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Euphrates, turn due west (see his map) for four days march, identifying the villages whence they procured the guide with the district about the modern Khanus (as Major Rennell had done before, for different reasons, and upon a different hypothesis of the route); and then, according to his map, they turn sharp, and march in a direction E.N.E.; and he describes them as marching three days with the guide, and seven days without him, before they arrive at the Phasis. (Travels, p. 179; Classical Museum, ibid.)


Now Xenophon is so far from saying that the Greeks took a more westerly course," after crossing the Euphrates, that he says, that the north wind blew in their faces on the third day's march (aveμos Boppas ivavríos čπVEL, IV. 5, 3). There is absolutely nothing, according to Mr. Ainsworth's notion of the route, but the existence of villages round the modern castle of Khanus, to identify that district with the group of villages where the Greeks rested a week; for Mr. Ainsworth goes beyond his author, when he speaks of "the palace of the satrap," and would fain suppose the modern castle to be on the same site. Xenophon says nothing of a palace. He says only, that the interpreter of the Greeks told the women and girls of the first village they came to, that they were troops marching from the king to the satrap; and they answered, that he was not there, but a parasang off (Iv. 5, 10). I have little doubt that the strong argument which made Mr. Ainsworth suppose that the Greeks marched westward from the Euphrates, was his belief that after they resumed their march they were ten days in reaching the Phasis.

Now the difficulty which Mr. Kinneir and Mr. Ainsworth have felt arises chiefly from a false translation, by which the number of marches between the Euphrates and the Phasis is exactly doubled. The Greeks march four days before they arrive at the villages whence they procure the guide; and after they set out again, they march three days before the guide runs away from them. Then Xenophon goes on (Anab. iv. 6, 4), Μετὰ τοῦτο σταθμοὺς ἑπτὰ ἐπορεύθησαν, ἀνὰ πέντε παρασάγγας τῆς ἡμέρας, παρὰ τὸν Φάσιν ποταμόν; that is, “ After this they marched seven day's marches, at the rate of five parasangs a day, along the river Phasis;" not " to the river Phasis," as Mr. Kinneir and Mr. Ainsworth have understood the words. There is no real ambiguity in the meaning of wrapá in such a context.

The meaning is the same as in v. 10, 1, ἔπλεον ἡμέρας δύο παρὰ Tηv yñv, “they sailed two days along the coast." In 1. 5, 1, we have παρὰ τὸν Τίγρητα ποταμόν, and in iv. 3, 1, παρὰ τὸν Kεvτρíτην πоτаμóv, where no motion is implied, but Xenophon is describing a plain "by the side of the river Tigres," and a plain "by the side of the river Kentrites." The prepositions which he uses in speaking of coming to a river, are έπí more frequently, and sometimes πρóç; { in 1. 2, 5; 4, 1; 4, 11; 5, 4; II. 4, 13; 4, 25; 5, 1; &c.: πpós in 1. 4, 19; but never rapá. παρά. No doubt there are very many passages in which πapá with an accusative case is rightly translated by to in English; but I believe that in such passages the noun will always be found to denote persons, as in 11. 2, 3, iévaι waρà rovę Kúpov píλovs, and in § 8, ἀφικνοῦνται παρὰ ̓Αριαῖον καὶ τὴν ἐκείνου στρατιάν.

The number of marches, therefore, between the Euphrates and the Phasis is reduced to seven; a number which agrees well enough with the distance of seventy miles assigned by Mr. Kinneir. It is true that Xenophon gives fifteen parasangs, or about fifty miles, for the distance accomplished in the first three days; but he has not given the length of the fourth day's march, and, under the sufferings which he describes, it must have been short; nor does he actually give the distance marched in the last three days, although Mr. Kinneir is fair in supposing that Xenophon would have estimated it at five parasangs a day, according to his usual reckoning. But, on the one hand, we have no assurance that the Greeks marched by the shortest route during the first four days; for although they started with many guides (IV. 5, 1) from the villages where they were quartered four days before they reached the Euphrates, we are not told that these guides accompanied them even as far as the Euphrates; and supposing that they guided them to the fordable part of the river, it is not at all likely that they went further with them and again, within the limits to which we are now brought down, I am quite ready to admit, that Xenophon may have over estimated the length of the marches, and measured them rather by time and fatigue than by actual distance.

Mr. Kinneir and Mr. Ainsworth agree in thinking that the Greeks must have crossed the Euphrates near Malasgherd, in longitude between 42 and 43, for the sufficient reason that it is not fordable lower down. (Kinneir, p. 489; Ainsworth, p. 176.) The remark of Xenophon, that "its sources were said to be not

far off," inclines me to believe that they crossed it yet further to the east. It is to be observed, however, that Major Rennell pronounces that the Greeks could not have passed the Morad so much as a degree and a half to the eastward of Khanoos, "because its course is there shut up by chains of mountains," which would not have permitted them to march in a northerly direction. (Illustrations of the Expedition of Cyrus, pp.

214, 215.)

At what point they struck the Phasis; whether in their seven days march along the river they marched up or down the stream; whether they crossed it at the beginning, or at the end, or in the course of the seven days; Xenophon unluckily does not tell us. He observes only that the river was a hundred feet broad. But from this small breadth, and from the fact that they were conducted almost to the banks of the river by their guide, who must have known that they wished to reach the nearest Greek city on the Euxine, that is, Trapezus (Trebizond), it may reasonably be conjectured that they came upon the river in the higher part of its course. Major Rennell supposes, with great probability, that their guide was leading them to a point at or near the site of the modern bridge of Kobankupri, which is on the direct road from the valley of the Morad to Trebizond (Illustrations, p. 225), about half a degree east of Erzeroom. If they reached the river at this part of its course, it is manifest that their march must have been down the stream, and it is likely that they crossed it before they began their march along it. We may conjecture that the name of the river led them to suppose that it was the same as the Phasis of Colchis, and that they followed the course of the stream in the hope that it would lead them towards the Euxine, till, seeing that it continued to flow eastward, they resolved to try a somewhat more direct line.

Xenophon indeed uses an expression in another part of his narrative, which, if it be taken strictly, implies that the army, even after they reached the Euxine, still believed that they had been on the banks of the Colchian Phasis. He tells us, that, when the army was at Cotyora, and ships had been collected to enable them to proceed homeward by sea, some of the other generals suggested to him, that the best plan for them was to sail to the Phasis, and take possession of the country of the

Phasians. This of course must be the Colchian Phasis; and the mention of a son of Eetes as king of the country puts the matter out of all question (v. 6, §§ 36, 37). But in the beginning of the next chapter he goes on to say, that Neon told the soldiers, that Xenophon purposed to deceive them, and lead them back again to the Phasis (διανοεῖται ἄγειν ἐξαπατήσας τοὺς στρατιώτας πάλιν εἰς Φάσιν). The word πάλιν, “ back again,” has no precise meaning, unless they believed that they had been at the Phasis already. This combination is suggested by Rennell (Illustrations, p. 230).

Two days march from the Phasis to a ridge and descent into a plain (Iv. 6, § 5) accords well enough with the face of the country north of the Araxes. But if the Harpasus is the modern Arpa-chai or Arpa-su, as geographers agree on good grounds in believing it to be, there is great difficulty in accounting for the five days march of thirty parasangs through the country of the Taochi, and the seven days march of fifty parasangs (one MS. says forty) through the country of the Chalybes (or Chaldæans, see v. 5, § 17), which the Greeks performed (besides the two days march) between the Phasis and the Harpasus (IV. 7, §§ 1 and 15). Mr. Kinneir has pointed out the improbability of marches of this length, exceeding by one or even two parasangs the average length of their previous marches; especially as the Chalybes, according to Xenophon's express testimony, were the most warlike of all the tribes whom they passed through, and came to close action with them, and harassed them all the way. But even if the numbers of parasangs are overrated, or corrupted by transcribers, there seems some difficulty in accounting for so many days.

Mr. Ainsworth makes the Greeks cross the Araxes below its junction with the Arpa-su, march up into Georgia to the latitude of Tiflis, then suddenly turn about and march back again, and cross the Arpa-su from east to west. This hypothesis is more improbable than any explanation which confines their fourteen days march to the country between the Phasis and the Harpasus. If they had thus grossly missed their way, and been obliged to turn about, and retrace their route, it is likely that Xenophon would have mentioned it: but the circumstance which makes it clear that the Greeks did not cross the Araxes below the junction of the Arpa-su (if these rivers are rightly

identified with the Phasis and the Harpasus) is that the Araxes or Phasis, according to Xenophon, was one hundred feet broad, and the Harpasus four hundred (c. 6, § 4, and c. 7, § 18).

Major Rennell was under the same mistake as Mr. Kinneir and Mr. Ainsworth, that of supposing that the Greeks marched seven days after the guide ran away from them before they reached the Phasis. (Illustrations, p. 238.) This error, and the difficulties of the succeeding part of the narrative, which are greatly magnified by it, induced him to give up all hope of tracing their route between the desertion of the guide and their leaving the Harpasus. He conceives that they lost their way, and wandered up and down, and that no account can be given of them and he writes with this caution at the same time that he furnishes the most valuable geographical data respecting the country within which their wanderings lay. This part of the Illustrations is particularly worthy of the attention of the student.


Rennell, however, has probably fallen into a further mistake in thinking that the Greeks did not cross the Harpasus; for this seems to be his opinion. He supposes that they came to the river between its conflux with the Araxes and the conflux of the river of Kars with the other streams that form it, and then turned back from it towards the west; so that their subsequent marches for four days were still between the Harpasus and the Phasis or Araxes; and he is inclined to identify the city of Gymnias (Iv. 7, 19) with a modern town on the latter river. Xenophon certainly does not say distinctly, that they crossed the Harpasus, but his language implies it. He says, "After this the Greeks arrived at the river Harpasus, which was four hundred feet broad. Thence they marched through the country of the Scythini, &c." (Iv. 7, 18). He does not say that they did not cross it, and the notice of the breadth of the river is not much to the purpose unless they did cross it; and besides, he uses the very same language with respect to rivers which were certainly crossed. (See 1. 4, §§ 9 and 19; and iv. 4, §§ 3 and 7.)

But, if they crossed it, it was probably the branch called the river of Kars which they crossed, not the stream below the junction of this branch with those to the east of it; otherwise, we should have them still persevering in their mistaken easterly course; and they would have had to cross the

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