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treasures of art. "We consider," he says, "the whole collection of these coloured imitations and drawings of ancient paintings to be a great treasure in many respects; their extensive circulation, especially among those admirers of the arts who have not visited Italy themselves, must create a higher notion of the paintings of the ancients than it is possible to derive from engravings. A wrong conception is not found in any one of these paintings: a pure taste and a lovely and naïve gracefulness prevails throughout; they breathe the mild spirit of a better age and a better art."
We greatly regret that the publication of these imitations has been so long delayed by the numerous engagements of the German artist, and by other obstacles. It was not till the year 1839 that the first part of these mural paintings was published, which was soon followed by the second and third parts. But the great undertaking was stopped on account of some misunderstanding between the artist and the publisher, G. Reimer, of Berlin, and it was not till the year 1845 that M. Ternite was able to publish the first part of a new series, and to promise a rapid progress of the work until its completion. Each part consists of one facsimile in colours, and seven lithographic drawings, in which the heads only are given in a finished state, and is sold to subscribers at the moderate price of twenty-three shillings. "A wide circulation," says Goethe2, "of these and similar works is of the highest importance for the good cause, and we might almost say for the true faith, in art and taste." We therefore heartily recommend M. Ternite's mural paintings to all lovers of art; their moderate price facilitates their general circulation, and we rejoice to hear that the undertaking is supported, not only by her Majesty Queen Victoria and her illustrious consort, but by a considerable number of patrons of art in this country.
Before we describe the paintings contained in the first part of the new series, we must remove an error under which we ourselves were labouring at first. We were informed that M. Ternite had made his tracings at Portici in the year 1824, and saw that other similar works had since been published, especially Zahn's Les plus beaux Ornémens et les Tableaux les plus remarquables d'Herculanum et de Pompei, Berlin, 1828, 1829, ten parts, containing one hundred leaves. It would seem, therefore, as if M. Ternite's work has appeared much too late, and were superfluous, since other works give the same representations. This was our opinion, and others may have the same; but a comparison of the works which we have instituted makes us think
differently. M. Zahn's collection contains only few real paintings; his principal object is to give representations of the entire walls, to shew their elegant framings and divisions into compartments, and the embellishments of household articles, such as candelabra; whereas M. Ternite's only object is to give the real paintings, and in this respect his work is obviously far superior to the other. We find that only two of the representations in Zahn's collection are to be found also in Ternite's work, viz. the concert in Zahn, tab. 78, is to be found in Ternite, tab. 8 (of the first part of the earlier series); and the fight of two satyrs with two rams in Zahn, tab. 54, and in Ternite, tab. 8 (of the second part of the earlier series). But what a difference! The eyes of the flute-player in the concert, as represented by Ternite, are projecting; his face is swollen by the exertion of playing the double flute; and he appears angry at the female playing the cithara out of time, which he is beating with his foot: he is dressed in the richly embroidered garment of the thymelici, which is scarcely to be perceived in Zahn's outline. The fight with the rams is only half given by Zahn, the second satyr and ram being omitted: and how faulty is the head of the satyr! In Zahn's representation he is a set old man, and in reality has a human face resembling that of a ram, and saddled with a bony nose. Other suggestive parts of the drawing are entirely neglected in Zahn's representation.
If, therefore, the future parts of the new work of Ternite should contain any more representations already contained in Zahn's collection, it can only be an advantage to the lover of art on account of the superiority, completeness, and excellence of Ternite's drawings; in addition to which the heads in Ternite's outlines are invariably worked out with great finish.
The present first part of the new series contains the following representations:
1. A facsimile in colours, representing a pensive maiden, who, holding a pencil in her hand, is about to write; it is a half-figure, extremely pleasing, and an exquisite decoration for a room.
2. A similar subject, representing two maidens, the one of whom is on the point of writing on a diptychon, but still meditating how or what to write, holding the pencil to her chin; the other is looking over her shoulder. Both are half-figures, and their curly heads are carefully shaded.
3. Three half-figures: a satyr with a patera, and two heads of young girls.
4. A young woman sitting by her couch, and an older woman standing sidewards is speaking to her in an animated manner; she is probably urging the suit of some lover who is not favoured by the young
lady, for she turns away her face with indifference. figures.
They are full
5. A servant in a hurry, bearing on his shoulder a vessel probably containing wine, and being accosted, he turns his head, but without stopping; it is a full figure. Further, a half-figure of a woman with a dish of fruit.
6. Two half-figures: a female servant with a dish of fruit for a Bacchic sacrifice, and a noble maiden with a mournful expression.
7. A half-figure of a maiden who is bending her head, adorned with a wreath of ivy, mournfully and pensively to the ground; she resembles Cassandra, in the group of Apollo and Cassandra.
8. An expressive group of full figures: a young woman offering her breast to her aged father is standing, and he has with difficulty raised himself from his couch-a representation of what is called pietas Romana. The learned commentator, Professor Welcker, calls the figures Pero and Cimon, according to the story in Valerius Maximus (v. 4); according to Hyginus, the mythographer, they would be Xanthippe and Mycon. But it is an interesting fact, that Valerius Maximus states that this subject was frequently painted, and in such a manner that the beholder might fancy he saw in the mute features living and breathing bodies. The present representation is as yet the only one of the kind that has come down to us from antiquity.
C. G. Z.
SELECT LIVES OF PLUTARCH.
Translated by George Long.
1st and 2nd. Knight's Weekly Volume, Nos. XXVII. and LVIII. In these and the forthcoming numbers of the series, Professor Long proposes to give a new translation of such of Plutarch's Biographies as are connected with the civil wars of Rome, beginning with the Gracchi, and ending with the establishment of the empire. No portion of ancient history is more interesting than this, nor more fertile in great and extraordinary characters, which afford materials for some of Plutarch's most attractive Lives. Mr. Long has conferred a real benefit on the English reader by thus putting them together in a connected series, which forms an indispensable supplement to the history of those eventful times. The manner in which the translation is executed demands the highest praise. It is close and accurate at the same time that the English idiom is preserved; and the style will be found much more precise and vigorous than that of the version by the Langhornes. But what give the book its chief value are Mr. Long's notes, which are equally learned and judicious. Not only will
more frequently, from his own conjectures. To the former mode of emendation, when judiciously used, there can of course be no objection; but the latter is treading on dangerous ground, and has been rather too frequently resorted to by Mr. Blaydes. Not that we partake of the mania which has recently possessed some editors, as Klausen, of retaining, and, save the mark, construing too, whatever may be found in MSS., whether it be Greek or not. But, where texts are manifestly corrupt, we should prefer the oldfashioned method of obelizing; the editor at the same time giving the various MS. readings, together with his own conjectures, or those of others, in his notes. The more obvious and certain emendations have, for the most part, been already forestalled by critics whose equals we should now look for in vain, and who have left but a doubtful harvest to be gleaned by their successors. The emendations of a Valckenaer, a Bentley, or a Porson, for the most part strike conviction at once into the mind; but, in cases not so clear, we have observed that scholars generally prefer their own conjectures. Mr. Blaydes's own book might furnish us with examples; as, for instance, at v. 612, where, though he entirely approves of Reiske's conjecture, he does not promote it into the text, as he does his own. Some of Mr. B.'s emendations are too violent and too improbable to deserve a place in the text. For example, the common reading of v. 347 is obviously wrong; yet Mr. B.'s emendation, épéλer' ȧp' ἀνήσειν ἅπαντες τῆς βοῆς, is too slashing to take its place unceremoniously in the text, though we should not have objected to see it in a note. But that at v. 1093 is so improbable, as well as violent, that it is not deserving of even the latter distinction. In the editions the line runs :
ὀρχηστρίδες, τὰ φίλταθ' Αρμοδίου, καλαί. Of which Brunck's explanation is sufficiently probable. Mr. B.'s text, however, runs on conjecture as follows:
ὀρχηστρίδες, τὸ “Φίλταθ' Αρμόδι" ᾄδεται.
"i. e. Harmodii scolium canitur." But surely a moment's reflection would have shewn that such an emendation is contrary to the whole tenour of the passage. The messenger comes to announce to Dicæopolis that dinner is waiting for himδειπνεῖν κατακωλύεις πάλαι (ν. 1088). But the Scolium of Harmodius was an after-dinner song, and Dicaopolis would have had little chance of enjoying all the good things that were awaiting him, had he not been summoned till it was singing. A similar want of attention to the meaning of the context, though unaccompanied with any emendation, is shewn at v. 111; where Mr. Blaydes, in company indeed with Schütz and Elmsley, construes pòc TOUTOví, coram illo, scil. legato; although Dicæopolis has told the ambassador, as plainly as he can speak, to go about his business: ἀλλ ̓ ἄπιθ ̓· ἐγὼ δὲ βασανιῶ τοῦτον μόνος.
Dindorf is completely right in his view of this passage. Nor are we better contented with Mr. B.'s adoption in v. 256, of Elmsley's conjecture, Trovç for TTOV. It appears to us to make nonsense, for we do not see how yaλãç can be construed puellas. Though Bergler and Brunck have not succeeded in restoring the passage to our liking, they had nevertheless a correct view of what the poet meant.
In one or two instances, again, Mr. B. has followed Dindorf's text too implicitly, as at v. 68; though he acknowledges in his note the harshness of the construction παρὰ Καΐστριον πεδίον : which, as he remarks, rather conveys the notion of coasting along, as by a river, than of travelling through a plain. We do not see much force in Dindorf's objection to the plural Tɛdíwv, and should prefer retaining the common reading dia for rapá, though the author possibly wrote πέρα.
We think that Mr. Blaydes has done quite right in not mutilating his text in compliance with a prudish nicety; but whether in his explanations of certain passages he has not occasionally overstepped the necessary bounds (as, for example, at v. 158), is a piece of casuistry which we must leave to be discussed by those engaged in the task of education.
TERNITE'S FAC-SIMILES OF THE PAINTINGS ON THE WALLS OF POMPEII AND HERCULANEUM.
(WANDGEMAELDE AUS POMPEJI UND HERCULANUM. Nach den Zeichnungen und Nachbildungen in Farben von Wilh. Ternite, mit einem erläuternden Text-Deutsch, Französisch, und Englischvon Professor Welcker in Bonn. Heft I. der neuen Folge. Berlin, 1845. Largest folio.)
HERCULANEUM and Pompeii are still inexhaustible mines of ancient art. All that has been disentombed from that memorable soil, and still continues to be disentombed every day, proves this one thing, that in antiquity, the fine arts were interwoven with ordinary life, and the common handicrafts, in a manner which is wholly inconceivable to us. Modern times surpass antiquity in industrial and technical skill, but the art of drawing, and the plastic arts in antiquity, were freer, greater, and far more extensively spread; they formed an integral part of the life of the ancients, whose whole existence was based upon them, and their religion and customs were inseparably connected with them. Pompeii was only a country town of middle Italy, but it does not contain a single house that does not afford evidence of this singular con