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THE Notes in this volume are, with few excep. tions, paraphrased from those of the late C. Rehdantz in his Neun Philippische Reden.' His text (sixth edition, Leipzig, 1881) has been followed throughout. The sixth edition has had the great advantage of Professor Blass's revision as far as the end of the first part, which contains the Olynthiacs and the first Philippic. The second part contains the remainder of the Philippics and two ample indexes, one rhetorical and stylistic, the other grammatical and lexical. Wherever Rehdantz refers to these indexes in his notes to Phil. 1. I have extracted the substance of the passages referred to.

The text adheres closely to the Parisian codex Σ and the Florentine L, see Introd. ch. vi. The Introduction consists of a selection, translated from that of Rehdantz, omitting the earlier and later portions which bear less directly on the first Philippic. The aim of the Introduction is, "in regard to Athenian history in general, to place the reader as nearly as possible on the same standpoint as that occupied by the hearer just before the beginning of the speech. Thus, as Demosthenes was a political orator, an outline is given of the political relations amidst which he moved and acted, and of all matters of fact and

military or financial topics introduced in the speech. And, as his influence was mainly due to the power of his eloquence, the perfection of which has at all times interested mankind in his works, a short sketch is given of the history and development of Greek oratory."

Rehdantz does not profess to give perfectly adequate translations in his notes. This, he thinks, is often impossible even for the best scholars. He endeavours to make the reader feel and understand what Demosthenes meant. And generally he makes grammatical and lexical explanation subordinate to "the analysis of the far more praised than demonstrated power (deivórns) of Demosthenic expression," see the close of the Introduction. The peculiar principle of his edition is, as Prof. Blass says, a preponderance of rhetorical and aesthetical explanation. And in his preface and elsewhere Rehdantz insists on frequent reading aloud and learning by heart as essential to a proper understanding of the orator.

It will not be found, however, that the notes are scanty as regards grammatical and general explanation. Frequent references are given to Prof. Goodwin's Syntax of the Moods and Tenses, the number of which I have somewhat increased: I have also added references to the same author's Elementary Greek Grammar.

I am indebted to Mr J. H. Bullock of Trinity College for much kind help in the correction of the proofs. He has also contributed the list of references to the grammars.

THE Speeches of Demosthenes and the other Orators are quoted by reference to the sections given in the Teubner series of Texts.

The following abbreviations are used;

Goodwin's Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of

the Greek Verb

Goodwin's Elementary Greek Grammar



Reference is made to the pages of these books unless

sections are specially mentioned.

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