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ἃ χρή, sc. ὑπάρχειν. Demosthenes endeavours to make his proposal acceptable by the polysyndeton here, καὶ λιμένες καὶ σῖτος Kai K.T.., by vráрxe, "it is ready to hand," at the beginning and end of the period, and by the emphasized pádiov and ῥᾳδίως.

Thy pay Tou Tovs, "throughout the (proper) season of the year," Tv palav Phil. iii. 48; Herod. vii. 50. Homer Tλéoμev νύκτας τε καὶ ἦμαρ. G. 216.

πρὸς τῇ γῇ γενέσθαι, “ to come to the land.” γίγνεσθαι=το come, often in Homer with év and eri and the dative of the place reached. Thuc. i. 62.

τὸ τῶν πνευμ. Supr. § 12 n.

ῥᾳδίως ἔσται, sc. ἡ δύναμις.

33, "For what purpose." G. 214, note 2.

Xpnoeral. The subject is in the principal sentence. Cf. Ol. iii. 19, s.f.

Tapd Tov K. "At the right opportunity." Tapά with acc. of time. Cf. de Cor. 13. These particulars Demosthenes leaves to the orparnyós as his proper business and returns to the general advantages of his proposal.

yéypada. "I have moved for in a written document." Ol. i. 19, iii. 11. See Appendix.

äv TaÛTα K.T.λ. The advantageous results, which Demosthenes has to point to, will certainly ensue if his proposal is completely carried out. Accordingly he sums up all his demands together with their principal result in one powerful period. At the beginning he places the collection of money, without which nothing can be done, тà xр. πрŵтоν λéуw, “I mean, in the first instance, the money: "then another indispensable and characteristic condition, that the force be kept together for some time, νόμῳ κατακλ. μένειν: subordinate to this main clause come (1) (preceding) the necessary preparations, râλλa πаρаσкevάσανтes, (2) (accompanying the whole course of the war), the active participation of the citizens, αὐτοὶ—γιγνόμενοι—ζητοῦντες.

ἐντελή. Cf. Ar. Eq. 1367, τον μισθὸν ἀποδώσω 'ντελή. Soldiers and sailors did not always receive their pay regularly. See Thuc. viii. 45.

Katakλeloŋte, “oblige it to," kaтá implying completely, as in κατιδεῖν, κατασκευάζειν.

Tаμíaι K. Tоριoraí, "paymasters," cf. de Chers. 47, Thuc. viii. 48. There is no reason to believe that Topioтns is as yet a special official name. Introd. 17.

τῶν δὲ πράξεων ζητοῦντες, “ demanding the (legal) account of his actions (not of the money) : quaerentes not petentes. Tavσeσ0' with much emphasis, and so generally this short apodosis to the weighty protasis.

πλéoν oùdèν π., "effecting nothing."

34 Though this (maúσeσde, K.T.λ.) would be sufficient, Demosthenes adduces a series (πρŵтоν μèv, čπEιтa) of positive advantages besides (πρὸς τούτῳ).

ἀπὸ τῶν ὑμετέρων ὑμῖν πολεμεῖ συμμάχων, “he makes war upon you with the property of your own allies," lit. from that resource a bitter Oxymoron. ȧrò, cf. Ol. i. 22, iii. 34. vμîv, infr. 47.

άywv kal þéρwv, with personal object. Cf. de Cor. 230. πλέοντας τὴν θάλατταν. G. 215 top.


TоÛ TάσXEV AVTol-" yourselves (in opp. to the allies) will be out of the way of ill-treatment." If the order had been aurol ew, to say nothing of the hiatus, there would have been less emphasis on wάσxew and кakŵs, still less if it had been e τοῦ π. κ.

οὐχ. Ellipse, sc. οἰχήσεται, ἐκλέξει, to be supplied as usual from the clauses with worep, though perhaps not definitely and distinctly in the mind of the speaker.

Añμvov, K.T.λ. For these recent (353) exploits of the Macedonian navy see Grote xi. 109. The instances are remarkable for (1) the admirable selection: Philip, unpunished, robs the Athenians of freedom (Lemnians and Imbrians are Athenian citizens), of property (the corn-ships), of honour (the sacred state-vessel): (2) the order: robs them at Lemnos, at Geraestus, a promontory and town S. of Euboea and so much nearer to Attica, at Marathon in Attica itself; the next step, as the listener feels with increasing anxiety and excitement to which the asyndeton contributes, must be to Athens itself: (3) the expression; egéλežev, parody, "collection as if due from tributaries," cf. Thuc. viii. 44; άμú0ŋтa, a new word; and the indignant @xer Exwv in the first and third instances, "was off (unpunished) with his booty." Demosthenes says ȧπéßŋ кal, not ἀποβάς parallel to ἐμβαλών and συλλαβών, because this fact also is startling enough to deserve an independent clause: "he landed at Marathon." The mere mention of Marathon would recal a similar landing and a very different fate for the invader. Like a flash of lightning these instances might shew the Athenian the precipice on whose brink he stood, create a lively dissatisfaction with the present dangerous disorder, and so ensure obedience to the orator's demand, vóμg кaтaкλeîσαι тηy dúναμιν. See Introd. 9.

iepdv тpinpη, a swift sailer which the state kept for rapid messages, transport of public money, conveyance of ewplai (festal embassies), etc., like the Zaλapivia and IIápaλos; according to authorities in Harpocration it was the IIápaλos which is alluded to here. The Delian Oewpla touched at Marathon to sacrifice and was there blessed by the priest of Apollo. Plato Phaedo 58. Philochorus ap. Schol. Soph. O. C. 1047. Dict. Antiq. p. 389.

ὑμεῖς δ ̓ οὔτε—, without your

els of the date when an action is conceived of as completed. Cf. εἰς Παναθηναῖα, εἰς ἅπαξ. Eng. “by.”

35 Παναθ. Διονυσ. Costly festivals, in August and March, with musical and dramatic exhibitions, gymnastics, processions, etc. Introd. note 50. See the words in Dict. Antiq.

τοῦ καθήκοντος χρόνου. Cf. τοῦ ἐπιγιγνομένου θέρους, participles defining the time attached to the temporal genitive.

δεινοὶἰδιῶται, “ whether the lot falls on professionals or on laymen to attend to these festivals." ol èmiμeλ. subject, deivol predicate. Selvbrηs, Ar. Eth. v. 12. idiwrns, a private person, in opposition to experienced officials. The hiatus idiŵrai ol might be avoided by the transposition τ. ἐκ. οἱ ἐπιμ. (ούπιμ.).

els ά, "festivals on which."

οὐδ ̓ εἰς ἕνα. One of the καινοπρεπή (novelties in expression) noted by Hermogenes, οἷον καὶ εἰ μηδὲ δι ἓν ἄλλο, ἀντὶ τοῦ εἰ καὶ dià μndèv älλo. So "none" is weaker than "not one."

άTоσTóλwv, "naval expeditions.' " Cf. Ol. iii. 5. Kennedy's Demosth. Vol. 1. Appendix v. pp. 306-7.

kal, "and which." Greek avoids the relative construction in several consecutive clauses, and passes readily from the subordinate to the coordinate. Cf. Ol. iii. 24.

ὄχλον. Thuc. vi. 24, ὑπὸ τοῦ ὀχλώδους τῆς παρασκευῆς. Exe, "involve." Cf. ὢν χωρὶς καὶ ζῆν καὶ ὑγιαίνειν ἐστί, πραγματείαν δ ̓ ἔχει πλείστην. Musonius ap. Stob. i. 64.

παρασκευήν without τοσαύτην which is implied in the fol lowing oonv. Cf. de Pace 10.

κаιрav. Cf. sup. 32. inf. 38.

Melovηv, K.T.A. Methone, on the Macedonian coast, an ally of Athens, was besieged in 353 and taken by Philip before the auxiliary expedition from Athens reached it. So in 352 an Athenian force arrived too late to prevent Philip from garrisoning Pagasae, the harbour of Pherae in Thessaly. Potidaea, the key of the peninsula Pallene, had been taken in 356. Introd. 7. 8. 5.

36 In everything concerning festivals law and order prevail (νόμῳ τέτακται).

Tís, ellipse of Copula; supr. 2, 3, 29.

See Dict.

Xopnyós, the citizen whose turn it was (as Melroupyía) to provide a contending chorus on behalf of his tribe. Antiq. 679 b, also s.vv. Choregus, Gymnasium.

TÓTE-T-Tl, see § 3 n.

Aaẞóvra T," what he is to receive and what he has to do for it, in short nothing." Understand exaσтov vμŵv, so far as he is called upon to cooperate in the festival concerned.

ἀνεξέταστον, predicative, effect of ημέληται.

iv Sé. Demosthenes has distributed the general abstract thought ἅπαντα νόμῳ τέτακται in effective details καὶ πρόοιδεν ἕκαστος—and then sums up all these details in οὐδὲν ἀνεξέταστον -nμéλntaι, in order to let the whole weight of the thought, which is now vividly felt, fall on the contrast; "but in the concerns of war and in preparation for war there is complete lack of order." πολέμου—τούτου, cf. ἡμᾶς—ἡμετέραν, Οl. i. 3, amplificatio, a common σχῆμα, so F. L. 335 διὰ τούτους καὶ τὴν τούτων δωροδοκίαν.

ἄτακτ ̓ ἀδιόρθωτ ̓ ἀόρισθ ̓ ἅπαντα. The weight of the argument falling on this short clause contrasted with the long one which precedes it (cf. supr. 33, Phil. iii. 3), the distribution of the idea itself into all its various shades ("un-ordered, un-regulated, un-defined," compare "unhousel'd, disappointed, unanel'd"), the graphic recurrence of the a privativum together with the homoeoteleuton, all combine to emphasize in the highest degree, by sound and sense, the fundamental idea complete want of order.' Compare the idea of complete uselessness in the three synonyms ἄχρηστ ̓ ἄπρακτ ̓ ἀνόνητα, Phil. iii. 40, Hom. Il. ix. 63, Eur. I. T. 212, Plat. Phaedr. 240 a, Ar. Ran. 204.


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Tolyaρoûν. The consequence is, as soon as we hear some news, we set about taking measures which should have been hit upon long before (this is described by the paratactic äua and the triple polysyndetòn κal—κal—xal), and after that (instead of a resolute decree at once on receipt of the news) the confused contradictory decrees καὶ εἶτα—εἶτα—εἶτα ; the last εἶτα placing the mournful final result (poaπóλwλe) on a level with the decrees, cf. Ol. iii. 29, κal λýpovs, de Cor. 75.

"And so with us all goes on at once; we hear some news and we appoint trierarchs, and allow exchanges of property to be made for them, and look about us to provide the money, and after that we decree (the sarcasm is equally severe whether this

aorist is gnomic or refers to a particular case) that the metoeci and those who live apart (freedmen) form the crews, and then again that we citizens do so ourselves, and then that we change the crews, and then, while all this delay is going on, the goal and object of our expedition on each occasion is lost beforehand."

τριηράρχους and ἀντιδόσεις. Introd. 16.

épẞalvav, "go on board," absolute, as inf. 44. Cf. conscen


χωρίς, οἱ ἀπελεύθεροι καθ ̓ ἑαυτοὺς ᾤκουν χωρὶς τῶν ἀπελευDeрwoάvтwv, Harpocrat. Dem. c. Leoch. 10.

ávтeμßißálav, absolute, as eußißáže, Thuc. ii. 90. Cf. ἀντεμβιβάσαι, Thuc. vii. 13.

ταῦτα μέλλεται. Cf. Thuc. v. 111, ὑμῶν τὰ μὲν ἰσχυρότατα ἐλπιζόμενα μέλλεται.

Tó makes a substantive of the following relative-clause: to be pronounced τοὐφ ̓ ἂν. Cf. c. Androt. 64, et al.

ἐφ' ὅ. ἐπί c. acc. of the goal attained. Cf. ἐπὶ τὴν ̓ΑττιKnv Badin, de Chers. 10, et al.

37 παρασκευάζεσθαι ἀναλ. The αι here might be elided so that the hiatus is not serious.

οἱ δὲ τ. πραγμάτων καιροί, “the opportunities (for action) offered by circumstances." Ol. iii. 7, F. L. 6, Thuc. i. 142, TOÛ δὲ πολέμου οἱ καιροὶ οὐ μενετοί. Aeschin. Ctes. 163 n.

Вpadurηra κal eipwvelav. Supr. 7 and 8. The rhythm also is imitated by Livy, xxxi. 28, non expectare belli tempora moras ac dilatiōnēs imperatorum.

as Sé, the relative-clause is the subject of ¿¿eλéyxovтai. Cf. inf. 42, "but the troops on whose services we reckon in the meantime (the interval up to the completion and arrival of the armament decreed) give proof of their powerlessness just when occasion requires them."

ovoal. Participial Copula, here expressed, often omitted. èπí, c. gen.; cf. de Cor. 10.

Sé. The audience are by this time thoroughly ashamed. It needs but to remind them, as Demosthenes does suddenly and apparently without any intermediate transition, of their enemy's contempt, to create a feeling of indignant determination.

εἰς τοῦθ ̓ ὕβρεως. Cf. οἱ ἀσελγείας, § 9.

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