Page images


each containing 60 persons: from these again were set apart every 15, the richest in each case, altogether therefore 300. These were bound, on publication of the tax-list, to make payment in advance on behalf of the other members of their Symmoria and the other citizens assigned to it. Every Symmoria had its president (nyeuwv) and manager (curator, ériμeλnrýS) 10. The same arrangement was adopted about 357 for the 16 Trierarchia also, the most costly service which the well-to-do citizens had to undertake for the state11. Every Symmoria answered, as a body and individually, for the equipment of a number of ships regulated according to requirement, so that sometimes more sometimes fewer members associated (as OVVTEMeis) for each one ship. Here also the richest members above mentioned advanced money in prepayment, which they recovered when the expense was redistributed among all the parties concerned. But in this way they could not only escape free of charge themselves by falsifying the accounts of money expended: they also injured the interest of the state as often as they let the Trierarchia to the lowest contractors and yet delays were possible, as every one, who believed himself overburdened by the incidence of the tax or by being selected to serve the Trierarchia, was at liberty to avail himself of the legal remedy avrídoσis: he offered exchange of properties to the person, as he alleged, unduly favoured. All disputes arising from this source belonged to the jurisdiction of the generals 12. On them devolved also

[blocks in formation]

the nomination of the Trierarchs (i.e. those who besides their contributions in money had to serve personally as captains), and all selection from the number of citizens liable to service 13, besides a round of duties, which rarely permitted the presence as leaders in the field of more than one or two of the ten generals nominated yearly. Under them ten taxiarchs commanded the infantry, two hipparchs and ten phylarchs the cavalry". These continued in office in time of peace, and cost the state in supplies 17 alone nearly 40 talents a year. But the power, prosperity and security of Athens depended mainly on her fleet. The state itself had the war-ships (Tpinpeis, ships with three rows of oars) built on its wharves (veopia"), probably twenty every year-this was a special business of the council of the 500 for the time being-and kept under shelter in the docks or sheds (vewσoukot), of which there were 372 in Demosthenes's time in the harbours Piraeus and Munychia. Thus if a naval expedition was decreed by the people, the dock-keepers were instructed to deliver the ships and ships' furniture in their keeping to the trierarchs appointed to superintend the starting of the expedition. These saw the ships launched from their sheds into the basin of the harbour brought to the pier. Here the ships were fitted out, i.e. the wooden and hanging gear (oken) taken on


43 All citizens between the ages of eighteen and sixty, except those who were legally exempted from military service for a time, as the βουλευταί, τελῶναι, χορεῦται.

45 de Chers. 45.

44 Phil. i. 26.

46 c. Polycl. 6.

de cor. trierarch. 4. de Chers. 74.

board. This business fell to the trierarchs as well as keeping the ships in good condition and repair during the expedition. The crew (λnpwua) of the trireme, i. e. the rowing-crew (vaûrai, about 170) and marines (éπißáraι, about 12), were supplied by the state by selection from those liable to serve, whether citizens or metoeci, and received pay from the state. On the other hand the trierarch enlisted and paid at his own expense the serving-crew (unpeoría, including steersman, cook and carpenter), and often, if the crew supplied him was deficient in number or condition or deserted, had to supply the deficiency himself. When the crew had gone through such exercises as were possible, and ballast and provision had been taken on board, the ship was ready to sail. The lowest pay given by the state amounted to two obols a day and as much more in maintenance-money (ornpériov"); the crew of a trireme cost therefore daily at least 1minae, monthly 40 minae. The land-soldiers (σrpaTITα) received similar payment, the citizens serving as orλîraι: the cavalry received three times as much. In naval expeditions the latter were carried over in cavalry transport-ships (Tpipes inπaywуoi), the former in their proper transport-triremes (τριήρεις στρατιώτι des). Besides these there was a proportionate number of vessels of burden (oca), to bring the provision and various kinds of army baggage, such as artillery. Xen. An. vi. 2. 4. Tpopǹ comprised both μισθὸς and σιτηρέσιον. Οl. i. 27. Phil. i. 23, τρέφειν. Thuc. vi. 93. 4.

47 Phil. i. 28.

48 Phil. i. 21. Old ships of war were used for this purpose, for the first time in the year 430. Thuc. ii. 56. 1.

If we take the expedition to Pylae", for instance, to consist of 50 ships of war, and reckon the support of 50 ships of burden as equivalent to that of 25 ships of war, the fleet cost in pay and maintenance-money alone 100 minae a day, and the army which accompanied it, 4000 orλîraι and 400 cavalry, 35 minae a day. Accordingly if the expedition lasted three months, the treasury had to meet an extraordinary 18 expenditure of 200 talents. It was necessary therefore to economize in time of peace: it was also possible. For the ordinary expenditures of the state, on ship-building and on cavalry, the salaries of the lower officials, those of the council, of the popular assembly, and of the courts of justice, lastly the outlays50 for the

49 supr. 9. de fals. leg. 84.


50 Phil. i. 35. The Greater Panathenaea were celebrated at the end of Hecatombaeon (before the middle of August) in every third year of the Olympiad, the lesser Panathenaea in the same month every year; the conduct of the numerous contests, musical and gymnastic, was entrusted to ten Athlothetae: at the close came the general festal procession to the temple of Athene. In it appeared nearly all citizens capable of bearing arms (Thuc. vi. 56 and 58), and the Knights were conspicuous, in this as in all other processions (Phil. i. 26), under their ἵππαρχοι and φύλαρχοι; and in the time of Demosthenes officers of infantry, the Taşiapxo, were also present. The other festivals, and the Panathenaea as far as related to sacrifice, were conducted by the superintendents of sacrifices iepotocol, who were, according to Aristotle in Etym. Magn. 468. 56, kλnpwтol ἄρχοντες, δέκα τὸν ἀριθμόν, οἳ τά τε μαντεύματα ἱεροθυτοῦσι, κἄν τι καλλιερῆσαι δέῃ καλλιεροῦσι μετὰ τῶν μαντέων, καὶ θυσίας τὰς νομιζομένας ἐπιτελοῦσι καὶ τὰς πεντετηρίδας ἁπάσας διοικοῦσι πλὴν Παναθηναίων.—Of the four festivals of Dionysus, which occurred in winter and spring, the last, the μeyána

numerous regular state-festivals (iepà dnμoteλî), were amply covered by the revenues: in quiet times there were even surpluses. Such sums were very considerable in the earlier period when respectable amounts of tribute came in from the allies. Such surpluses

according to the old laws had to be stored for a warfund (σTpaTITIKá): but Pericles had already taken from this treasure the Theoricon or Show-fund introduced by him, which was distributed among the poorer citizens generally for seats in the theatre at the festivals with which theatrical exhibitions were connected. These distributions recommenced with the restoration of the democracy in 403, and were extended to an increasing number of festivals and enlarged in amount. At length a special treasuryboard was formed for this purpose, the ten superintendents of the Theoricon (oi ènì tô bewpɩkų), and these were ultimately at the instigation of Eubulus entrusted with a control over the whole financial administration. These superintendents were appointed by popular election: consequently Eubulus, as he was constantly reelected, was during a long period a member of this board and naturally the leading member. He satisfied the demands of the almost insatiable people, who even in war-time could not bear to dispense with the fewpikóv 51. The natural consequence was that for every extraordinary undertaking it became necessary to levy the detested proor doτiká (Phil. i. 35), was celebrated by musical and dramatic exhibitions during a period of five days at the end of March.

51 Justin. 6. 9.

« PreviousContinue »