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For the immediate occasion and date of the oration see Introduction 88 10 and 14.

1 Isocrates (vi. 2) has a similar προοίμιον. Cf. the parody of this locus communis in Ar. Eccl. 151.

εβουλόμην μέν έτερον αν των ηθάδων
λέγειν τα βέλτισθ', ίν' έκαθήμην ήσυχος:

νύν δ' ουκ εάσω κ.τ.λ. ει μεν-προυτίθετο λέγειν. “if the subject proposed for debate were-. See Appendix. The imperfect tense, not the aorist προύτέθη, because the action of the president (επιστάτης of the φυλή πρυτανεύουσα) is supposed to continue during the debate. Cf. the present in Isocr. viii. 15 παρελήλυθα αποφανούμενος α τυγχάνω γιγνώσκων περί ων οι πρυτάνεις προτιθέασιν. To this principal condition the special hypotheses εί μεν ήρεσκε and ει δε μή are subordinate; while άν comes early in the apodosis (επισχών άν), to emphasize the hypothetical character of the sentence, and is repeated with ñyou and επειρώμην. Μ. Τ. 62. 3.

των ειωθότων. Sc. γνώμην αποφαίνεσθαι. Appendix.

απεφήναντο. Αor. indic. after έως, until, referring to a result not attained in past time in consequence of the nonfulfilment of a condition. M. T. 142, 144 top. The first period, εί μεν-λέγειν, contains an assumed, non-real, condition ; the next, επειδή δε-τυγχάνειν, the real state of the case. The main point of the whole is ηγούμαι-εικότως αν συγγνώμης τυγχάνειν.

εκ του παρεληλ. χρ. “ in past time.” Lit. from past time till now, the past being considered as still influencing the present. The local use of εκ is similar: εκ δεξίας, το εκ του io Quoù teixos. For the Greek preference of the terminus ex quo to the terminus in quo, cf. the ending θεν in παρά τοις έξωθεν ανθρώπους, εν τοις άνωθεν χρόνοις.

συνεβούλευσαν-βουλεύεσθαι. Intentional word play. Cf. de Cor. 239, évedé xero—dé xeobal. For the form of conditional sentence see M, T. 94, 95.

2-12 First, Preparatory part of the Speech.

2 ο γάρ έστι χείριστον κ.τ.λ., « that which is the worst possible." A paradox to encourage the audience. It recurs in Phil. iii. 5. Note the chiasmus in this sentence; Úndpxel (in contrast to the weaker ¿oti) in the emphatic position at the end, " is the best possible foundation for.” aŭtwv, take with 8. G. § 168.

τί ούν εστι τούτο; Demosthenes often uses the rhetorical question, which expects no answer and is often answered by the speaker himself. Its object is to awaken the attention of the hearer, inf. 20, 25. The other orators seldom use it, except Isaeus, whose pupil Demosthenes had been.

ποιούντων-πραττόντων. Change of verb simply for the sake of variety. So often with prepositions, see infr. 43.

étrel Tolexe. “For if you were doing all you should, and yet it were so.

ά, sc. πράττειν.

Trpooņke. Impf. ind. by assimilation. M. T. 136. 2. Cf. Dem. de Chers., 81, έδει ο βέλτιστον έκαστος ηγείτο τούτ' αποφαίνεσθαι.

yevéolar. Aor, inf. after & Atis nv. M. T.33 and 14 note 2.

3 Demosthenes now gives a historical illustration (Trapádecyua), an example to be followed under present circumstances. What has happened once may happen again.

έπειτα after πρώτον μεν, as usually, without δε.

ενθυμητέον, echoing the preceding αθυμητέον, possibly also a memoria technica.

τοίς ειδόσιν αυτοίς : opp. to ακούουσι, « those who witnessed it themselves.” Cf. c. Lept. 55, where olda has this force. So often in Isaeus.

ηλίκην ποτ’ –Λακεδαιμ. Relative with participle subordinate to indirect question. Cf. de F. L. 61, iv' eldnte Olwr υπαρχόντων αυτοίς παρ' υμών οίων έτυχον. Trans. “in spite of the great power which the L. once possessed.” The allusion is to the year 378, when Athens in alliance with Thebes opposed the power of Lacedaemon, then at its height. See Grote, ch. lxxvii.

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εξ ού χρόνος ου πολύς, sc. έστι. Soph. Αj. 600. øjeîs étrpáßate, cf. “we conquered at Waterloo."

των δικαίων, “your rights.” τ. Ελληνικ. δ. would mean the general rights of Hellas as established in treaties, for instance, that of Antalcidas.

eiðîte kal Dedonode. Amplificatio. The expression of an idea by two synonyms is so frequent in Demosthenes, that ancient critics censured it as a fault. But there is always some difference of meaning. eidnte, by reflection; beáo no de, by actual observation (corresponding to mapadelyuao u xpuuevo), and therefore more distinctly. Beáo ao bar implies, as in Homer, a wondering gaze at something worthy of attention.

οίον αν βούλoισθε. βούλoισθε is Dobree’s conjectural emendation for Boólno de which Prof. Goodwin seems to prefer. M. T. SS 62, 63. 2. τη τότε ρώμη-τον νούν,

Note the minutely antithetical τη νύν ύβρει- έχρήν. structure of the two clauses, word nearly corresponding to word. Cf. infr. 43 tnv Mèv-tv dè— The first clause leads up to and prepares the hearer for the several contrasts in the next.

εκ του προσέχειν- φροντίζειν. α. 237. 3. ο.

Tohtov. Philip. oŮtos (often with bitterness or contempt) of a person not named but present in the speaker's mind. Oi. iii. 24. Hom. Il. ix. 118.

ών. Sc. φροντίζειν.

4 λογισάσθω opposed to oίεται by μέντοι (stronger than dė): serious calculation in contrast to mere opinion.

queis, we, emphatic. In 364 Timotheus made himself master of Potidaea, Pydna and Methone. Athenian kinpoûxou were sent to Potidaea. See Introd. 4–8, Grote ch. lxxix. Cf. Olynth. ch. iii. 16. i. 9, 12.

TOÛTov, “yonder.”

olkelov. Emphatic "as our own” with eixouer. oik. would have been placed last in the clause, but for the hiatus kúkly olkelov. Isocrates uses the same expression speaking of the same places (XV. 107).

tov@v. The Paeonians and Illyrians, 01. i. 23. Grote ch. Ixxxvi. p. 18. Take κύκλω with πάντα. αυτονομ. και ελεύθ. This combination expresses complete indepeno ce, internal and external.

5 ει- έσχε-έπραξεν– έκτήσατο. See M.T. 95. 96 Remark (b).

επιτειχίσματα της αυτ. χ. 'Strong places to attack his country from.” επί-of hostile movement. χώρας, G. 219. 3.

έρημον όντα σ. “without allies as he is:” the predicative participle naturally in the accusative although χαλεπόν έστι is followed by no case.

ουδέν αν έπραξεν-ουδέ έκτήσατο. G. 256. 4.

εκείνος. Ιn emphatic position, as ημείς, 8 4. He the barbarian saw what the Athenians had to be taught.

καλώς, “very well.” Cf. pulchre in Plautus, e.g. Mil. . 404.

αθλα. Μetaphor from the Palaestra which occupied so prominent a place in Greek life. Cf. Sallust Cat. 20, fortuna omnia ea victoribus praemia posuit. Demosthenes takes many metaphors from this source. Cf. infr. 40, Olynth. iii. 27, 28, ii. 21, de Cor. 7, 138.

εν μέσω. Between Philip and the Athenians, of whom the one is always on the spot (Trapollol), the others always idling far away (απόντων, cf. 9 12 απηρτημένοι).

6 και γάρ τοι. “And so, assuredly, because he held this opinion”- (φύσει υπάρχει κ.τ.λ.). γνώμη = sometimes “ view,” sometimes « feeling," sometimes both, i.e. "spirit.”

Before και γάρ τοι (etenim profecto) some sentence may be understood, such as “And this we may see in the case of Philip.” Schneider, Isocr. vii. 30.

ως άν- έχοι. Here the optative is expressed which often has to be supplied in similar phrases. Cf. Ol. i. 21, oỞTE ευτρεπώς ουδ' ώς αν κάλλιστ' αυτώ τα παρόντέχει.

πολέμω. Aeschin. de F. L. 33 κατά πόλεμον λαβών-τω του πολέμου νόμω κτησάμενος. Thuc. iii. 52.

συμμαχείν και προσ. τ. ν. « to join, heart and hand, with." και προσέχειν-άπαντες, an unintentional hexameter. ούς αν ορωσι. Μ. Τ. 10, 130.

πράττειν εθέλοντας ά χρή (sc. πράττειν), “willing to do their duty.

7 αν εθελήσητε κ.τ.λ. “If then you also make up your minds to adopt such a view now” (γενέσθαι επί τ. τ. γνώμης). Cf. Dem. Mid. 213 τηρήσατε την γνώμην ταύτην εφ' ης νύν έστε (which you now hold). νύν, cf. ήδη, 8 8.

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εθελήσητε repeating εθέλουσιν and εθέλοντας in 8 6, and with reference to toîs ¿Oélovor in g 5. The Athenians were wanting in determination.

ČTTELSÝTEP où apótepov. Implying “as you ought to have done.” By expressions of this kind Demosthenes is enabled to introduce many side thrusts. Cf. inf. 44, 01. iii. 3, de Cor. 191.

oỉ Seî kal Súvair' ár. The former verb in the indicative, duty being independent of circumstances, while possibility is not.

πασαν α. τ. ει. With αφίημι the article is more usually omitted after tậs. Cf. Soph. Phil. 120 tão av aloxívny dpels. thy here may be equivalent to


native Athenian." ειρωνεία, “ false modesty,” προσποίησις επί το έλαττον (Arist. Eth. Nic. 2. 7. 12) the opposite of álagovela, a pootrolnous éti ueišov. Dem. de Pace 11. The eipwv (self-depreciator) sokei αρνείσθαι τα υπάρχοντα ή ελάττω ποιείν. Eth. 4. 7. 3.

PÁTTELY, “ to act.”

ouvelóvtl. Ellipse of inf. eltelv. For the dative see G. 232. 5.

υμών αυτ. γενέσθαι. “ Become your own masters," i.e. each'act for himself, in a manly way: as the next clause kai παύσησθε κ.τ.λ. explains. Cf. Olynth. ii. 30 and infr. 19 (Tậs Trólews) and 27. Possessive genitive with elval or reveo dai. G. 221. § 169. 1.

Taúonobe—KAOTOS. Partitive apposition, infr. 48. G. 196, n. 2.

ουδέν ποιήσειν ελπίζων. ουδέν not μηδέν with inf. after ελπίζων, the sense being νομίζων ότι αυτός ουδέν ποιήσει. See Paley's Greek Particles under ov.

Tòv manolov, “another.” Cf. Thuc. i. 32. Tm Too Aas groun, aliorum arbitratu.

The protasis αν τοίνυν-πράξειν sets forth the conditions, the triple apodosis και– τιμωρήσεσθε promises ample results. και-και-και, polysyndeton.

Tủ tu. Tôv. Possessions in Lemnos, Potidaea, etc., of which Philip had dispossessed the Athenians.

äv Deos Ofy. In this singular Frohberger (Lys. xiii. 1) finds a trace of monotheism. Rehdantz would rather refer it to some local deities which had become almost nomina propria like “Father” in a family, or Baoileús among the Persians. So Classen, Thuc. Einleitung lviii.

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