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We are amused when we hear how Plato first recognized and described substantive and verb as distinct parts of speech, and at the enthusiasm with which paronomasiae, antitheta, isocola, homœoteleuta were received, but perhaps we are not the best possible judges concerning the form of speech. Soon the different parts of an oration were distinguished and patterns were constructed for proœmia and epilogues. Presently the mere faculty of beautiful expression delighted large audiences, and there was formed, in imitation of Gorgias, a peculiar species of eloquence, the speech for display or show or festival (yévos éπɩSELKTIKÓV). It is not necessary here to discuss the dangers of this tendency: it is enough to state that the epideictic eloquence developed with great rapidity the innate feeling for form, and refined to a high degree of sensitiveness the already susceptible ear of the Athenian. Naturally the practical effect of this influence was felt in the two places where oral statement was a necessary requirement of Greek life, the court of justice and the popular assembly. The court 22 of justice is the proper nursery of artistic eloquence. Thus, as according to Hellenic law every man pleaded his own case orally, certain directions were put together, first in Sicily, concerning disposition and argumentation, for the parties in a suit, from which a theory of eloquence (τέχνη ῥητορική) was gradually developed. Thrasymachus of Chalcedon published a collection of commonplaces as examples for exciting compassion, for causing and appeasing anger, for creating suspicion and for justification against suspicion. He was also regarded as the inventor of the
rounded period and of the so-called middle style which was more select than the language of everyday life but still far removed from the pomp and monotonous sentence-formation of Gorgias. Another, Theodorus of Byzantium, improved the system of instruction in the disposition and the parts of the speech down to the smallest particulars. The school of Isocrates distinguished the four following parts of the speech: (α) προοιμιάσασθαι πρὸς εὔνοιαν, (6) διηγήσασθαι πρὸς πιθανότητα, (c) ἀγωνίσασθαι πρὸς ἀπόδειξιν or πιστώσασθαι προς πειθώ, the argumentatio or demonstration, (d) ανακεφαλαιώσασθαι πρὸς ἀνάμνησιν or ἐπιλογίσασθαι πρὸς ὀργὴν ἢ ἔλεον, the epilogue divided into an ανακεφαλαιωτικόν, and a παθητικὸν μέρος. The object, which forensic eloquence (yévos dɩkavikóv) aimed at, is expressed in the notorious sentence: Tov TTova λόγον κρείττω ποιεῖν “to win the victory for the weaker cause by the power of speech." The famous oligarch Antiphon (died 411) was spoken of at Athens as the composer of a réxvn, while Lysias soon ceased to give theoretical instruction: both were famous at the same time as composers of judicial speeches for others (λoyoypápoi). Still more famous was Isocrates (died 338), both as a master in the epideictic style, to which his wavηyupikós belongs, and teacher of many statesmen and generals who guided the fortunes of Athens before and at the time of Demosthenes. As is well known, Isocrates bestowed special care on the subject of expression (λéέıs), that the speech might flow on smoothly in rhythmic euphony, avoiding every harshness. Cicero says" of 62 Brutus viii. § 32.
him "primus intellexit, etiam in soluta oratione, dum versum effugeres, modum tamen et numerum quendam oportere servari." No doubt Isocrates transferred the 23 same rules to his lessons in the third and most important kind of oratory, popular or deliberative or political eloquence (γένος δημηγορικόν οι συμβουλευτι κόν). We learn its nature and extent best from Aristotle's Rhetoric. This work, composed in a philosophic spirit, and the somewhat older πepì pηtopɩkîs, intended for practical use and routine, compiled probably by Anaximenes of Lampsacus, are the only réxvaι remaining from the classical times of Greece; both appeared in the best period of oratory, though not long before the death of Demosthenes. As the principal parts of Rhetoric, we find: (1) èk tívwv ai πíoTELS ỄσovTaι (inventio with argumentatio or confirmatio); (2) τὸ περὶ τὴν λέξιν οι ἑρμηνίαν (elocutio); (3) πῶς χρὴ τάξαι τὰ μέρη του λόγου (dispositio). According to Aristotle τὸ δικανικὸν γένος is divided into κατηγορία and ἀπολογία, it treats περὶ γεγενημένων and has for its object τὸ δίκαιον ἢ ἄδικον; τὸ ἐπιδεικτικὸν γένος is divided into ἔπαινος and ψόγος, it treats περὶ παρόντων and has in view τὸ καλὸν ἢ αἰσχρόν; τὸ συμβουλευτι κὸν γένος is divided into προτροπὴ and ἀποτροπή, it treats περὶ μελλόντων and has in view τὸ συμφέρον ἢ Braßepóv. The main point with Demosthenes is expediency but he frequently takes in as adjuncts the beautiful (honour) and the just. Aristotle thus defines the materials of symbuleutic oratory: oxédov yap, περὶ ὧν βουλεύονται πάντες καὶ περὶ ἃ ἀγορεύουσιν οἱ
63 Phil. iii. 16.
συμβουλεύοντες, τὰ μέγιστα τυγχάνει πέντε τὸν ἀριθμὸν ὄντα· ταῦτα δ ̓ ἐστὶ περί τε πόρων, καὶ πολέμου καὶ εἰρήνης, ἔτι δὲ περὶ φυλακῆς τῆς χώρας, καὶ τῶν εἰσαγομένων καὶ ἐξαγομένων, καὶ περὶ νομοθεσίας: (compare the different departments of modern ministers). He then goes into detail on each of these five points, see Rhet. I. ch. iv.
Demosthenes as an Orator.
24 Demosthenes studied rhetoric with Isaeus of Chalcis of whom we have remaining 11 speeches written for other persons with reference to matters of inheritance, and a large fragment of a twelfth. It is accordingly not improbable that he supported the young Demosthenes in the suits he undertook against his guardians and helped him in the preparation of the speeches in those suits, a conjecture which we find in ancient writers: yet these speeches show on careful examination a peculiar individuality throughout, quite distinct from that of Isaeus. It is said that Demosthenes, soon after attaining his majority, took Isaeus into his house for several years, and Isaeus, a master of forensic rhetoric, and profoundly skilled in Athenian law, devoted this time exclusively to the instruction of his studious and gifted pupil. In any case his teaching was more practically useful for the events of real life than that of the more distinguished
61 Pseudo-Plutarch. Vit. dec. Oratt. 839 E, 844 B. Dion. Hal. Ίσαλος, c. 3.
Isocrates. Demosthenes seems never to have heard the latter himself though he studied his writings: similarly he had no acquaintance, personally at least, with the philosopher Plato. His favourite work, which the legend makes him copy out eight times and learn by heart, was the history of the Peloponnesian war by Thucydides; probably the kindred spirit of the young man was charmed by the high tone of the author and the grandeur of the period he described, while the future statesman and orator was impressed by the brilliant clearness of detail, the inventive power in oratorical dialectics, and the weightiness of expression. Demosthenes had but a small fortune and yet we find 25 him paying for this expensive instruction, defraying the housekeeping of a family in good position, and discharging the costly services to the state, many of which he undertook of his own accord. He found the means by becoming a λoyoypάpos", that is, he wrote speeches for litigants to pronounce in court, and thus acquired reputation and property67, and perfected by practice against opponents and before judges that debating power which made him irresistible in political oratory. The story is told of Pitt that before he had a seat in parliament he used to attend the meetings of both
65 i. e. his speeches, not a réXVN.
66 Like Antiphon in the first instance, who consequently was assailed by the comic poets; then Lysias, Isaeus, and others. The name Moyoypápos was somewhat disreputable (Aeschin. c. Tim. 94, de F. L. 180, c. Ctes. 173, Dem. F. L. 246), the thing was in great request.
67 Which he kept up davelswv éπi vaνтiкoîs, Plutarch. Comp. Demosth. et Ciceronis, c. 3.