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ἐξ ἧς ἂν δοκῇ. Μ.Τ. 128.

Ek Siα8. (Ek of way, manner. Cf. ¿¿ loov, K.T.X.) “in succession." Cf. Èк, §§ 1, 2.

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Dative with Verbal-substantives. inf. 28. G.

ώσπερ, join with τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον.

τοὺς πεζούς. Attraction, as usual after ὥσπερ to the preceding case inπéas. Thuc. i. 69. 5 et al.

22 elev, "very well." Transitional.

καὶ ταχειῶν, besides the transport-ships (τριήρεις στρατιώ τιδες οι ὁπλιταγωγοί and ἱππαγωγοί).

Opάow kal SelĘw, “I will show you clearly.” τηλικαύτην, "so small." So тоσαÚτη § 23.

άπоxρην in Infin. v. Veitch, Irreg. Verbs, s. v. åñoxpáw. πολίτας, as emphasized predicate precedes its subject τοὺς στρατευομένους. Of course by τοὺς στρατ. only the required fourth part (§ 21 init.) is understood by speaker and hearers.

23 τοσαύτην, sc. ἀποχρῆν οἶμαι.

πAPATA‡oμÉvην,—" can meet him in the field.”

Anoτevelv, "carry on guerilla warfare." populabundi magis quam iusti more belli. Liv. i. 15.

TOUTŲ TO TρÓT. A kind of amplificatio, the thought contained in the preceding Aŋoreúew being resumed by ToÚTw and expanded into a separate sentence. Cf. Ol. ii. 15.

τὴν πρώτην. Ellipse. Cf. τὴν ταχίστην, ἐξ ἴσης, and similar adverbial expressions. No particular feminine substantive need be supplied. sic potius existimandum videtur Graecos a notionibus simplicibus progressos maximeque obviis, quae sunt situs viae et directionis, hinc similitudinem traxisse ad actionum humanarum directiones et modos. Lobeck, Paralip. 363. Here the expression suggests a more hopeful future and more extensive plans.

ŐT άkoúw, the argument is: citizens and mercenaries together do good service, as at Corinth (when Iphicrates destroyed the Spartan mora at Lechaeum in 390). Demosthenes says ȧkoúw because Greek and Roman orators, for fear of losing popularity, never publicly derived their knowledge of facts from books.

τρέφειν and συστρατεύεσθαι. Imperfect Infinitives. M. T. 15.

αὐτοὺς ὑμᾶς. This order gives more prominence to auroùs than the arrangement usual with reflexives vμ. aut.


καὶ οἶδα κ.τ.λ. Each thought, as in a more marked degree in Ol. iii. 5, is brought to bear on the hearer separately, καὶ οἶδ ̓ ἀκούων ὅτι | Λακεδαιμονίους (the invincible, in the " pathetic " position, as 'A@ŋvalovs in § 21) | πapataтTTÓμEVOL, "in open field."

μεθ ̓ ὑμῶν κ.τ.λ. Chiasmus. Ouro probably to be struck out, on account of the hiatus.

víkov. Imperf. "again and again."

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24 In sharp contrast to the accented thought in the chiasmus, μerá, "in concert with," stands the parallel of the present time; αỦтà καl' avтà ("independent and alone") rà ξενικά (§ 23 only ξενικόν, “ α mercenary force”) στρατ. go to war for you,” τοὺς φίλους (without μέν to bring into prominence the clause with dé) vika, § 45, de Chers. 24. The power of the indispensable evol was becoming a grievous burden, but supplied plentiful material for jest, which appears in πаρakúÝavтα, "after a side-glance at," and in otxera T. "are off on a voyage to Artabazus and anywhere rather," and in the Oxymoron στρατ | ηγὸς δ ̓ ἀκολουθεῖ (α copulativum and κελευθός) "and their leader after them:" in the sneering elkórws (cf. ἐπειδὰν νὴ Δία, § 10), and the incontestable position οὐ γὰρ polov. See Introd. 19 and Grote, xi. pp. 24, 25, 34.

ὁ στρατηγὸς δέ. Cf. inf. 41 στρατηγεῖσθε. After emphasized words which belong to one another, dé stands in the third or fourth place. Cf. Phil. ii. 3, ola πoleî dé et al.

25 åpeλeîv, “to cut off, preclude.” Ol. ii. 27.

ἐπόπτας. § 47 μáрrupas. The citizen-soldiers are to be initiated, "contemplators of the mysteries (i.e. watchful inspectors) of the general's conduct."

Taν σтρaτηYouμ. Attributive Particip. Passive neut. pl., as a substantive. Present here and § 47. Often in the Perfect. τὰ πεπολιτευμένα αὐτοῖς, τὰ ἐμοὶ πεπρεσβευμένα.

γέλως = γελοῖον. Cf. ἀνάγκη 10.

πрáyμаov, "opportunities for action."

μd Al”, “God forbid,” with indignation, woλeμoûμev with emphasis.

26 The pretended conversation merely suggests the thought: But where are your numerous officers? I see only one in the field. But Demosthenes expands the idea "your numerous officers" into a complete (good-humoured) ironical sentence. "But (how is it?) did you not elect (in this war as in others) out of your midst ten taxiarchs generals and phylarchs, and hipparchs two in number?" The effect of sound and sense is heightened by the recurrence of αρχους. "What are these (two and thirty άpxol) doing now? With the exception of one man (the jest becomes more and more severe) whom you may happen (M. T. 28, n. 2) to send out, the rest are attending to the festal processions (parading) by the side of the sacrifice-officials." These processions (Weil refers to the representation of the procession of the knights on the Frieze of the Parthenon) passed through the dyopá Mid. 171: hence the sarcastic comparison with clay (we should say tin) painted toy-soldiers, which the πηλoжλálo or κοροπλάσται prepared for sale in the ἀγορά (Lucian, Lexiph. 22, els ayopár vpalve Menander), is the more pointed. Intred. 18, note 50.

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27 expĥv, "ought there not then to be taxiarchs on your part, a hipparch on your part, (generally) officers from home, in order that the army might really be the State's own? Franke distinguishes expv elval, oportebat esse, at non sunt, ¿xpîv av elvai, oporteret esse, at non oportet, G. 268, n. 2. παρ' ὑμῶν, "on your side, to represent you, with ὑπάρχειν § 33. The explanation of the construction is dλnews is uncertain.

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v. Indic. of that which is not the case. G. 261. 3. M. T. 72, 73.

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dλá, properly "but," corresponding to ov in the preceding question: we must say or: "or must the Athenian hipparch sail to Lemnos (as military authority and to conduct the festal procession there), while on the other hand the men who are fighting for our own possessions are to be commanded by a foreigner as hipparch? Demosthenes speaks of only one hipparch because the other was apparently under legal obligation to remain at Athens and attend to the festal parades. Menelaus o Helayu (chieftain of Pelagonia, a district of Upper Macedonia) apparently appointed hipparch by Charidemus. Ol. ii. 14.

μeμþóμevos, "because I have any fault to find with M." ὅστις ἂν ᾖ, Μ. Τ. 135, 5.

28 τὸ δὲ τῶν χρημάτων, Article. supr. Tо TÊS TÚXNS 12 n.


as to the matter of money."

τοῦτο δὴ καὶ περ.

"I am going through that immediately.' bear it." δὴ, cf. ήδη, § 29.

kal="as you wish to


χρήματα. "Money then: " Nominative, Absolute, as it were the heading of the following estimate of expenses. Plat. Crat. 403 a, ò dè "Aɩdns.

čσTɩ μév. The first point, bσa, in opposition to the second, Tolev, at the end of the next §.

τροφή may include μισθός as well as σιτηρέσιον, maintenance-money: so the latter word is added for the sake of precision. Cf. 22, 23 трépei. Introd. 17.

πρós, adverbial, "besides."

τάλαντα-μναίδραχμαί. Dict. Antig. Table xII. p. 1237. τοῦ μηνός. G. § 179. 1.

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Tоσave' Tepa, here=tantundem, "the same amount." This phrase, like the Lat. alterum tantum, has sometimes another meaning, as much again," i.e. "twice as much."

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29 εἰ δέ τις. "But if any one (ris implies many) thinks that the presence (vráрxew having in hand) of an insufficient basis of operations, he is mistaken."

ὑπάρχειν. Xen. Mem. iv. 5. 1, νομίζων ἐγκράτειαν ὑπάρχειν ἀγαθὸν εἶναι.

dpopuń, lit. place to start from: then support, capital. See Wilkins' note to Ol. i. 23 (Reiske, p. 16. 2).

TOUTO emphatic, and therefore placed before av, so several words preceding av inf. 43, and often before ei, also ò σtpatηYÓS before dé supr. 24. "If only this is provided," strictly "comes in:” γίγνεσθαι of revenue, like ἐλθεῖν, ἰέναι, φοιτᾶν, cf. de Cor. 104. Xen. An. v. 3. 4.

TроOTоplet. Active not Middle, the point being "the army will do that which it is the state's duty to do." Cf. inf. 33; de Chers. 21; Thuc. viii. 48. 6. Introd. 17.

ἐγὼ συμπλέων. Cf. de Chers. 24. ὁ γὰρ ̓Αριστοτέλης φησὶ δεῖν τὸν σύμβουλον οὕτω συμβουλεύειν ὡς ἑαυτὸν μέλλοντα κοινωνεῖν τούτοις ἐφ ̓ οἷς ποιεῖται τὴν συμβουλήν κ.τ.λ. Schol. Dem. p. 11, 1. 10. The offer is a proof of Demosthenes's confidence (notice asyndeton) and patriotism.

ἕτοιμος, sc. εἰμι. Cf. Phil. iii. 4. πόθεν, sc. γενήσεται, de Chers. 22.

30 Πόρου απόδειξις. One of the titles (λήμματα) of Documents which in political speeches the orator probably read himself.

nuets. "I and my friends," perhaps Lycurgus. Demosthenes never speaks of himself alone in the plural.

ἐπιχειροτονῆτε. Appendix.

äv vμîv άρéσên. Sauppe, whom Blass follows, changes the reading å av to av, as the former does not harmonize with the final sentence ἵνα μή κ.τ.λ. "When it comes to the vote, you will vote for it ('my proposal,' Taûra of preceding sentence) if it has your approval." Sauppe compares Phil. iii. 70, de Symmor. 14. XELPOTOVσETE. The Future, expressing confi

dence, cf. Phil. ii. 6, iii. 70.

Év Taîs ÉTIσToλaîs, "in the despatches," on paper, § 19.

31-50 Third Part. Supplementary general reasons in support of the advice offered. First some loosely inserted detail about the nature of the seat of war which calls for a standing army. §§ 31, 32.

TÓTоν. "Geographical position."

τοῖς πνεύμασι Φίλιππος, καὶ κ.τ.λ. "With the help of the winds-he anticipates you and carries out most of his projects, and indeed, etc." Cf. de Chers. 11, т πрρÓτEρOS πρÒS TOTS πράγμασι γίγνεσθαι.

puλágas T. érnolas. The N. W. winds which blow regularly across the Aegaean in the Dog-days. de Chers. 14, 17.

τὸν χειμώνα. When the ancients generally did not venture out at sea: not so Philip. Ol. ii. 23; Phil. iii. 50.

éπixapeî, "lays hand to, engages in his work," i.e. makes his attacks. inf. 44.

äv μn Svvaíμeða, "shall not be able," i.e. according to Philip's opinion and wish, in orat. rect. oùк av divaтo. Cf. Ol. ii. 15.

32 Bonbelais. "Auxiliary expeditions." § 14.


árávтwv. G. § 175. 2, cf. inf. 35.

Xeμadly rĥ Svváue, "winter-harbour for the forces."

Anuvo, Athenian property, as were Imbros and Scyros.

Θάσῳ κ. Σκιάθῳ, belonging to the Athenian alliance, as also the neighbouring islands Peparethos and Tenedos, de Cor. 70, 302.

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