναι) αἱ πᾶσι χρῶνται τοῖς εἰρημένοις· λέγω δὲ, οἷον, ῥυθμῷ καὶ μέλει καὶ μέτρῳ· ὥσπερ ἥ τε τῶν διθυράμβων ποίησις, καὶ ἡ τῶν νόμων, καὶ ἥ τε τραγῳδία, καὶ ἡ κωμῳδία· διαφέρουσι δὲ ὅτι αἱ μὲν ἅμα πᾶσιν, ai dè Karà μépos. (§ y. Tyrwh.) Now it is plain from the κατὰ μέρος. expression rous tipnuévois that Aristotle is here using the words rhythm, melody, and metre, in the same sense in which he had employed them just previously, where puluóc was used to denote the motions of the dance, the adjunct of tune being expressly excluded. (See before, p. 230.) A further confirmation is, that dancing was certainly used in the dithyramb; and in the passage just quoted, that species of poetry is represented as using the three combined arts of poetry, music, and dancing throughout; whereas tragedy and comedy-in which last, I believe, no one has ever disputed that there was dancing-are said to employ them unitedly only karà μépos; meaning of course the choric parts. And in his last chapter, Aristotle uses the generic term μovoký (which we have seen included dancing), instead of μελοποιΐα. (καὶ ἔτι οὐ μικρὸν μέρος τὴν μουσικὴν καὶ τὴν ὄψιν ἔχει.)

I shall now proceed to shew from Aristophanes, as well as from the internal evidence of some of the choruses themselves, that dancing formed a part of tragedy. Before going any further, however, it may be as well to settle the meaning which we attach to the word dancing (öpxnois); for it may perhaps be objected that when we meet with this term applied to the Greek chorus it does not mean dancing, properly so called

that is to say, a movement of the legs and feet-but merely a kind of rhythmical gesticulation. It may be quite true that the term sometimes includes the gestures of the arms or head; but that motion of the feet and legs was the true and proper meaning of it may be shewn from Plato. That author, in a passage to which I have before alluded (Leges, b. vII. p. 814, D), prefaces his description of the different sorts of serious and comic dances with the following definition of the word opxnois. “Περὶ δὲ τῆς ἄλλης κινήσεως παντὸς τοῦ σώματος ἧς τὸ πλεῖστον μέρος ὄρχησιν τινὰ τὶς ἂν προσαγορεύων, ὀρθῶς ἂν pléуYOLTO," K.T.A. Here we have dancing defined to be, a movement of the whole body, which in common parlance may be taken, I presume, to include the legs and feet. By its connection with what follows, this passage shews that the movement of the legs took place in the serious dances, as the Emmeleia, &c. Indeed, every thing tends to shew that the Greeks danced vivaciously, and not with the lazy, sauntering air of a modern fine gentleman walking through the figure of a quadrille. I have before cited a passage from Homer's Hymn to Apollo, in which that deity is represented as capering high in air (ü ßißáç). In the Odyssey (lib. v111. 264) Ulysses is described as admiring the twinkling feet of the dancers :

αὐτὰρ Οδυσσεύς

Μαρμαρυγὰς θηεῖτο ποδῶν, θαύμαζε δὲ θυμῷ

An expression, by the way, which shews that music, as well as dancing, must have attained to considerable execution even at that early period; for it would have been impossible to dance so quickly to a slow tone.

A preliminary difficulty with regard to the tragic choruses might be, that several of them were composed of old men, as in the Agamemnon of Eschylus and the Antigone of Sophocles. Here something must be allowed to the judgment of the poet (or of his xopodidáσкados), who was of course at liberty to suit the character of the dance to that of the chorus: yet dancing was not considered by the Greeks as ridiculous or degrading even in old men. Plato, who would banish tragedy from his ideal republic, allows, nay encourages, dancing in old men up to the age of sixty, and would have them drink wine that they may throw aside all reserve, and infuse more liveliness into their movements. (Leges, lib. 11. p. 664, fol.) So the aged

prophet Tiresias prepares for the dance in the Baccha of Euripides :

οὐ γὰρ διῄρηχ ̓ ὁ Θεὸς εἴτε τὸν νεόν
ἐχρῆν χορεύειν εἴτε τὸν γεραίτερον
ἀλλ' ἐξ ἁπάντων βούλεται τιμὰς ἔχειν

V. 206.

And in the Frogs of Aristophanes old men are described as partaking in the dance:

γόνυ πάλλεται γερόντων

αποσείονται δὲ λύπας

χρονίους τ' ἐτῶν παλαιῶν ἐνιαυτούς

ἱερᾶς ὑπὸ τιμᾶς.

V. 345.

Socrates himself was not ashamed to dance, but, on the contrary, speaks in high praise of the exercise. (Xenop. Symp. c. 2.) As to the ridicule of it, that is a matter of taste; and it would surely be quite as ridiculous, perhaps more so, to behold a body of old men making a set of extravagant gestures in concert, as to see them leading off a dance, which the audience from their earliest years had been accustomed to associate with ideas of gravity, and even of religion.

But to come to facts. There is a scene in the Wasps of Aristophanes, which not only proves incontestably that dances were performed by the tragic chorus, thus bearing out the testimony of Athenæus and the rest; but which also shews that the mode of dancing, in the time of Eschylus at least, was by no means of the gentlest. In the last scene of that play, Xanthias announces that his master Philocleon, being rather the worse for liquor, is about to give a specimen of dancing, such as it was in the days when he was young; and to shew that the later professors of the art were but dolts in comparison of Thespis and Phrynichus:

ὁ γὰρ γέρων ὡς ἔπιε διὰ πολλοῦ χρόνου
ἤκουσε τ' αὐλοῦ, περιχαρὴς τῷ πράγματι
ὀρχούμενος τῆς νυκτὸς οὐδὲν παύεται
τἀρχαῖ' ἐκεῖν ̓ οἷς Θέσπις ἠγωνίζετο

καὶ τοὺς τραγῳδούς φησιν ἀποδείξειν Κρόνους

τοὺς νῦν, διορχησόμενος ὀλίγον ὕστερον. V. 1476.

I do not apprehend that any difficulty will be made about the word τραγῳδός. Ammonius tells us, that it may be used both of one of the chorus and of an actor; and that it sometimes

stands for the poet himself. (κωμῳδός καὶ τραγῳδὸς λέγεται ὁ χορευτὴς καὶ ὑποκριτής κωμῳδοποιὸς δὲ καὶ τραγῳδοποιός, οἱ ποιηταί· ἐνίοτε δὲ συγχέουσι τὴν διαφοράν. p. 86, Valckn. In the last sense it is used by Diphilus in a fragment preserved by Athenæus. (Lib. vI. p. 223, b.) In the present scene, Aristophanes applies it both to the choreute and to the tragic poet : in the former sense to two of the sons of Carcinus; in the latter, to Thespis and Phrynichus, who, like Æschylus, taught their choruses to dance. But to proceed. Philocleon himself now rushes on the stage, and, amid occasional interruptions from his saucy slave, exclaims

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Pretty hard work! The ribs bending, the nostrils snorting, the vertebræ cracking. Such was the style of Thespis. That of his successor, Phrynichus, the contemporary of Æschylus, was as lively :

πτήσσει Φρύνιχος ὥς τις ἀλέκτωρ

σκέλος ουράνιόν γ' ἐκλακτίζων.

Here, at all events, gesticulation is out of the question. The legs are made use of, and that in a way which would charm the heart of a modern ballet-master. But perhaps it may be said, that this only brings us down to the time of Phrynichus; and that the dancing may have been abolished by Eschylus, amongst the other reforms which he introduced into the theatre. This argument, however, or rather conjecture, will not serve the purpose; for, had that been so, how could the old gentleman in the Wasps, a play brought out upwards of thirty years after the death of Eschylus, proceed to challenge the degenerate tragedy-dancers of his latter days, as in the following lines :

ΦΙ. φέρε νυν ἀνείπω κἀνταγωνιστὰς καλῶ
εἴ τις τραγῳδός φησιν ὀρχεῖσθαι καλῶς
ἐμοὶ διορχησόμενος ἐνθάδ ̓ εἰσίτω—

φησίν τις ἢ οὐδείς ; ΒΔ. εἷς γ' ἐκεινοσὶ μόνος.
ΦΙ. τίς ὁ κακοδαίμων ἐστίν; ΒΔ. υἱὸς Καρκίνου
ὁ μέσατος. ΦΙ. ἀλλ ̓ οὗτός γε καταποθήσεται.

ἀπολῶ γὰρ αὐτὸν ἐμμελείᾳ κονδύλου

ἐν τῷ ῥυθμῷ γὰρ οὐδέν ἐστ'.

Now here we see the Emmeleia directly alluded to, though in a punning manner, as the tragic dance, just as Athenæus and the other authorities have told us that it was. From the whole context of the passage, too, the word puluós can here refer to nothing but dancing; a signification which we have already seen that it may possess. The general inference from the scene is, that dancing formed a part of tragic performances, for many years at least after the death of Eschylus, though possibly in a rather more subdued style than in the earlier period of the drama; though we may not, indeed, be justified in drawing this last conclusion from the words of Philocleon alone, which might be intended for that exaggeration into which old age naturally falls when talking of the scenes of youth.

There remains but one more point to notice, and that is, the internal evidence afforded by the tragic, and other choral odes, which have come down to us. Now, assuming that music and dancing were their invariable accompaniments, we might reasonably expect to find them occasionally-but only occasionally-alluded to. They would for the most part pass, as matters of course, without notice. Now, this is just what we find with regard to the music, which I am not aware that any one has yet disputed to have been the invariable accompaniment of the tragic chorus at least. It is exactly the same with the dancing. To prove this point, the following passages have been selected. They are not the only ones, but they are the most direct; and will therefore save encumbering the page with useless citations.

To begin with the youngest of the dramatic triad, Euripides. In the Electra we find the chorus speaking as follows:

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Here we have again the ovpávov σKEλoç of old Philocleon. And a line or two further on, a reference to a custom described by Lucian (De Saltat. § 30), of singing to the dancers:

ἀλλ ̓ ἐπάειδε

Καλλίνικον ᾠδὰν ἐμῷ χορῷ.

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