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πραγμάτων, "trouble," inf. 20, Ol. i. 8.


ὅσον—οὕστινας,-understand some such words as ἂν μοι... δοκεῖ παρασκευασθῆναι: “ and what number of troops and what pecuniary resources (there should be, as it seems to me), and how, in my judgment, the other requirements may best be provided.” Take dr with παρασκευασθῆναι.

καὶ δή, “ immediately,” cf. ταῦτα δὴ λέξω, inf. 29 τοῦτ' ἤδη λέξω.

TOσOÛTOV, "only so much," inf. 23, de Cor. 124.

14 ἐπειδάν. Asyndeton explicativum (in giving details), inf. 20, Isocr. v. 123.

κρίνατε, μὴ πρ. προλαμβάνετε, "decide when you have heard all (not before): and (Asynd.) in deciding don't anticipate (while I am speaking).”

Tρóτeρov, pleonasm.

Kaινην, novam, such as had never been got ready before. λéyav, "propose."

eis Séov, "suitable for us." Acc. after eis of the goal, purpose. inf. 26, 28, 35, 40.

Bonbela, "auxiliary expedition," inf. 32. Note the rhythmical correspondence in sound between τῇ νυνὶ βοηθείᾳ and κωλύσαι δυνηθεῖμεν.

15 τίς π. π. κ. πόση κ. πόθεν have as common predicate διαμeîvai dvvýσetai, before which there would be a pause: "Of what kind and magnitude and from what resources an armament must be equipped which shall be capable of enduring-.” Cf. de Symmoriis 2, where the same triple division and common predicate occurs. The object of Demosthenes in this triple division (inf. 20, F. L. 4-8) is to make his unusual proposal as intelligible as possible, and to place difficulties in the way of possible objectors who had considered the subject less carefully than himself.

ἕως ἄν, Μ.Τ. 143.

οὕτω γάρ=εἰ τοιαύτην δύναμιν πορισαίμεθα. Protasis expressed in οὕτω Μ.Τ. 110, 111.

TOû λoɩTOû, "in (within) the future," G. 227.

μὴ κωλύων dependent on ταῦτα λέγειν ἔχειν, ita me dicere posse ut non impediam. un with the participle instead of the regular negation où (inf. 29) on account of the prohibitive or declining nature of the sentence, see Curtius, Gr. Gr. § 618. 2. Cf. Isocr. de Pace 12.

ovтw μeɣáλŋ, as great (as you have heard: i.e. I had a proposal to make which would protect you from further suffering). Cf. ouтw supr. 11.

Tò πрâyμа, "the statement of my case," i.e. the particulars of my undertaking. causa in a legal sense: so eλeyxov (“whe. ther I have a right to promise such results from my proposal "), Demosthenes defines eλeyxos in opposition to airla. c. Androt. 22, ἔλεγχός ἐστιν ὅταν ὧν ἂν εἴπῃ τις καὶ τἀληθὲς ὁμοῦ δείξῃ. So also Kρiтal. Cf. Aeschin. Ctes. 50. The three short sentences express the confidence of the speaker.

ἤδη, "forthwith."

16 Tolvvv, here not inferential, "therefore," but transitional "now"; so used especially in passing from the general to the particular," inf. 29.

τριήρεις with emphasis and so in the next clauses αὐτοὺς and αὐτοῖς.

παρασκευάσασθαι, "to get in readiness:" by choosing the ships, ordering the requisite tackle, appointing the trierarchs, so that they may be able to start at once.

ὡς πλευστέον, sc. ὑμῖν ὄν, dependent on οὕτω τὰς γνώμας exei. M. T. 231, note 10 (b).

éáv Tɩ Séŋ, "if there be need."

τοῖς ἡμίσεσι, “ for half!” τῶν ἱππ. Partitive genitive after the adjective, G. 220, note 1. Thuc, i. 22. Acc. to de Symmor. 13, the Athenian forces at the time amounted to xiλíovs iππéas, ὁπλίτας δ' ὅσους ἂν θέλῃ τις, ναῦς δὲ τριακοσίας.

ἱππαγ. τριήρ. "Cavalry-transports." Introd. 17. note 48. πλοῖα. τὰ φέροντα τὰ ἐπιτηδεῖα καὶ ὑπηρετικά. Schol. ikavά. In number.

17 TaûTα, "this armament (and these sentiments) must be ready to hand ”.

ταύτας. "These well-known expeditions of his." Cf. § 19. Ol. ii. 16. In this sense ouros may come between article and substantive, if the latter has an attribute (èğaløvns K.T.X.).

IIúλas K.T.λ. Philip's attempt in autumn 352 to force a passage through Thermopylae into Phocis, frustrated by the activity of the Athenians. Grote xi. 100. (ch. lxxxvii.) See Introduction 9.

τοῦτ' ἐν τῇ γν. παραστῆσαι, “ to create the impression in his mind that." Aeschin. Ctes. 229. Xen. Cyr. iii. 3. 51.

ὡς.. ἴσως ἂν ὁρμήσαιτε Μ. Τ. 49.

ταύτης parallel to the preceding ταύτας, sarcastically.

τῆς ἄγαν ἀμελ. F. L. 272 τὴν ἄγαν ταύτην ἐξουσίαν. G. 200-1.

E Bolav. In 357 (358 acc. to Grote xi. 20, ch. lxxxvi.) when the Thebans crossed over into the island and met with energetic and successful opposition from Athens following the counsel of Timotheus.

'Alapros, against the Spartans under Lysander in 395. Grote ix. 118, ch. lxxiv.

The rapid change of tone, which often occurs in Demosthenes, exciting a succession of different emotions, must have had great effect. So here raúтηs Tĥs åμeλelas bitterly, then Euboea, Haliartus, Pylae, names which would make the listener's heart swell, then bitterly again lows av opμýσaiтe, “perhaps you may recover."

Ta TeλEUTaîα, "lastly." Article with adjective forming an adverb. de Cor. 244.

18 OUTOL K.T.A. "Yet surely, even if you should not eventually do this in the way I think you ought (embarking yourselves), my proposal is not utterly contemptible." Ouk av Tonoacre is in the speaker's thought before he begins the sentence with el. For av with the optative in protasis see M.T. 107, note 2 (a).

ἵνα depends logically on ταῦτα μὲν οἶμαι δεῖν ὑπ. § 17, but, as this clause contains the important point, Demosthenes places it in the emphatic position, the end, without strict regard to grammatical coherence. [Weil places ouro-σTv in a parenthesis and refers it to the first part only of the following alternative 4.]

eldús, copula (participle) ovras omitted. So after ἐδείξατε de Cor. 216, the infinitive after yeîolai supr. 10. etc. Also cf. infr. 41.

εἰσίν—εἰσίν. supr. 10 πότε.

ἐξαγγέλλοντες. In Tragedy ὁ ἐξάγγελος is ἄγγελος ὁ τὰ ἔσω γεγονότα τοῖς ἔξω ἀγγέλλων. One of these agents of Philip was Neoptolemus, a tragic actor. de Pace 6.

ἀφύλακτος, "off his guard.” Adj. fr. øvλátтeolaι, to defend oneself. Metaphor from wrestling, so also av evde kaιрóv. supr. 5 note. Cf. Ar. Eq. 854. Demosthenes means that advan

tage is to be taken of Philip's absence to invade Macedonia: not that Philip himself is to be attacked unawares in the place where he is.

EvSisóval, de Cor, 158, Thuc. ii. 87..s.f.

μndevós. Neuter," should there be nothing."

μn, Philip's being surprised depending on possible conceivable events, not on actual facts (ovdevós, "there being nothing ").

pév, in conclusion.

δεδόχθαι φημὶ δεῖν. Perf. inf. of that which one sees or would be glad to see completed. Parallel to this is παρεσκευ άσθαι προσήκειν οἴομαι, but with stronger words as conveying a more important thought.

19 Tрò Se TоÚTwv. Demosthenes says no more about the first-mentioned (§ 16-18) preparation. No opposition to it was to be expected: the demand for it was usual, but had to be made from time to time as occasion called for its active employment. But the orator thus gains space for his second demand, one quite unusual, far more difficult to obtain, yet taking precedence in urgency (Tрò dè ToÚтwv)—that for a standing army to oppose Philip's. Introd. 20.


—πoλeμýσa, “intended specially to carry on war—.” μή μοι, only don't offer me ” (λéğŋte). perative. Cf. Ar. Vesp. 1179, Nub. 84.

Ellipse of Im

τὰς ἐπιστολιμαίους τ., "those soldiers on paper," which were readily decreed by the people, who neglected however to send the generals the money to levy and keep them together: which therefore often existed only ἐν ταῖς ἐπιστολαῖς (§ 30) in the despatches of the people to the generals.

Tηs Tóλews, "the state's own." Possessive Gen. Cf. oav PINTTOV, Phil. iii. 56. supr. 7.

κἂν ὑμεῖς—. The και contained in the first κἄν does double duty, connecting Telσeral with oral and corresponding to the καί in the following κἄν (καν—κἄν, sive—sive). The reading Kai káv is logically correct, but against the instinct of the language.

Tov Seîva, "this or that (definite) person." OPTIOûv, "any other whatever." (In Demosthenes occur also ò deîva, Toû deîvos, Tŵ deîvi, tò deîva, ò deîva (Voc.), oi deîves, tŵv delvwv.)

TelσETαι Kal akoλoveńσe, Xen. An. i. 3, 6. Clearchus says ἐπεὶ ὑμεῖς ἐμοὶ οὐκ ἐθέλετε πείθεσθαι οὐδὲ ἕπεσθαι. The words point to a recent instance of insubordination (§ 24).

τροφήν, i.e. σιτηρέσιον. § 29.

20 τίς, πόση, πόθεν, for the third time (§§ 13, 15). This continued distinction between rís and Tóσn suggests an unusual composition of the armament, given in full after Demosthenes has recommended that the bulk consist of ¿évol.

ταῦτα. πείθεσθαι καὶ ἀκολουθεῖν.

καθ ̓ ἕκαστον τ., "each of these points separately." The preposition and its case are used as one word forming a substantive. Cf. Thuc. vii. 8, ἀγγέλλων καθ ̓ ἕκαστα τῶν γιγνομένων, viii. 28 et saep.

ξένους μὲν λέγω. Demosthenes does not yet venture to speak out the demand, unwelcome if anticipated, for citizensoldiers, but begins with the soothing cévous: by μév, however, he already hints something more. The hearers now expect the number: but, foreseeing the laughter with which an Athenian audience would receive a request sounding so modest yet announced so solemnly, he first interposes a bitter parenthesis, which would make jest impossible. "And see you do not that which has ofttimes done you harm." G. 262, note 4. M.T. 82. Cf. Isocr, viii. 25.

—ἔβλαψεν· πάντ ̓ ἐλάττω, κ.τ.λ. Asyndeton explicativum, where a word like here or Tоσоûтov (§§ 13, 14) points to something which is to follow. "I mean, while every measure that is proposed seems to you too small for the emergencywhen it comes to action, you," etc.

ἐπὶ τῷ προ,

13, 19, 257.

"When the question is about." Cf. de Cor.

dλλά, "no, after you have prepared and provided for the small-."

Tonσavт., the required expedition-Toploavr., the money for its maintenance. Note the intentional consonance.

21 Aéyw dń, "I propose then (on after parenthesis) the sum total of-." When the article stands immediately before Tâs, the sum total is opposed to the separate parts. G. 204, note 5. But, as Demosthenes takes up again the above-mentioned ¿évous after the parenthesis, he suddenly changes the phrase and asks for σrpatiwtas “(only) 2000 foot-soldiers" (so § 28. Xen. Hell. i. 3. 10, Lat. milites for pedites) and of these-here Demosthenes utters the unwelcome word-"Athenians (as many as) 500." The positions of 'Aŋvalovs, at the beginning, and evTakoσlous, at the end of the clause, are very emphatic and effective but can hardly be retained in translation. He then modifies the effect of this modest but unusual demand, by leaving to them to settle the choice of age, and the time of service, not a long one, and allowing the citizen-soldiers to relieve one another in turn.

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