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less wealthy artisans, ship-captains, artists, poverty-stricken old men, dainty fine gentlemen, honest old-fashioned Athenians, bearded Laconizers, not many discreet lovers of the fatherland, very many political newsmongers: an assembly of at most eight thousand men of the most different interests, opinions, manners, but all alike jealous for their sovereignty and unaccustomed to control their southern vehemence of temper, habituated moreover to a vain self-complacency, and an aesthetic rather than matter-of-fact way of looking at things; the task of influencing such an assembly was far more difficult than that of the modern orator.—A sacrifice for purification preceded each assembly. This was followed by the burning of incense and a solemn prayer, which the herald recited following the dictation of the state-clerk. Then the president (omlotátηsá) laid before the meeting (πρоríðŋσι6) the subjects of the day's deliberations, which in the case of the regular assemblies were usually made knowu four days before. If these were accompanied by a recommendation of the council (πpoßoúλevμa), the people voted upon it, or commenced independent deliberation (σκοπεῖν or βουλεύεσθαι περὶ οι υπέρ τινος"): and the herald invited those citizens who would to speak. But of course there were never more than a few who, even after careful preparation, trusted their powers to speak before so spoiled an audience, and possessed boldness enough to give the sovereign people counsel (ovußovλeúv9) concerning the highest interests of the state (Tepi Tv öλwv10). These few speakers who usually came forward (οἱ ειωθότες λέγειν 11), were called especially the statesmen (oi woλтevóμevo12), or the orators (ol

4 So far back as 427 Cleon had to say ειώθατε θεαται μὲν τῶν λόγων γίγνεσθαι, ἀκροαταὶ δὲ τῶν ἔργων. Thuc. iii. 88.

5 In the time of Demosthenes the errorárns was chosen by lot from among nine poédрou, themselves daily chosen by lot from each of the non-prytanising puλaí. See Hicks in the Journal of Philology, Vol. iii.

6 Ol. iii. 18. Phil. i. 1, 24, 46. de Cor. 273.

7 Phil. i. 1, 31, 36.

Aeschin. Timarch. 23, Ctes. 12. Cf, the phrases dóyor aireîolas, didóval,


9 Ol. iii. 3. de Chers. 73. 10 Ol. ii. 31. de Cor. 278. Phil. i. 1.

Aeschin. Ctes. 133. 'summa rerum' in Livy.

12 Ol. iii, 30. de Chers. 33.


λέγοντες 13, οι οἱ ῥήτορες 14), in opposition to the ἰδιῶται 15 Their position, dangerous as it was honourable, was without any official character, merely a matter of the personal confidence which each of them possessed with the people. He who wished to speak stood up (ávéστŋ16), and stepping on to the orators' tribune (яapeλow 17 or past pres. or imperf. wapiúv 18) expounded in a speech of more or less detail his view (yvwμŋv19, not τὴν γνώμην, οι ἃ γιγνώσκει 20, ἀπεφήνατο 21, οι ἀπεδείξατο). During his speech he wore, as a token of inviolability, a myrtle crown, and though the Proedri might inflict a fine for unbecoming language, he was in other respects legally irresponsible for his utterances (ἡ ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος παρρησία 22). But he became legally responsible for a year if he had previously moved in writing (ypaye 23) that which he proposed to the people (eîπe, Xéyeɩ 24). Then, whether the motion had become a decree or not, any one might, within this period, prosecute the mover on a charge of illegality (ypapǹ πapavóμwv 25); the declaration upon oath, that a person wished to institute such a prosecution, effected the suspension of the validity of the decree until a judicial decision had been obtained. The presiding officers (póedρo) examined proposals handed in to them, to see if they contained nothing illegal, and if they seemed admissible, put them to the vote (¿ñiynpíšew 26). The people voted on each proposal by raising the hand (χειροτονεῖ, ἐπιχειροτονεῖ27, most commonly píšeraι 28): the view (♂ ëdo§€29) of the majority

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2 γνώμην ἀποφήνασθαι Phil. 1. 1. de Cor. 189. Aeschin. Ctes. 2. yv. ἀποδεδειγμένος. Lys. xii. 27.

22 Phil. i. 51.

25 de Halonn. 43.

28 Phil. i. 33.

24 Ol. iii. 12. 18. 19. 34.

26 Aeschin. F. L. 65. Ctes. 75.

27 Phil. i. 30. de Cor. 248. To make valid' is κvpoûv, 'to reject' aroχειροτονειν.

28 Ol. i. 2, iii. 4. Voting with actual voting-stones

po, and therefore in

secret, only took place in certain cases where the personal interests of individuals were concerned.

29 Phil. i. 36. The regular initial formula of decrees of the people was čdoge τῇ βουλῇ καὶ τῷ δήμῳ.

was announced (åvayoрeveraι30) by the president as a valid decree of the people (kúpiov ¥ýpioμa31), and the original document of the decree, if it was not engraven on stone 32, was in any case deposited in the Archives (the shrine of the Mother of the gods To MηTρov33) with the other state-documents (τὰ δημόσια γράμματα).

30 Aeschin. Ctes. 3.

31 de Chers. 6. Ol. iii. 14.

* The usual expression is ἀναγράψαι ἐν (more rarely εἰς) στήλῃ λιθίνῃ καὶ ornoaι év, see notes to Phil. iii. 41. 43.

33 Harpocration, F. L. 129. Aeschin. F. L. 89. Ctes. 18.




The pages of Goodwin's Moods and Tenses and of his Grammar are referred to, unless sections are specially mentioned.

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16. Participle after ws

Partitive Gen. after adj.

M. T. 231, n. 10. (b).

G. 220.

17. Optative with av of independent sentence retained in dependent without regard to leading verb

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M. T. 48, 49.

M. T. 107, note 2 (a).

G. 262, n. 4. M. T. 82.

21. Relative with av and Subj. cf. §§ 6, 39 Dative with Verbal Substantive, cf. § 23

23. Imperf. Infinitive

25. Neuter Pass. Partic. as Substantive
26. Aor. Subj. less precise than Perf. Subj.
27. ἐχρῆν with and without ἂν, difference

Indic. of that which is not the case

ὅστις ἂν with subj.

32. Gen. after vσrepíšew cf. 35, 39

Acc. of Time

33. a, Neuter Pronoun as Cognate Acc.

34. Acc. after πλeîv

39. Infin. with où after deî

Relative clause with av and Subj. refer

ring to the Future

43. el after θαυμάζω

44. Negatives, double

M. T. 128.

G. § 185.

M. T. 15.

M. T. 28, n. 2.

G. 268, n. 2.

G. 261. 3. M. T.

72, 73.

M. T. 135, 5.
G. § 175. 2.
G. 216.

G. 214, n. 2.

G. 215, top.

G. 208. 3.

M. T. 128.

M. T. 120.

M. T. 184, 185. 2.

50. Indirect quotation of Compound Sentences

vûy of immediate Future condition

M. T. 161.

M. T. 103.

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