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which was made in the eye of the world without the leaft deference to a good and gracious Sovereign, to an illuftrious Nobility, to a learned and knowing Gentry, to a great and valiant People: I fay, let even this ftep be forgiven for a good peace; but let not that peace receive its fanction from the repetition of it. If men cannot carry on the bufinefs of the nation without fuch helps, they may as well in plain terms tell us they cannot maintain the constitution, but they will alter it to one which they can. But how is this received with fo much indifference? Why, men qualified for power direct mankind by consulting their interest, and managing their affections; but pretenders to administration indulge the paffions of the multitude at the expence of their real intereft and advantage. It is by this latter method all the anarchical proceedings, which have of late diftracted this unhappy nation, have been tolerated. When the minds of men are prejudiced, wonderful effects may be wrought against common-fenfe. One weak step, in trying a fool for what he said in a pulpit, with all the pomp that could be used to take down a more dangerous and powerful man than ever England yet has feen, coft the most able Miniftry that ever any Prince was honoured with, its being. The judgement of the House of Lords was by this means infulted and evaded, and the anarchical fury ran fo high, that Harry Sacheverell fwelling, and Jack Huggins laughing,


marched through England in a triumph more than military. Many extraordinary things which have happened fince, have been brought about upon a maxim no deeper than pax bello potior,


peace is better than war." A great many lies, grafted upon this unquestionable truth, could not but produce wonders among all who pay taxes. But arithmetick is fo common an art, that the very common people, now their paffions are fallen, see their cafe in one sheet of paper, called, "A View of the Taxes, Funds, and "public Revenues of England. Printed for "Tim. Child, at the White Hart, at the Weft "end of St. Paul's *."

As for myself, what I have here fuggefted is from a very honeft heart, and I have an armour in my integrity against all gainfayers. My comfort is, that the laws of England are still in force; and, though what I have said may be unacceptable, I am fure it is not illegal. While the laws are in being I am fafe, and no man can be fafe who outlives them. May I, whenever they expire, die with them!

I wish you the long poffeffion of the honour in which your generous behaviour has placed you in the minds of all true Englishmen; and am, with great refpect, your most obedient ferFRANCIS HICKS.


In a paper called "The Protefter," by Mr. Ralph, pub·lished in 1753, No 5, this piece is quoted as the production of Mr. Walpole.

+ Acknowledged by Steele as his own in 1715. A a 2



To the Earl of WHARTON +.


[1712-13]. HE author of the Spectator, having pre


fixed before each of his volumes the name of fome great perfon to whom he has particular obligations, lays his claim to your Lordship's

*Prefixed to the fifth volume of "The Spectator."

+ Thomas Wharton was appointed by King William Comptroller of the Houfhold, Juftice in Eyre South of Trent, and Lord-lieutenant of Oxfordshire; created Viscount Winchendon and Earl of Wharton, Dec. 23, 1706; appointed Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, Nov. 25, 1708 (when Mr. Addison became his Secretary); Lord Privy-feal, Sept. 24, 1714; and, Dec. 24, Marquis of Wharton and Malmesbury, in England; and Earl of Rathfarnham and Marquis of Catherlough, in Ireland. He died April 12, 1715, in the 76th year of his age. He was fucceeded by his fon Philip, whom King George I. in 1718, created Duke of Wharton, purely in confideration of the merits of his noble father, as appears from the patent of his creation, which mentions " King William's obligations to Lord Wharton for his "conftant and vigorous defence of the public liberty, and the "Proteftant religion;" and states, "how vigorously he supported "the intereft of King George, by the weight of his counfels, the "force of his wit, and the firmnefs of his mind, when his faid "Majefty's title to the fucceffion to this realm was in danger." An eminent hiftorian fays, "he had as many friends as the con"ftitution, and that only its enemies were his; that he made no "merit of his zeal for his country; and that he expended above

80,ocol. for its fervice in elections," &c. There is in the British Museum a tranfcript, by Dr. Birch, of a most curious letter of Lord Wharton to King William, copied, it is faid, from an original, communicated to that indefatigable transcriber by Mr. Afile, which we do not recollect to have feen in print, though it well deferves publication. See MSS. Birch. 4107.


I must con

patronage upon the fame account. fess, my Lord, had not I already received great inftances of your favour, I fhould have been afraid of submitting a work of this nature to your perufal. You are fo thoroughly acquainted with the characters of men, and all the parts of human life, that it is impoffible for the leaft misrepresentation of them to escape your notice. It is your Lordship's particular diftinction that you are master of the whole compass of business, and have fignalized yourself in all the different fcenes of it. We admire fome for the dignity, others for the popularity of their behaviour; fome for their clearness of judgement, others for their happiness of expreffion; fome for the laying of fchemes, and others for the putting of them in execution. It is your Lordship only who enjoys these several talents united, and that too in as great perfection as others poffefs them fingly. Your enemies acknowledge this great extent in your Lordship's character, at the fame time that they use their utmost industry and invention to derogate from it. But it is for your honour that thofe who are now your enemies were always fo. You have acted in fo much confiftency with yourself, and promoted the interefts of your country in fo uniform a manner, that even those who would misrepresent your generous defigns for the public good, cannot but approve the fteadiness and intrepidity with

A a 3


which you pursue them. It is a moft fenfible pleasure to me that I have this opportunity of profeffing myself one of your great admirers, and, in a very particular manner, my Lord, your Lordship's moft obliged, and most obedient, humble fervant, THE SPECTATOR.



To the Earl of SUNDERLAND †.



[1712-13.] ERY many favours and civilities (received from you in a private capacity) which I have no other way to acknowledge, will, I hope, excuse this prefumption; but the justice I, as a SPECTATOR, owe your character, places me above the want of an excufe. Candour and openness of heart, which shine in all your words and actions, exact the highest esteem from all who have the honour to know you; and a winning condefcenfion to all fubordinate to you, made business a pleasure to those who executed

*Prefixed to the fixth volume of "The Spectator."

+ Charles Spencer, Earl of Sunderland, who fucceeded to that title, Sept. 21, 1702, on the death of his father Robert. He was made Secretary of State, Dec. 5, 1706; and dismissed, June 14, 1710. Sept. 1, 1715, he had a pension of 1200l. per annum fettled on him. April 16, 1717, was again appointed Secretary of State; March 16, 1717-18, Lord Prefident of the Council; Feb. 6, 1718-19, Groom of the Stole; and died April 19, 1722. He married Lady Anne Churchill, fecond daughter of John Duke of Marlborough; to whofe titles her eldeft furviving fon, Charles, fucceeded in 1733.

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