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kateppq@upnuéva, "what you have forfeited by your love of ease,” i.e. political standing in relation to Philip and the Greeks, oqovula indolence and indifference. κατα– down, from top to bottom, so=completely.

πάλιν αναλήψ. A common pleonasm.

κακείνον τιμωρήσεσθε. Last but not least. The Greeks regarded revenge simply as a pleasure. See Agesilaus in Xen. Hell. IV. 1. 10, υπερχαίρω όταν εχθρών τιμωρώμαι, and other passages quoted by Frohberger Lys, xiii. 4. Observe the slow spondaic rhythm.

8 Philip is human after all and therefore liable to the vicissitudes of human fortune.

τα παρόντα πεπηγ. πράγματ' αθάνατα. In solemn and emphatic passages the broad a recurs frequently. Cf. inf. 36. Tr. “ the present state of things is fixed for ever.” åtávara proleptic = ώστε αθάνατα είναι.

alla kal uloci tis, “no, there's many a man who hates”

και άπανθ' όσαπερ κ.τ.λ., “ and all the passions, without exception (-1ep) which exist in other men

KATéTTNXE, "crouch in submission.”

tauta, “ these peoples.” The neuter is used where a num. ber of persons are spoken of with reference to their sum total not to the individuals. Cf. de Cor. 318 talla távta, TOÙS Tointás, τους χώρους κ.τ.λ.

αποστροφή, resource.” Place to turn to from danger= kataguyń but with opposite terminus.

øqovulav. See & 7 n.

ην αποθέσθαι φημι δείν ήδη, “which I tell you you must throw off-now." The last word uttered with special energy. Cf. vûv 7. non, de Cor. 10.

9 The preceding section is intended to encourage the Athenians; what follows is to make them angry with Philip and ashamed of themselves.

το πράγμα, “ the matter of fact,” (in opposition to the orator's description in words) explained in the relative clause οι-άνθρωπος.

of doel yelas. Partitive genitive. G. 220.

οι προελήλυθ' ασελγείας δς--a loose construction in which a personal relative refers to a noun expressing a quality or to a predicative genitive, and so is synonymous with el tis. Cf. c. Onetor. 11. 6, σκέψασθε την αναίδειαν δς εν υμίν ετόλμησεν ειπείν. Τhuc. iv. 18, Σωφρόνων ανδρών οίτινες, κ.τ.λ.

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av&pwtros. This appellation implies bitterness and indignation. Cf. Phil. iii. 27, ούθ' η Ελλάς ούθ' η βάρβαρος την πλεονεξίαν χωρεί τανθρώπου.

ώς φασι, 88 ήκουόν τινων, ol. i. 22, Tivos, ii. 17. The orator had to be very careful how he risked his reputation for credibility, especially in the exkinola.

oủx olós éotiv, “is not the sort of man to”. olos differing little from oiós te infr. 37. See G. 210 top.

jévelv érl toutwv, " to stay there,” go no further. Cf. de Cor. 307.

kaðnuévous, “as we sit idle.” Cf. infr. 44, de fals. leg. 171 (155) Shilleto n.

περιστοιχίζεται, « is fixing his nets around us.” έκ μεταφοράς των κυνηγετών: ματά γάρ τας εκδρομές των θηρίων ορθά ξύλα ιστασιν ά, καλούσι στοίχους και στόχους καταπετάννυντες αυτών diktva. Harpocration. Circumretire, Cicero.

10 πότε-πότε. Epanadiplosis, the second πότε with somewhat stronger accent than the first. This figure is used to express the earnest conviction in the orator's mind, which is not content with a single utterance, but finds a vent in repetition. Cf. Cic. pro Mil. tuas tuas inquam, de Cor. 24, 208. The question here is of an essentially different nature to the Rhetorical in § 2. This is asked with a burst of indignation and astonishment, its aim being to cause conviction (Meyxos, TEūOLS ÉREYKTIK) and shame, and so lead to decisive action : something like a command, yet fully recognizing the hearer's right of independent judgment. The sudden outbreak, the rapid accumulation of questions in short sharp sentences reflect the vehemence of the orator.

επειδαν τι γένηται (α χρή πράξετε); «what is to happen first?” Lit. “when what shall happen? In Greek not only independent sentences, but also dependent clauses (final, temporal, conditional, relative) may be expressed interrogatively. Cf. Plat. Alcib. 1. 8, p. 207, orav oŮv nepi rivos Bouleuwvtal (åraotńo el autols ovußovletowr); Gorg. 448 c. Soph. Aj. 107. This idiom is not Latin, nor English, except perhaps when a word has been imperfectly heard.

ÉTTELSàv va Alåv. t. 8: . “When-you are obliged, I dare say." Demosthenes uses this popular form of asseveration far more frequently than the other orators, sometimes in earnest, e.g. Phil. ii. 23; often in anticipating a possible objection in the very words of the supposed objector, allà vn Ala—“but surely-—"; often ironically, as here, answering a question he

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has himself asked and repeating the emphatic word of the question. Cf. c. Aristocr. 124, Tótepov in plovueda ñ oở; ψηφιούμεθα νή Δία.

vûv opposed to é melddv, and so at the beginning of the sentence, but to be taken with yeyvbueva, "what is one to think of what is going on now? I think that for free men, etc.” Ti singular, non quaerit quaenam eae res sint quae fiant (tiva xpr giyv. vr.) sed quaenam earum rerum quae fiunt vis atque natura sit. Franke.

ływ uév, "I for one,” modestly, without following 8ć. Often with εγώ before οίδα, ορώ, ηγούμαι, κ.τ.λ.

yáp often points to a thought in the orator's mind, which in his energetic haste he suppresses, but which may be easily supplied from the context. So here this suppressed thought is an answer to the preceding question tl xpK.r.l. ; "Why that present events (và yeyv.) are compulsion enough. For I think, etc."

The rhythm μεγίστην ανάγκης--αισχύνην είναι is slow and grave as befits the dignity of the thought. Cf. de Chers. 51, a passage very similar to this g: where however the pertness of the question and answer επειδαν τί-ανάγκη τις .ή is much modited, and the orator speaks more sadly and earnestly.

elté pou like pépe one of the many artifices by which the Greek orator made an impression on his hearers, each of whom would think himself spoken to. It became a formula, and so often occurs among plurals, as here.

aŭrw=ållawr. Cf. de Cor. 19 et al.

περιιόντες πυνθαίνεσθαι· λέγ. τι κ. ; Acc. to Ar. Rhet. iii. 7, a part of propriety of style (TD TPétrov) is characteristic expression (ń nocah Mežcs) i.e. the proper expression to describe a class of human beings (e.g. old men, women, Spartans, etc.) or a particular frame of mind (ēžLs). So Olynth. iii. 22, the stereotyped phrases of the demagogues, here those of the political noveltymonger, as in busy idleness he goes about (repiléval) asking for information (Truvőáveo dai), and telling wonderful tales (LoyoTT OLEîv). Theophrastus describes this character, c. 8 tepi Loyoποιίας. See also the beginning of Plato's Euthyphro and Acts of the Apostles xvii. 21, λέγειν τι και ακούειν καινότερον.

TEPLléval. Cf. inf. 48, de Cor. 158.

πυνθάνεσθαι. οι. ii. 23. The counterpart of λογοποιείν, inventions, stories without foundation, oúvoeous Yevdw Nóyw kalapačewv, Theophrast. cf. inf. 49; Thuc. vi. 38. 1; Plaut. Trin. 222.

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λέγεται, at the beginning of the sentence, in sharp con. trast to yÉVOLTO, talked of? Why could anything be-really occur ?"

γένοιτο γαρ άν τι, the question is shaped in the same form as the expected answer in which the negative oùdéy would appear. Cf. τί αν ειπείν τις έχοι και οι. iii, 29.

γάρ, see note on εγω μεν γαρ οίμαι, supr. καταπολεμών. dehellare superbos, Verg.

διοικών, “ playing the master of the house.” Isocrates (Paneg. 120) uses this expression of the king of Persia. See also digkeito Dem. f.l. 172 (156), Shilleto n. and inf. 12.

11 τέθνηκε Φίλιππος; see Introduction 10. A dialogue of three. Αthenian A. τέθν. Φιλ.; Athenian B. ου μά Δι’ -Demosthenes, reproaching them both, τι δ' υμίν διαφέρει και

The author of the treatise περί ύψους attributed to Longinus says (c. 18) with reference to this passage ήν δε απλώς ρηθέν το πράγμα το παντί καταδεέστερον νυνί δε το ένθουν και οξύρροπον της πεύσεως και αποκρίσεως, και το προς εαυτόν ως προς έτερον ανθυπαντών, ου μόνον υψηλότερον εποίησε το σχηματισμώ το ρηθέν αλλά και πιστότερον άγει γάρ τα παθητικά τότε μάλλον όταν αυτά φαίνηται μη επιτηδεύειν αυτός ο λέγων αλλά γεννάν ο καιρός. This dramatic liveliness of question and answer, seems to the modern reader strange, and perhaps scarcely dignified. Cf. inf. 44.

kal váp—"For, if anything should happen to this one, you would soon provide yourselves with another Philip, if you go on paying (as little) attention to the course of events as you do now (ούτω).” Cf. Χen. Hell. vii. 1. 24, τάχα τούτους άλλους Λακεδαιμονίους εύρήσετε. inf. 15 ούτω μεγάλη.

αν ούτος- άνπερ ούτω-Μ. Τ. 119. 1.

παρά την αυ. ρ., because of, in consequence of.. The transition from the ordinary sense of napà seems to be in this way, near—at the same time as–because of. So here, “while, and so because, he was powerful, we were negligent." Cf. de Cor. 239, είπερ ενεδέχετο παρά τους παρόντας χρόνους. Lat. propter. Eng. provincialism, " along of.”

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12 καίτοι και τούτο. Ellipse of predicate. «And more.”

εί τι πάθοι = if he should die.” Greek euphemism in speaking of events depending on superhuman power. Cf. filiam neptemque si quid his accidisset. Suet. August. 101.

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τα της τύχης, « the dispensations of fortune.” τύχη is the general expression for the power which controls all events in human life which are beyond the calculation and influence of men, Classen, Thuc. Einleit. lis. The Neuter of the article (tậs 7.) before a substantive in the genitive expresses ideas for which we use separate substantives. toll Tolémov, “the conduct of the war,” tñs mólews, “the affairs, circumstances, etc. of the state.”

ήπερ βέλτιον- επιμελούμεθα for επιμελείται. Attraction of the predicate to the nearer subject, cf. Thuc. i. 82. For the thought cf. Eupolis fr. ώ πόλις πόλις, ως ευτυχής ει μάλλον ή kalws opoveis. Ar. Nub. 587, Aeschin. c. Ctes. 57, Dem. F. L. 256.

l'o Q' ŐT.—“ certainly (adverbial, like onov ötl, "evidently.") if you were in the neighbourhood, you could step in amidst the general confusion and order matters as you pleased.” Isocr. viii. 41, εξαίφνης επιστάς τους γιγνομένοις. Supr. 10 διοικών.

S18ÓVtWv, “wished to give, offered you,” Thuc. i. 85. 140.

απηρτημένοι. κεχωρισμένοι Schol., “ far from it, as you are with your preparations and even your thoughts.” Cf. the opposite, è imprñueda Twv edildwv, Isocr. viii. 7.

13–30 Second Part of the Speech, containing the special proposals of Demosthenes. To this $8 13–15 serve as Transi. tion, a poolpcov (exordium), and apóleois (propositio).

13 ως μέν ούν-ως έγνωκότων- παύομαι λέγων. Here Demosthenes sums up what he has said in an artistic period, in the form, a, a, A, which is impracticable in English. To keep deĉ in its emphatic position (which it would lose by the form, possible in English a, a, A) we must make ws deî, which depends in the first instance on ως έγνωκότων, dependent on λέγων only, and so give the sentence the form a, b, A: “Now of the necessity for a firm determination on the part of all of you to do your duty readily, as you realise it, and are convinced of it, I will say no more.

εθέλοντας υπάρχειν, instead of εθέλειν (supr. 2 υπάρχειν το be there as a foundation, to begin with), to repeat more strongly the idea emphasized at the beginning of § 7. So additional force is given to tolely by the position of eroluws at the end of the clause.

TOV Sè rpórov, cf. Ol. iii. 10. With the statement (at póbeous) of the main point (tpótos tñs napao reúns) is combined a kind of dispositio, specific arrangement, something more than the tážcs of Ar. Rhet. iii. 13. Quintilian, iii. 9. 3, gives it the name partitio and defines it, ut orator promittat quid primo quid secundo quid tertio sit loco dicturus.

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