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identity of kepaλn and head, for instance, without a knowledge of the other words, might probably be questioned. But the changes in the letters are made according to analogy: thus c and k, at the beginning of words in Latin and Greek, correspond to h in the Teutonic languages, as Greek kapd-ía, Latin cor, cord-is, Gothic hairtô, Old German hêrza, Modern German herz, English heart; so also Greek Kúwv Kúv-oc, Latin can-is, Gothic hunths, German hund, English hound, the d at the end being a prolongation of the sound, on the same principle as the common people in this country say gown-d. Many similar instances might be quoted, as Greek Kávνaß-, Latin cannab-is, German hanf, English hemp; Latin coll-um, German hals; Greek Képaç, Képaт-os (the t corresponds to n), Latin corn-u, Gothic hawrn, German and English horn; Greek σKUT-oç or KÚT-oç, Latin cut-is, German haut, English hide.


Oc-ulus is a diminutive, apparently from a lost form oc-us, and contains the same root as the Sanskrit aksha, Greek ok-oç, Gothic augô, Old German ouga, Modern German auge, English eye, where the guttural is dropt. This root oc is the same as om, occurring in ὄπ-σομαι (ὄψομαι), ὄπωπ-α, &c., and we mention this to call the attention of the student to the change of c and p, which frequently takes place in other words. Thus Toυ, π, Tóτɛ, &c., are written in the Ionic dialect kou, κω, κότε; and πέπτω οι πέσσω (compare the adjective πέπτων, ripe), λείπω, λύκος, έπ-ομαι, are written in Latin coqu-o, li[n]qu-o, lup-us, sequ-or. It was one of the peculiarities of the Oscan language, to use p where the Latins had qu; thus they said pid for quid. Proximus the superlative of prope (prop[c]-simus) shews a similar change.


If we compare καθαρός with such words as φλυαρός, πιν-αρός, λιπαρός, χλιαρός, it is evident that καθ must be the root, which does not occur in a simple form in the Greek language, but is the same as the Sanskrit verb sudh, "to purify." The s in this verb is the palatal sibilant in the Sanskrit alphabet, and this sibilant corresponds to k and c in Greek and Latin, as Sansk. svan, "a dog," Gr. Kúwv; Sansk. pasu, "an animal," Lat, pecus; Sansk. dacan, "ten," Lat. decem.

The Latin cas-tus and the German keusch are of the same root as the Sanskrit sudh and the Greek καθαρός.


This word is most generally supposed to be compounded of pater and caedo, and consequently a contracted form of patricida. But there are two objections to this etymology. The first is, that the word did not originally signify the murderer of a father, but any person who killed another, dolo malo: it would, therefore, appear that parricida meant a murderer generally, and afterwards the murderer of certain persons in a near relationship. (See Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, p. 286.) The second objection is, that there seems no analogy for the contraction of patricida into parricida, as the Romans said matricida, fratricida, patrimonium, matrimonium, &c.

In consequence of these objections to the etymology of pater and caedo, various others have been proposed. Priscian, who mentions the etymology given above, likewise gives the derivation of par and caedo, and of parens and caedo, both of which etymologies have been adopted by some modern writers. But in reply to the former of these, it may be remarked that the notion that all men are equal by nature is not a Roman notion, nor is it a fact that all Roman citizens had equal rights and privileges. Besides which, the word pares is never used by any Latin writer as equivalent to cives. The other etymology from parens and caedo (parenticida=parricida) is liable to the same objections as that of pater and caedo, and seems to have been invented by the jurists to make the etymology somewhat conformable to the signification of the word in the Lex Pompeia de Parricidiis.

Various other etymologies have been suggested by modern writers, but the most recent of all, and perhaps the most probable, though still not entirely satisfactory, has been propounded by Dr. Osenbrüggen, in his able essay Das Altrömische Paricidium," in the Kieler Philologische Studien,

2 Festus says: "Parici quaestores appellabantur, qui solebant creari causa rerum capitalium quaerendarum. Nam parricida non utique is, qui parentem occidisset, dicebatur, sed qualemcunque

hominem indemnatum. Ita fuisse indicat lex Numae Pompili regis, his composita verbis: SI QUI HOMINEM LIBERUM DOLO SCIENS MORTI DUIT PARICIDAS ESTO."

Kiel, 1841. Dr. Osenbrüggen calls in the assistance of Comparative Etymology, and supposes that the first part of the word paricida is the same as the Sanskrit para and the Greek παρά used in the same signification as in παραπρεσβεύω, Tapaßaivw. He remarks, that this prefix indicates that the action expressed by the verb or substantive is performed in a perverted and improper manner, and that thus the meaning of the word given by this etymology is in accordance with its original use.





Edipus Coloneus, 1670, &c. Song of Antigone, Ismene, and the αἱ αἱ φεῦ 'στινάκο το λο


(Compare above, p. 203, &c.)


Antigone.-Alas! alas! no single grief
Weighs heavy on my soul;
Away the weary moments roll,

Each with its own dark sorrow laden-
Our sire's unhappy death the chief

And foremost of the dismal train-
We recked not of the toil or pain
We bore for him, though gentle maiden
Might well of such hard lot complain,
Whilst yet he lived the task to cheer,
But now!-unutterable woes appear
Chor. What grieves thee, lady?

Antig. Friends, I scarce can tell

Chor. Has he departed?

Antig. Even as we desired-
No fiery plague consumed him in its hell
Of torments, nor with idle struggles tired
Sank he beneath the Ocean's billowy roar,

But Mother Earth's wide-yawning chasms bore
His trembling form away, and he was seen no more-
Wretch that I am! and endless night

Closed his dim eyes for ever to the light

Where shall we wander, on what distant shore,
Or stormy sea, to drag a life more heavy than before!


Ismene. I know not, I!

I would that Hades' blood-stained king
Had borne me with my aged sire

Down to his deepest cave of death:

Life holds not aught that can repay such hopeless suffering.

Chor. Let us, ye noble children, soft inspire
More gentle thoughts, nor yield yourselves a prey
To grief, but learn to bear Jove's righteous sway
With patience, and look forth to happier destiny.


Antig. Even in our woes we felt a bliss,
And toil a sport became,

Whilst we embraced that aged frame-
Father! round whom thick darkness woven
Robes thee within the drear abyss,
Still shall the lamp of filial love

Burn in our breasts where'er we rove,
Till our sad hearts by Death are cloven-
Chor. Has he

To go

Antig. Gone as he prayed and strove

Chor. How then?

Antig. A foreign shore Received his bones-he sleeps for evermore

Deep in his quiet bed, and feels no pain,

Yet tears will spring unbid when I recall
Thy dismal fate, nor can their scalding rain
Wash from my memory the bitter gall
Infused from thy fierce sufferings or steep
My senses in forgetfulness.-I weep

To think that thou shouldst o'er Life's shadowy limits leap

In a strange land, and no one near

To close thine eyes, or strew thy lowly bier-
And I, unhappy wretch! was far away,

Nor caught the latest beams of thy expiring day.

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Oh! where shalt thou, dear sister, fly?

Cold is our parent's loving heart, and whither shall we go?

Chor. But since a happy fate was his, and he
Reached with a quiet mind Life's gloomy goal,
Bewail not thus-but teach thy patient soul

To bear its griefs-for none can Fortune's course control.

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