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arms and fhields, the fnorting and kicking of horfes, the fnap ping of fpears, the glistening of bloody fwords, oaths and imprecations; concluding with the groans and cries of bruifed and mutilated men, wounded horfes tumbling to the ground upon expiring faldiers, and the hideous roaring of elephants ftalking to and fro, and wielding their dreadful chains alike amongst friends and foes. Such as were faved from the immediate ftroke of death were fo crowded together that it was with difficulty they could ftand: feveral were in a flate of fuffocation; while others, from the weight of the dead bodies that had fallen upon them, were fixed to the fpot, at the mercy of a furious foc.'
Our author traces the fource of thefe calamities to the inexperience of the council, by whom military affairs were directed, whofe eagernefs was increafed by the reprefentations of the nabob, and to the divided as well as unprepared state of the army. He then traces the army to their former quarters, in which they covered Madras, and gives an account of an Indian camp and an Indian march, where luxuries and impediments (the impedimenta of the Romans) of every kind prevail. The luxuries are in part owing to the neceffities of the climate, and partly to the habits of the natives, which alfo occafion the delay, and the difficulties in cafe of emergencies: we hope only that the knavery and impofitions of contractors and perfons in office are exaggerated. After the army's return, fir Eyre Coote was fent from Bengal to command it:
The appearance of this officer is indeed highly pleafing and refpectable. Though much emaciated by a long refidence in this enervating climate, he yet bears the air of an hardy veterán; and, though at the age of fixty-three, cheerfully fubmits to the unremitting duties and trying hardfhips of the field. He is also renowned for an intrepid fpirit and judicious conduct; which, together with a fafcinating mien and an outward affectation of countenancing the fepoys, are faid to have given him a great afcendency over the black troops; an important accomplishment, not easily to be attained by commanders in this country. This laft indeed is the chief caufe affigned for fending general Coote to command at this critical period upon the Coromandel coaft.'
The army, which fir Eyre Coote's popularity and addrefs collected, fhows that fome of Mr. Munro's former reprefentations were exaggerated. In reality, we fee too great a tendency in this gentleman, probably from the complexion of his information, to detract from the merits of the company, and of many of the former commanders. Sir Eyre Coote, however, began the campaign with 7400 effective men; and the first exploit was ftorming the fort of Carangooly, which, in
fpite of many different obftacles, was taken by captain Davies: it was fucceeded by relieving Vandewafh, which was defended with fingular skill and ability by lieutenant Flint. After this attempt the army advanced, and by forced marches gained Cuddalore, and offered Hyder Ally battle, in circumstances which, if our author's reprefentation were admitted, no general could have accepted it: indeed he seems to confider this offer as little more than fplendid boafting, and tells us that, if the French fleet, which then appeared off the coaft, had perfifted in their hoftile attempts, the army muft have laid down their arms: had
they even cruised off Cuddalore for the fpace of one week,' the fame event muft, he thinks, have happened. The battle of Porto Novo however followed, where the defeat of Hyder Ally was complete; but fir Hector Monro, not fir Eyre Coote, is our author's hero on this occafion, as well as in the battle of Polliloore, fought on the fpot where lieutenant-colonel Bailie was defeated. Accurate plans of both are fubjoined.
Notwithstanding these victories, which partiality alone, and the retreats of Hyder would perhaps ftyle fo, the hero of the Mifore again prepared to difpute the relief of Vellore and the fiege of Arcot. The action of Sholangur followed, in which Hyder was again defeated; but fir Eyre Coote, as ufual, could make no great advantage of it, fince, as in fimilar circumftances, he was obliged after the victory to fall back on Madras for a fupply of provifions. At this time, however, Madras itself was in little better circumstances; and the British army wandered through the pollams (highlands), under the aufpices of a friendly rajah, where they found, if not a fcanty, a precarious fupply. In this retreat they were molefted by a plundering party of Miforian horfe, which fir Eyre Coote, with much skill, furprised and captured; and colonel Owen, who was detached to the relief of Vellore, was oppofed by the whole of Hyder's army, which he eluded, and again joined the general. Money and provifions were at laft obtained, and Vellore was relieved before the face of Hyder.
Lord Macartney, who had come out fome time before these laft events, with the account of the Dutch war, now proceeded in his hoftilities agaiuft that nation. Negapatnam and Trinquamallee foon furrendered; the firft of which is the key to the Tanjore country, and contributed to bring about a reconciliation with the Poligars of Marawa and Tinavelly; the fecond, a valuable harbour, the only retreat of fhipping during the monfoon season on that fide of the peninfula. After the relief of Vellore, where a fingular mode of defence is adopted by filling the moat with alligators, who may, however, be terrified by noife, Chittore was captured and recaptured; Trippafore was threatCc 4 ened
ened and again left. Nothing of more importance was done; and on the second of December both armies went into winter quarters.
The commencement of the year 1782 was profperous. Vel lore was again relieved, notwithstanding the efforts of Hyder, who was not however willing to risk a general engagement for that purpose. The two years fiege of Tillicherry, on the Malabar coaft, was raised, and the garrifon of Calicut, on the fame coaft, furrendered to col. Humberton Mackenzie, who difembarked the reinforcements from England at that place, not only that they might not be captured by the French, who had at this time the command of the fea, but that he might make fome effectual diverfion to relieve the fouthern army. Colonel Fullarton, with commodore Alms, and a confiderable force, joined fir Edward Hughes at Trinquamalle.
The naval actions at this time occurred; but these, with their different events, are well known. The French landed their troops after fome difficulty; and M. Lally entered the Tanjore country, with Tippoo Sahib, and captured colonel Brathwaite and his army, after an obftinate and bloody battle. Cuddalore alfo capitulated to Tippoo Sahib and his new reinforcements. Parmacol furrendered to Hyder.
Sir Eyre Coote at last marched, and by fucceffively threatening Ch taput and Arné, endeavoured to feparate the allies. The movement to Arné, where Hyder's treasures lay, drew the Miforian to its defence, where our troops gained another barren unproductive victory. The army fell back for provifions, lofing, through the address and skill of Hyder, one regiment of black cavalry, two guns, and a hundred infantry, the grand guard of the army. The fiege of Negapatnam, which was relieved by fir Edward Hughes, the fevere but indecifive naval actions of July and Auguft, and the lofs of Trinquamallee fol low: an excellent plan of the harbour and forts of Trinquamallee is annexed. The peace with the Marrattas foon enfued, and gave a profpect, though a diftant one, of relief: fome attempts were made to approach Cuddalore; but the progress was prevented by the failure of the fupply. Rice foon became fcarce at Madras, and a dreadful famine enfued. Col. Humberfton endeavoured to draw Hyder's attention from the Carnatic, beat the troops oppofed to him, took the fort of Trincolore, and marched to Calicut. He even attempted to penetrate into the Mifore country, but was prevented by the appearance of Tippoo Sah b; and, when reinforced by the fecond battalion of the 42d regiment, completely defeated the fon of Hyder, The death of this fubtle and politic prince occurred at the end of the year 1784, and the army went into winter
Our interests gained little advantage from the death of Hy der, except that the report prevented Suffrein from attacking Ganjam, and our other northern fettlements, during the abfence of fir Edward Hughes and fir Richard Bickerton, who had now joined him from England. Tippoo, however, having affured the French admiral of his attachment, Cuddalore was revictualled, and preparations made for an active campaign. The first attempt was to demolish the forts of Vandewash and Carangooly, which had so often delayed the operations of the army, by the care and protection they required. Vellore was again revictualled; and great affiftance was expected from an event which proved to be a fource of the feverest misfortunes. Hayet Saib was an illegitimate fon of Hyder, and was difcontented with the diftribution of his father's vaft acquifitions. The prefidency of Bombay endeavoured to take advantage of thefe circumstances, and fent general Mathews with a suitable force for that purpofe, The general reduced fome very important fortreffes, and was in poffeffion of Hyder-nagur, the metropolis of Beddinore, when Tippoo fuddenly left the Carnatic to oppofe him, having previously blown up all the garrisons except that of Arné. Beddinore was foon attacked by the Misorian chief; and general Mathews' conduct, which is represented to have been, in the extreme, rapacious and unjuft, was now timid and indecifive. He capitulated on the most folemn engagements, which were difregarded, and the event is well known; Tippoo was refolved to escape from fuch a formidable opponent at any rate.
Col. Fullarton, with the fouthern army, and general Jones, with the northern, advanced on the Mifore territories, and were for a time fuccefsful; but different circumstances obliged them to defift. General Stuart, on whom the command of the main army devolved, took poffeffion of the ruins of Arcot and other fortreffes, in form, and then turned his attention to Cuddalore. This place was garrifoned with Europeans, in a larger proportion than are ufually found in the plains or fortreffes of India, and with a numerous body of fepoys, in the whole nearly equalling in numbers the befieging army, which amounted to about 11000 men. A fevere action before the fortrefs enfued, in which the British loft the greater number of men, but claimed the victory, from having driven the French into the citadel. A fiege enfued, in which fir Edward Hughes, with the fleet, for a time co-operated; but he was blown off the coast, and Suffrei feized his ftation, which the British admiral could not again recover. In this fituation, with a fuperior foe in the garrifon, and the whole force of the French fleet on the other fide, the befiegere were threatened with a formidable attack, when
the news of peace, fortunately it feems for our troops, flopped the blow. A fevere naval action, however, occurred before Cuddalore; and, as we have not hitherto stopped our narrative to mention the particulars of the contefts at fea, we shall add our author's reflections on the general conduct of fir Edward Hughes.
The difadvantages under which fir Edward Hughes laboured in the profecution of the war, may be eafily feen by any perfon who will take the trouble of investigating them. He gallantly fought, without an ally, or fcarcely any other reource but what his own ingenuity furnished, against the most expert admiral of France, who was liberally fupported by the Dutch and Hyder Ally; and engaged in a caufe fo defperate, that he had nothing to lofe but his thips and men, and with the fatter he was regularly and plentifully reinforced from the Ifle of France. On the other hand, fir Edward Hughes had a moft extentive territory to protect in every quarter of India, with a great inferiority of fhips, and a ftill greater of feamen, his fleet never having been furnished with a fingle feaman from Britain, excepting thofe preffed from the outward bound East Indiamen, the number of which was fo very inadequate for the fupply of his lofles by fickness and battle, that, during a great part of the war, but particularly in the laft engagement, fir Edward was obliged to fubftitute wretched lafcars for British failors, who formed at least a fourth part of his complement. Though labouring under fuch evident difadvantages, he not only maintained his ground but boldly fought his foes, and gave them fuch repeated difcomfitures that nothing important could be ef fected by their land forces. No lefs than feven fea captains were fent in extreme difgrace to France by the gallant Suffrein, (fome of whom, it is faid, are fill in the Bailile) on account of their mifconduct.'
Tippoo Sahib was now the only enemy; and the fubfequent events, of which the principal are the taking of Poligatcherry by colonel Fullarton in the fouth, and of Mangalore by Tippoo, are of little importance. We dare not follow our author in his narrative of the difputes of general Stuart and fir John Burgoyne, with the governor and council of Madras, for, through the whole volume, no little bias against the company is confpicuous. The peace was concluded with Tippoo fultan in March 1784; and the remainder of the letter contains a melancholy defcription of the treatment of the prifoners taken by the king of Mifore, and complaints against the conduct of the East India company, the juftice of which we cannot afcertain. The last letter contains a good defcription of the Isle of France, which our author thinks might have been cafily and advantageously fubdued at the beginning of the war.
The Narrative before us we have fhortly abridged, becaufe