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finem habet motus, vivendi finem habeat necesse est. Solum igitur, quod se ipsum movet, quia numquam deseritur a se, numquam ne moveri quidem desinit. Cf. also Cic. de Rep. 6, 27.

33 3 simplex: of one substance.'

33 6 magnoque esse argumento, etc.: magno. argumento, pred. dat. of purpose. The subject of esse is the clause quod ... arripiant. Homines scire, etc., states the fact that the argument goes to prove. The general sense of the passage is: the fact that children learn so quickly that they seem to be merely recalling things already familiar to them, implies that the soul existed previous to its connection with its present body, and in that period acquired the knowledge that it now recalls. And this previous existence implies a future existence. The argument is found in Plato, Phaedo 72 (Jowett): "Your doctrine, Socrates, that knowledge is simply recollection, if true, also implies a previous time in which we learn that which we now recollect. But this would be impossible unless our soul was in some place before existing in the human form. Here then is another argument for the soul's immortality... (77), for if the soul existed before birth, — and in being born can be born only from death, - must she not after death continue to exist, since she has to be born again?"

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33 10 reminisci: 'call to mind.'-recordari: 'dwell upon,' in thought. -fere: implying, as is the case, that not all of the foregoing arguments are from Plato.

33 11 Cyrus... dicit: Cyrus the Elder, founder of the Persian empire, in the Cyropaedia of Xenophon, 8, 7, 17-22. The expression is somewhat changed in passing through the lips of Cato, but the general thought is the same. In the Cyropaedia Cyrus has stated his desire that the elder son should rule after him, but should, if he need a colleague, associate the younger with him in the government. He urges his sons to honor one another, and thus show their regard for him after his death.

33 14 Nec enim: here Cyrus begins a series of five arguments to prove the soul's immortality: (1) (a negative argument) the soul's invisibility after the death of the body does not prove that it too dies, for it is invisible even when in the body; (2) (nec vero, 80, 1. 17) the dead still influence the living; (3) (mihi, 1. 20) it is unreasonable to suppose that the soul derives life or consciousness from its connection with the perishable and unconscious body; (4) (atque etiam, 1. 25) of all the component parts of man, the soul alone cannot be traced in dissolution; (5) (iam vero, 81, 1. 29) the soul shows its independence of the body by


its prophetic powers when even partially freed from its trammels during the sleep of the body.

33 17 Nec vero: the honors paid to the dead prove that their souls 80 still live and influence the living.


38 20 numquam persuaderi potuit: the subject is animum... vivere .emori..

esse insipientem.

33 23 insipientem: 'incapable of sense.'

33 25 sapientem: 'conscious' (capable of sense).

33 26 natura: 'constitution.'

33 29 Iam vero: 'and finally.'

341 remissi: 'relaxed.'

34 4 colitote ut deum: future imp. See note on 3, p. 2, 1. 12. Cicero's translation here is not accurate. The expression in Xenophon is: "If these things are as I think, and the soul forsakes (survives) the body, do what I ask, in reverence of my soul (Tǹv èμǹv Yuxǹv Kataidoúuevo)," for it will still be conscious.

34 5 deos verentes: Xenophon goes on: "but if . . . the soul, remaining in the body, dies with it, then, fearing the gods, who are immortal, . . . do nothing and devise nothing irreverent or wicked."

34 6 hanc omnem pulchritudinem: 'this glorious universe,' Cicero's condensed translation of Xenophon's expression "the order (ráğı) of the universe... the greatness and beauty of which is indescribable.”

347 memoriam nostri: they are still to carry out their father's wishes through fear of the gods' disapproval, even if he himself shall not be conscious of their doing so. — - servabitis: the future may be used in place of an imperative in familiar language.


34 11 patrem aut patruum: Publius and Gnaeus Scipio (see genea- 82 logical table in Index of Persons).

34 13 esse conatos: irregularly used for conaturos fuisse.

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34 14 nisi animo cernerent: without seeing'; cf. Cic. Tusc. 1, 32: nemo umquam sine magna spe inmortalitatis se pro patria offeret ad mortem. Yet he recognizes an inborn sense of duty apart from pleasure or hope of reward in 43, esse profecto . . . sequeretur, and illustrates it from the sacrifice of Decius pro patria.

34 17 suscepturum fuisse: § 589, b, 2; B. 321, 2, a; G. 659, 2; H. 647.

34 30 Equidem: 'for my own part.' -efferor: I am carried away.' 83 The thought is taken from Plato, Apol. 41, which is translated by Cicero, Tusc. 1, 98.

35 2 conscripsi: in the Origines.



35 4 Peliam: Cicero should here have named Aeson rather than Pelias, as Medea's magic rites were successful in the case of the former, while she purposely caused the experiment to fail with the latter, her husband's enemy, and he died. For the story see Index of Persons, Pelias.

35 5 repuerascam: this word (lit. = 'to become a child again') is used in a modified sense, 'to behave like a child,' Cic. de Or. 2, 22, and Plautus, Merc. 296.

357 calce: 'the goal,' anciently marked with lime or chalk (calx). 35 9 habeat: sc. commodi. sane: 'if you will.' Lucretius (3, 934) makes the same point, comparing life to a feast:


. quid mortem congemis ac fles?

nam gratis anteacta fuit tibi vita priorque
et non omnia pertusum congesta quasi in vas
commoda perfluxere atque ingrata interiere:
cur non ut plenus vitae conviva recedis

aequo animoque capis securam, stulte, quietem?

35 15 devorsorium: 'an inn' (for turning aside from the highway). "But while we deal with this as a finality, early hints are given that we are not to stay here; that we must be making ready to go: a warning that this magnificent hotel and conveniency that we call Nature is not final."— Emerson, Poetry and Imagination.

35 18 conluvione: 'confused medley'; 'muddle.'

35 19 Catonem meum: his son.

35 22 quod contra: 'whereas on the contrary.' Quod is governed by contra, an unusual word-order. Cf. quem contra, Cic. Phil. 2, 18. 35 23 respectans: 'looking back toward.'

35 25 non quo: 'not that.'-aequo: 'untroubled.'

35 26 ferrem: subjv. in a reason expressed merely to deny it; § 540, N. 3; B. 286, 1, b; G. 541, N. 2; H. 588, II, 2.

35 27 digressum: walking in different paths. — discessum: 'separation,' from one another.

35 31 qui... credam: subjv. of characteristic, 'in thinking.'-libenter erro: 'I am glad to err.'

36 2 minuti: 'petty.' Cicero has in mind the Epicureans, who believed not in immortal life, but in "immortal death," mors inmortalis (Lucr. 3, 869).

36 3 nihil sentiam: 'have no consciousness.'

367 peractio: 'closing act' (cf. the figure in 5, p. 3, 1. 10). The word occurs nowhere else in classical Latin.

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I. Pre-Socratic philosophers. Concerned chiefly with nature

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Gorgias, Leontini

ca. 485-380

Contemporary with Socrates but uninfluenced by him

II. Socrates, and post-Socratic philosophers

Concerned chiefly with logic, theory of knowledge, and ethics, i.e. man

Socrates, Athens

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Peripatetic School

(Aristotle, Stagira) 384-322

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(Critolaus, Athens ?) Visited Rome 155

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* Names in parentheses are of related interest only.

(Phaedrus, Athens) Teacher of Cicero


Parenthetical figures immediately following key words refer to sections of text.

Acilius Balbus, M'. (14), consul with T. Quinctius Flamininus, B.C. 150,
the assumed date of the Cato Maior.

Acilius Glabrio, M'. (32), probably ancestor of a family of some dis-
tinction in Cicero's time. As consul, B.C. 191, he defeated Antiochus
the Great at Thermopylae. Cato served under him in this campaign as
consularis legatus (Liv. 36, 17), or, more probably, as tribunus militum
(Plut. Cat. 12), and played an important part in winning the victory, lead-
ing his men by a mountain pass to attack the rear of Antiochus' forces.
Aelius Paetus Catus, Sex. (27), named Catus from his acuteness, the
most distinguished jurist of his time, iuris civilis omnium peritissimus
(Cic. Brut. 78), cos. B.C. 198. The Aelian gens was distinguished for the
number of jurists it produced.

Aemilius Lepidus, M. (61), cos. B.C. 187 and 175; pontifex maximus,
and six times appointed princeps senatus, the highest dignity in the
state. At his death, in 152, he charged his sons to bury him with no
display and at moderate expense: imaginum specie, non sumptibus,
nobilitari magnorum virorum funera solere (Liv. Epit. 48).

Aemilius Paulus, L: (29, 61, 75, 82), cos. B.C. 219 and 216, killed in his
second consulship in the battle of Cannae. He was father of the victor
of Pydna (see below), and grandfather of the younger Africanus. His
daughter married the elder Africanus.

Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus, L. (15, 82), cos. B.C. 182 and 168, son of
the foregoing. In his second consulship Macedonia and the war against
Perseus (Third Macedonian War) fell to his lot. He ended the war by
his victory at Pydna, B.C. 168. He had four sons, the two younger of
whom died early, one just before and one just after his Macedonian
triumph, while the two older were adopted, one into the Fabian, one
into the Cornelian gens. The latter thus became Publius Cornelius
Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Minor. He also had two daughters, one
of whom married the son of Cato. (See genealogical table of the Scipios.)
Africanus, see Cornelius.

Ahala, see Servilius.


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