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In a parchment MS.5 which is believed to belong to the twelfth century, is found the following title:




3. Maximinus. In most editions, especially those of Putschius and Lindemann, the grammarian Victorinus is called Maximus Victorinus; and if to this we add his established name of Marius, we shall find analogies between this and that of the historian Marius Maximus, the Marius Maximus of the Godesberg inscription", and the consul C. Marius Maximus, A.D. 223. And since also the name of Fabius is established for Victorinus, we might adduce in confirmation of it the name which so frequently occurs of consuls called Fabius Maximus. But, as Osann remarks, the author of the little work De Ratione Metrorum, or De Metris, is twice named Maximinus Victorinus in a MS. of the fifteenth century at Naples 8; and the same also occurs in a Vienna MS.9 As long as this authentic information is not weakened by other MSS. which have Maximus, we must adopt the name Maximinus. But it is very singular that we have one, or rather two other designations of this same writer.

4. Q. Laurentius. Mai 10 quotes the following expression from Lorsch MSS. : "Fabii Laurentii liber de rhetorica," and remarks

upon it as follows: "Est hic, ut comperi, notus ille editus Victo

rini commentarius in Rhetoricam Ciceronis; enotavi tamen codicem propter nomen Laurentii inauditum, ut puto, quia is vulgo dicitur Fabius Marius Victorinus; cui quidem operi emendando valde conferret Codex Vaticanus pervetus optimus, quem vidisse memini." In favour of this new name, I can here add an interesting confirmation. In the Brussels MS. before referred to, there is appended to the first book the following signature: Q. LAVRENTII. FABII. VICTORINI. VICTORINI. MARII. COMMENTARIORV. IN. MARCI. TVLLII. CICERONIS. RETHORICIS. LIBER. PRIMVS. EXPLICIT. INCIP. SCÔS.; and to the second book: MARII.


5 In the Burgundian Library at Brussels, No. 5347, fol.

6 Often mentioned in the Scriptores Historia Augustæ.

7 See Central Museum Rheinlandischer Inschriften, 11. 18.

8 Jannelli, Catal. Bibl. MSS. Mus. Borbon. pp. 24, 25.

9 Endlicher, Catal. Cod. MSS. Vindobon, part 1. p. 218.

10 Spicileg. Roman. tom. v. p. xi.

From this we may decidedly infer that Victorinus was a polyonymus, and that his full name was Gaius Marius, Fabius Maximinus, Quintus Laurentius, Victorinus; not unlike that found in the Godesberg inscription 11-Quintus Venidius Rufus Marius Maximus Lucius Calvinianus.

From the above it will appear that this African rhetorician Victorinus 12 was an elder contemporary of St. Hieronymus; his birth, therefore, falls in the third, and his death in the fourth century. He wrote, when an old man, commentaries on the Apostle Paul, a controversial work against Arius, and commentaries on Cicero's Dialogues. The word "dialogi," as used by Hieronymus, must not be taken in its strict signification; he uses it in a general sense for rhetoric, which meaning is more particularly confirmed by the fact that the same Victorinus wrote a commentary on Cicero's Topica, the contents of which are thus indicated by Boethius, in his work of the same nature (vol. 1. p. 270, ed. Orelli):-"Sed quum in Marci Tullii Topica Marius Victorinus Rhetor plurimæ in disserendi arte notitiæ commenta conscripserit;" and further, "Quattuor enim voluminibus Victorinus in Topica conscriptis eorum primo declarandis tantum libri principiis occupatur......secundo volumine de iudicandi atque inveniendi dialecticæ partibus et de locorum atque argumenti definitione pertractat......; tertius vero atque quartus discretionem locorum inter se eorumque exempla multiformiter persequuntur: ita ut tertius quidem Tulliana sibi de iure proponat exempla, quartus vero eosdem locos per alias rursus similitudines monstret ex Virgilio et Terentio poetis, oratoribus Cicerone et Catone." If then the word "dialogi" is understood as rhetoric, we may without hesitation ascribe to the same author the still extant commentaries of one Marius Victorinus on Cicero de Inventione; and if this latter is to be regarded as established-and no one has hitherto denied the fact-the question arises, In what relation do the grammarian and Prodosian Maximus Victorinus13, and the Metrician Marius Victorinus 14 stand to this rhetorician? Let us cast a glance at the Commentaries on Cicero, and we shall find that, quoting a passage from Varro, "Esse artem extrinsecus unam, aliam intrinsecus" (p. 19, ed. Orelli), he gives the following definition :

11 See the Central Museum Rheinl. Inschrift, 11. 18.

12 We must take care not to confound the African rhetorician with another, who in some respects resembles him, and is mentioned by Gennadius, Catal. Illustr. Viror. LXI.: "Victorinus, rhetor Massiliensis ad filii sui Etherii personam commentatus est in Genesim, id est, a principio libri usque ad obitum Abrahæ

patriarchæ. Quattuor versuum edidit
libros Christiano quidem et pio sensu,
sed utpote sæculari litteratura homo
occupatus, et nullius magisterio in divi-
nis scripturis exercitatus levioris pon-
deris sententias figuravit. Moritur Theo-
dosio et Valentiniano regnantibus."

15 Pp. 1937-1974, ed. Putsch.
14 Pp. 2449-2622.

"Ut puta si dicam: Grammatica ars est gnara partium orationis, gnara syllabarum, gnara litterarum; per hanc discimus omnia vitia devitare; hæc quum dico quumque per hanc vitari vitia dico, non tamen, quomodo vitentur, ostendo: artem illam extrinsecus doceo, per quam sola scientia discitur. Si autem dicam, quæ sint partes orationis, quæ syllabæ, quæ litteræ, quibusque modis omnia illa constent, quo pacto vitia vitentur: tunc erit illa ars, cui est nomen intrinsecus: non quæ ad scientiam nostram tantum proficit, sed quæ in actu sit. Ergo et ars rhetorica duplex est," &c. Here the rhetorician unmistakably betrays a critical and scientific acquaintance with grammar, and we also find grammatical references in pp. 21 and 69. Again, there occurs in the grammarian Victorinus, De Novissimis et Primis Syllabis15, a remarkable exhortation to the study of Cicero's Rhetoric, from which Spengel 16 has already taken occasion to suggest the identity of this so-called Maximus Victorinus with Marius Victorinus, the commentator on Cicero's treatise. The name Maximus was the only remaining obstacle. But we already know from Jannelli 17 and Endlicher 18, that Maximus Victorinus is the genuine reading of the MSS.19 Moreover, the grammarian Victorinus 20 quotes Donatus as his predecessor in grammatical studies: "Sed illa, quoniam Donatus exposuit, ideo dimittimus;" and in another passage21, also Lactantius Firmianus as his contemporary (" nostra memoria"). So that neither upon internal nor external evidence can we discover a trace of difference between the authors; or rather, every reference to the subject will lead us to adopt the opinion that the rhetorician Victorinus and the grammarian were one and the same person.

If we had greater certainty that the Marius Victorinus, who wrote the work De Ratione Metrorum22, was no other than the rhetorician, or what amounts to the same thing, that he was the author of the Ars Grammatica, the result would be most acceptable to the history of Roman literature, and would lay the foundation of a more accurate estimation of this author. Now, it cannot be denied that some points of difference exist between the two works. One, at least, I have remarked in the doctrine of the length and shortness of syllables. In the Ars Gramm. 23 long syllables are divided into long by nature, and long by position: "Natura quinque modis......positione longæ fiunt decem modis." On the other hand, in De Rat.

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Metr.24 we read, "Longæ duobus modis constant......positione longæ modis octo." Whether it be that the author, in these two works, followed two different Greek models, or that in the latter he propounded an improved view of the subject-just as Aristotle, in his later and larger Rhetoric, laid down his doctrine of the riσraç differently from that given in his earlier work-such slight differences are too insignificant not to be pardoned in any author; and here not only a perfect accordance in the name, and a large number of statements and views repeated almost verbatim, but also nicer and more subtile family-features, if I may be allowed the expression, lead us to ascribe the two works to one author. Among the former, I place the three varieties quoted in his definition of the term "ars "25: "Quidam tamen ex his veteres aliis nominibus disgregaverunt in κακοτεχνίαν, ψευδοτεχνίαν, ματαιοτεχνίαν.” Compare this with p. 2450: "Huic arti quot contraria opponuntur? Tria. Quæ ? κακοτεχνία, ψευδοτεχνία, ματαιοτεχνία ;” and further, the remark concerning the first elements of grammar, p. 1937, "Quidam eam a voce cœperunt, alii a litteris, alii a syllabis, alii a casibus;" and p. 2449, "Artium grammaticarum scriptores quidam ab arte inceperunt, quidam a grammatica, quidam a definitione, quidam a littera." In p. 1937 we find the duties of a grammarian mentioned: "Grammatici officia sunt quattuor, lectio, enarratio, emendatio, iudicium." With this agrees p. 2451; "Eius præcipua officia sunt quattuor, ut ipsi (Varroni) placet, scribere, legere, intelligere, probare." It is also of importance that, in both works, grammar is treated not only with reference to prose, but also to poetry 26. The definition of Definitio is almost word for word the same, as well as that of the voice 28. Then follows that of the letter29, "Littera est figuratio quædam, quæ cum aliis adnexa cox emissa comprehenditur;" and again 39, "Littera est vor simplex, una figura notabilis." In the former passage, we have, "Tria accidunt unicuique litteræ, nomen, figura, potestas ;" and in the latter, "Nam accidunt unicuique litteræ, nomen, figura, potestas." Then the whole history of the alphabet31 offers a remarkable resemblance to pp. 2452 and 2468. The story about the origin of the Pythian metre is the same in both works 32. The same is the case with what is said of the syllable, "Syllaba est littera vocalis vel litterarum coitus per aliquam vocalem comprehensus;" and again34, "Syllaba est coniunctio litterarum cum vocali vel vocalibus sub uno accentu et spiritu continuata." In the

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same way, Victorinus distinguishes rhythm and metre. Lastly, there are also to be remarked, in all these writings, three, or rather four, philosophical categories (considering the definition as the TI which determines the thing) used as dialectic rules: the fIOION, or the qualitas; the ПOZON, or the quantitas; and the IIPOΣ TI, or the finis. With regard to the TI, I refer the reader to the definitions above quoted; for the IIOZON to the Ars Gramm. (p. 1946). "Qualitas syllabarum dividitur in duas species." "Qualitas verborum est qua quæritur, finitum sit verbum an infinitum.” "Accentus est uniuscuiusque syllabæ pronuntiandæ in sono qualitas” (p. 1938). I attach no importance to the fact that he distinguished between adverbia qualitatis and quantitatis, according to the example of the Greeks (p. 1951); but I lay more stress upon such views as36, "Metrum est compositio pedum ad certum ́finem deducta, seu dictionis quantitas et qualitas pedibus terminata 37. Figurantur enim (metra) generalibus modis duobus, quantitatis et qualitatis." But the identity of the authors seems to me to discover itself particularly in the more uncommon pоç T. To perceive quantity and quality is so common an act of thinking minds, that the peculiarity of an individual is less displayed in it; but the idea of purpose does not so easily present itself to every one. But this latter appears in the Ars (p. 1492): "Sententia est dictio generalis ad vitæ emendationem in communi pertinens, ut puta: ne quid nimis. Oratio sermo est contextus ad clausulam tendens ;" and also in De Rat. Metr. (p. 2449), "Ars, ut placet Aristoni, collectio est ex perceptionibus et exercitationibus ad aliquem finem vitæ pertinens;" then he quotes an opinion of Aristotle's, and continues, "Nos qualiter? ars est summa rerum dictio comprehensarum atque exercitatarum ad aliquem vitæ finem tendentium ;" and further (p. 2451), "Ut Aristoni placet, grammatice est scientia poetas et historicos intelligere, formam præcipue loquendi ad rationem et consuetudinem dirigens."

When we put all this together, we cannot but arrive at the undoubted conclusion that the grammarian, metrician, rhetorician, and ecclesiastical writer, Victorinus, were one and the same person, who, when a heathen, and perhaps also when a Christian, belonged to the Peripatetic school. This fact, that Victorinus was an Aristotelian, is confirmed by other titles of works which can be assigned to him on the authority of various testimonies. Among these may be mentioned the Categoria which occur in the Anecdoton Bruxellense 38, either an edition of Aristotle's treatise, or an introduction to it; moreover, a translation of the Isagoge of Porphyrius, assigned to him, among

35 De Carm. Heroic. p. 1955. De Rat. Metr. p. 2484.

36 De Rat. Metr. p. 2493.

37 P. 2548.
38 Line 22.

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