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FOR the immediate occasion and date of the oration see Introduction §§ 10 and 14,

1 Isocrates (vi. 2) has a similar προοίμιον. Cf. the parody of this locus communis in Ar. Eccl. 151.

ἐβουλόμην μὲν ἕτερον ἂν τῶν ἠθάδων

λέγειν τὰ βέλτισθ', ἵν ̓ ἐκαθήμην ἥσυχος
νῦν δ ̓ οὐκ ἐάσω κ.τ.λ.

εἰ μὲν—προυτίθετο λέγειν. “ if the subject proposed for debate were-." See Appendix. The imperfect tense, not the aorist προἐτέθη, because the action of the president (ἐπιστάτης of the φυλὴ πρυτανεύουσα) is supposed to continue during the debate. Cf. the present in Isocr. viii. 15 παρελήλυθα ἀποφανούμενος ἃ τυγχάνω γιγνώσκων περὶ ὧν οἱ πρυτάνεις προτιθέασιν. Τo this principal condition the special hypotheses el μὲν ἤρεσκε and εἰ δὲ μή are subordinate; while är comes early in the apodosis (ἐπισχὼν ἄν), to emphasize the hypothetical character of the sentence, and is repeated with you and ἐπειρώμην. Μ. Τ. 62. 3.

τῶν εἰωθότων. Sc. γνώμην ἀποφαίνεσθαι. Appendix.

ἀπεφήναντο. Αor. indic. after ἕως, until, referring to a result not attained in past time in consequence of the nonfulfilment of a condition. M. T. 142, 144 top. The first period, εἰ μὲν—-λέγειν, contains an assumed, non-real, condition; the next, ἐπειδὴ δὲ—τυγχάνειν, the real state of the case. The main point of the whole is ἡγοῦμαι—εἰκότως ἂν συγγνώμης τυγχάνειν.

ἐκ τοῦ παρεληλ. χρ. "in past time." Lit. from past time till now, the past being considered as still influencing the present. The local use of ἐκ is similar: ἐκ δεξίας, τὸ ἐκ τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ τεῖχος. For the Greek preference of the terminus ex quo to the terminus in quo, cf. the ending θεν in παρὰ τοῖς ἔξωθεν ἀνθρώποις, ἐν τοῖς ἄνωθεν χρόνοις.

συνεβούλευσαν βουλεύεσθαι. Intentional word play. Cf. de Cor. 239, évedéxeтo—déxeσ0α. For the form of conditional sentence see M. T. 94, 95.

2-12 First, Preparatory part of the Speech.

2 ὃ γάρ ἐστι χείριστον κ.τ.λ., “ that which is the worst possible." A paradox to encourage the audience. It recurs in Phil. iii. 5. Note the chiasmus in this sentence; vráрxel (in contrast to the weaker éσT) in the emphatic position at the end, "is the best possible foundation for." aurŵv, take with ő. G. § 168.

τί οὖν ἐστι τοῦτο; Demosthenes often uses the rhetorical question, which expects no answer and is often answered by the speaker himself. Its object is to awaken the attention of the hearer, inf. 20, 25. The other orators seldom use it, except Isaeus, whose pupil Demosthenes had been.

ποιούντων πραττόντων. Change of verb simply for the sake of variety. So often with prepositions, see infr. 43.

ἐπεί τοι εἶχε.

yet it were so."

ἅ, sc. πράττειν.

"For if you were doing all you should, and

Tроσnкε. Impf. ind. by assimilation. M. T. 136. 2. Cf. Dem. de Chers., § 1, ἔδει ὃ βέλτιστον ἕκαστος ἡγεῖτο τοῦτ ̓ ἀποφαίνεσθαι.

yevéolai. Aor. inf. after ¿πis v. M. T. 33 and 14 note 2.

3 Demosthenes now gives a historical illustration (πapádetyμa), an example to be followed under present circumstances. What has happened once may happen again.

ἔπειτα after πρῶτον μὲν, as usually, without δὲ.

ἐνθυμητέον, echoing the preceding ἀθυμητέον, possibly also a memoria technica.

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τοῖς εἰδόσιν αὐτοῖς : opp. to ἀκούουσι, “ those who witnessed it themselves. Cf. c. Lept. 55, where oîda has this force. So often in Isaeus.

ἡλίκην ποτ'Λακεδαιμ. Relative with participle subordinate to indirect question. Cf. de F. L. 61, iv' eldnte olwy ὑπαρχόντων αὐτοῖς παρ' ὑμῶν οἵων ἔτυχον. Trans. “in spite of the great power which the L. once possessed." The allusion is to the year 378, when Athens in alliance with Thebes opposed the power of Lacedaemon, then at its height. See Grote, ch. lxxvii.

ἐξ οὗ χρόνος οὐ πολύς, sc. ἐστι. Soph. Αj. 600.

úμeîs éπpážate, cf. "we conquered at Waterloo."


τῶν δικαίων, 'your rights." τ. ̔Ελληνικ. δ. would mean the general rights of Hellas as established in treaties, for instance, that of Antalcidas.

eidĥte kal deάonode. Amplificatio. The expression of an idea by two synonyms is so frequent in Demosthenes, that ancient critics censured it as a fault. But there is always some difference of meaning. eldĥтe, by reflection; Ocáo no0e, by actual observation (corresponding to παραδείγμασι χρώμενοι), and therefore more distinctly. Oeάoao@aι implies, as in Homer, a wondering gaze at something worthy of attention.

οἷον ἂν βούλοισθε. βούλοισθε is Dobree's conjectural emendation for Bouλnote which Prof. Goodwin seems to prefer. M. T. §§ 62, 63. 2.

τῇ τότε ῥώμῃ τὸν νοῦν, τῇ νῦν ὕβρει—ἐχρῆν.


Note the minutely antithetical

structure of the two clauses, word nearly corresponding to word. Cf. infr. 43 Tǹv μèv—

de-. The first clause leads up to and prepares the hearer for the several contrasts in the next.

ἐκ τοῦ προσέχειν-φροντίζειν. G. 237. 3. c.

TOÚTOV. Philip. ouros (often with bitterness or contempt) of a person not named but present in the speaker's mind. 24. Hom. Il. ix. 118.

ὧν. Sc. φροντίζειν.

Ol. iii.

4 λογισάσθω opposed to οἴεται by μέντοι (stronger than de): serious calculation in contrast to mere opinion.

pets, we, emphatic. In 364 Timotheus made himself master of Potidaea, Pydna and Methone. Athenian Kλnpouxo were sent to Potidaea. See Introd. 4-8, Grote ch. lxxix. Cf. Olynth. ch. iii. 16. i, 9, 12.

TOûTOV, "yonder."

olketov. Emphatic "as our own" with exoμev. oik. would have been placed last in the clause, but for the hiatus kúkλ oikeîov. Isocrates uses the same expression speaking of the same places (xv. 107).

Ovov. The Paeonians and Illyrians, Ol. i. 23. Grote ch. lxxxvi. p. 18. Take κύκλῳ with πάντα. αὐτονομ. καὶ ἐλεύθ. This combination expresses complete independence, internal and external.

5 εἰἔσχε ἔπραξεν—ἐκτήσατο. See M.T. 95. 96 Remark (b). ἐπιτειχίσματα τῆς αὑτ. χ. "Strong places to attack his country from." éri-of hostile movement. Xápas, G. 219. 3.

pnμov ovтa σ. "without allies as he is:" the predicative participle naturally in the accusative although xaλeñóv éσTI is followed by no case.

οὐδὲν ἂν ἔπραξεν—οὐδὲ ἐκτήσατο. G. 256. 4.

ékeîvos. In emphatic position, as nueîs, § 4. He the barbarian saw what the Athenians had to be taught.

Kaλ@s, "very well." Cf. pulchre in Plautus, e.g. Mil. Gl. 404.

20λa. Metaphor from the Palaestra which occupied so prominent a place in Greek life. Cf. Sallust Cat. 20, fortuna omnia ea victoribus praemia posuit. Demosthenes takes many metaphors from this source. Cf. infr. 40, Olynth. iii. 27, 28, ii. 21, de Cor. 7, 138.

èv péow. Between Philip and the Athenians, of whom the one is always on the spot (Tapoûσi), the others always idling far away (ἀπόντων, cf. § 12 ἀπηρτημένοι).

6 καὶ γάρ τοι. "And so, assuredly, because he held this opinion” (φύσει ὑπάρχει κ.τ.λ.). γνώμη = sometimes “ view,” sometimes" feeling," sometimes both, i.e. "spirit."

Before Kal yap To (etenim profecto) some sentence may be understood, such as "And this we may see in the case of Philip." Schneider, Isocr. vii. 30.

ὡς ἂν ἔχοι Here the optative is expressed which often has to be supplied in similar phrases. Cf. Ol. i. 21, oŬTE εὐτρεπῶς οὐδ ̓ ὡς ἂν κάλλιστ ̓ αὐτῷ τὰ παρόντ ̓ ἔχει.

πολέμῳ. Aeschin. de F. L. 33 κατὰ πόλεμον λαβὼν—τῷ τοῦ πολέμου νόμῳ κτησάμενος. Thuc. iii. 52.

συμμαχεῖν καὶ προσ. τ. ν. "to join, heart and hand, with.” καὶ προσέχειν—ἅπαντες, an unintentional hexameter. οὓς ἂν ὁρῶσι. Μ. Τ. 10, 130.

πράττειν ἐθέλοντας ἃ χρή (sc. πράττειν), “ willing to do their duty."

η ἂν ἐθελήσητε κ.τ.λ. “If then you also make up your minds to adopt such a view now” (γενέσθαι ἐπὶ τ. τ. γνώμης). Cf. Dem. in Mid. 213 τηρήσατε τὴν γνώμην ταύτην ἐφ ̓ ἧς νῦν ἐστέ (which you now hold). vûv, cf. dn, § 8.

ἐθελήσητε repeating ἐθέλουσιν and ἐθέλοντας in § 6, and with reference to Toîs éléλovσ in § 5. The Athenians were wanting in determination.

ἐπειδήπερ οὐ πρότερον. Implying “as you ought to have done." By expressions of this kind Demosthenes is enabled to introduce many side thrusts. Cf. inf. 44, Ol. iii. 3, de Cor. 191.

οὗ δεῖ καὶ δύναιτ' ἄν. The former verb in the indicative, duty being independent of circumstances, while possibility is not.

πᾶσαν ἀ. τ. εἰ. With ἀφίημι the article is more usually omitted after was. Cf. Soph. Phil. 120 mâoav aloxúvŋv åpeís. Tu here may be equivalent to "your native Athenian."

εἰρωνεία, “ false modesty,” προσποίησις ἐπὶ τὸ ἔλαττον (Arist. Eth. Nic. 2. 7. 12) the opposite of aλajovela, πpooπolnois èπì Tò μeîjov. Dem. de Pace 11. The etpwv (self-depreciator) dokεî ἀρνεῖσθαι τὰ ὑπάρχοντα ἢ ἐλάττω ποιεῖν. Εth. 4. 7. 3.

πράττειν, "to act."

ovveλóvτi. Ellipse of inf. elrev. For the dative see G.


ὑμῶν αὐτ. γενέσθαι. "Become your own masters," i.e. each act for himself, in a manly way: as the next clause κal Tavoŋole K.T.λ. explains. Cf. Olynth. ii. 30 and infr. 19 (TÔS πόλεως) and 27. Possessive genitive with είναι οι γενέσθαι. G. 221. § 169. 1.

Tavoŋode-ÉKAσTOS. Partitive apposition, infr. 48. G. 196, n. 2.

οὐδὲν ποιήσειν ἐλπίζων. οὐδέν not μηδέν with inf. after ἐλπίζων, the sense being νομίζων ὅτι αὐτὸς οὐδὲν ποιήσει. See Paley's Greek Particles under où.

τὸν πλησίον, " another.” yun, aliorum arbitratu.

Cf. Thuc. i. 32. Tŷ TOû Téλas

The protasis ἂν τοίνυν—πράξειν sets forth the conditions, the triple apodosis καὶ—τιμωρήσεσθε promises ample results. καὶκαὶ—καί, polysyndeton.

Tá úμ. auтŵv. Possessions in Lemnos, Potidaea, etc., of which Philip had dispossessed the Athenians.

äv Beds 0éλŋ. In this singular Frohberger (Lys. xiii. 1) finds a trace of monotheism. Rehdantz would rather refer it to some local deities which had become almost nomina propria like "Father" in a family, or Basileus among the Persians. So Classen, Thuc. Einleitung lviii.

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