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productions of this part of the world: the tincal is chiefly found, it is faid, on the borders and shallowest parts of the lake, for the middle affords rock-falt. The thermometer at Tiffolumboo, during the month of October, was 38° at eight in the morning, 46° at noon, and 42° at fix in the evening: the weather was clear, cool, and pleafant; the prevailing wind from fouth. November was frofty, but clear and ferene; the thermometer from 30° to 28°. The goitre is a common disease at the foot of the mountains; but our author allows, and fupports his opinion by facts which occur in India, that the fnowwater has no influence on the complaint.
The diseases are chiefly inflammatory, though they are acquainted with the small-pox, which they greatly dread, the liver complaint, and with the venereal disease. The laft they cure with mercury, which they probably learnt from the Perfians. Alum, nitre, vermilion, and quick filver, are calcined together, and make feemingly an efficacious medicine; but the Perfians were acquainted with the method of killing quickfilver, though we fufpect they only used it in that way for external ufe. Their fyftem of materia medica feems, on the whole, fo conformable to that of the Perfians, that we have reason to believe they borrowed or communicated it. On their return over the mountains, in December, the thermometer was often below 16o.
A poftfcript is added refpecting the lac. The tree, which the infect is fond of, is faid to be a fpecies of rhamnus. The lac, which is the nidus of the egg, and the first food of the worm, is formed into cells, as regular as thofe of the honeycomb, but differently arranged. The egg is of a pure red, oval, and transparent, except where the embryo is, from whence opaque ramifications are spread in every direction. The maggot is one-eighth of an inch, with ten or twelve rings, a fmall red head, and fix fmall fpecks on the breaft, the rudiments of the future legs. Mr. Saunders has not feen the fly; but we may expect from him fome farther information on the fubject.
The meteorological journal, for 1788, concludes the volume. The mean heat is 5.0°.6; but the thermometer was at So only twice, once in May, and again in June, when it was evidently accidental. The mean heat of April is 52°.6, probably three degrees above the real ftandard heat. The mean height of the barometer was 29°.96; and the rain, as we have faid, 14.9 inches nearly.
A Narrative of Four Journeys into the Country of the Hottentots, and Caffraria. In the years 1777, 8, and 9. Illustrated with a Map, and feventeen Copper-plates. By Lieut. William Paterfon. 4to. 18s. in Boards, plain; 11. 11s. 6d. coloured. Johnfon.
To 10 travel in these inhofpitable wilds requires no common fhare of refolution, and our gratitude fhould be proportioned to the danger of the enterprize, and the necessary perfeverance and spirit to conduct it. Mr. Paterfon's journeys were chiefly botanical ones, though he has described the different circumftances attending them with fufficient minutenefs. In many refpects, this tour is a fupplement to Dr. Sparrman's Voyage, which we reviewed in our LXth volume, P. 321, &c. Our prefent author has gone over a part of the fame ground, and has extended his journey to parts which Dr. Sparrman never reached. The map feems to be that of the Swedish traveller, corrected in fome parts and filled up in others: we regret only that Mr. Paterson's route is not always marked with fufficient accuracy, though this defect cannot be complained of in the new, and hitherto unexplored tracts.
Mr. Paterson tells us, and he tells us what we find to be ftrictly true, that none of the common arts of compilation have been employed, for the few defcriptions of animals in the notes taken from Dr. Sparrman, can fcarcely be ftyled an exception. The fidelity of the obfervations, and the unadorned plainnefs of the narration prove this work to be a series of facts noted down on the spot,' which are recommended by the fimple form of truth,' and their apparent accuracy.
Our author's first journey was to the eastward, nearly in Sparrman's tract. It commenced in October 1777, and extended from the Cape to Bier Valley, to the north and a little to the west of the fource of Oliphants (Elephants) river. The fource of that river is defcribed as a beautiful and fertile fpot. This valley is more than a degree to the north of Dr. Sparrman's moft northern excurfion in that longitude, and we perceive that Oliphants river trends lefs to the north and more to the weft, than in the Swedish map. We find little elfe that we can add to our former description.
Mr. Paterfon's fecond journey, in the winter (Auguft) of 1778, is much more new and interefting. He proceeded through the more internal parts of the peninfula, to the east of the first chain of mountains, finding hail and fnow in the internal parts of Africa, in latitude 32 S. He feldom speaks of the different ftrata, occafionally indeed he talks of hills of fand, of clayey grounds, of foft ftone, and of a reddish clay
containing a quantity of faline matter. The general character is, we believe, fand and fand-ftone, interfperfed with patches of clay.
It is neceffary (fays he) to obferve, that towards the interior parts of this country, or rather the centre of the peninfula, the country does not decline in a north-west direction, at least not in proportion to the immenfe mountains which progreffively prefent themfelves to view for inftance, though the afcent of the mountain called the Rogge Veld, is not lefs than two thoufand feet from the Karo, the defcent is not more than one thoufand, before we come to a fecond, which appears of equal height with the former. In the detail of my journey through this country, it is my intention to pay a particular regard to this circumstance.'
The mountains abound in iron, contained, we fufpect, in a matrix of quartz; and no inconfiderable quantities of copper; warm chalybeate fprings are alfo frequently interfperfed. In this tour lions were often heard and occafionally feen: the hippopotamus, the great object of Dr. Sparrman's enquiry, feems frequently to have obtruded itfelf on their attention, though they neither pursued or examined it, except to defend themselves, or to procure it for food.
In this excurfion, our author penetrated, we have faid, far beyond the ufual routes, beyond Orange river very near the 28th degree of latitude. To the east, he extended his journey fo far as the mountains inhabited by Bofhmen, whom we have defcribed in our former article; but refpecting whom, Mr. Paterfon gives us no new information. The ground, however, is fo high, as to furnish rivers for the Atlantic and Indian ocean, and our author travelled from fnow and ice, till he found the thermometer at 95°. Copper is the common mineral on the western coaft; and wild beafts of the most ferocious kind its chief inhabitants. Yet Dutchmen and Germans are fcattered in this very diftant country, and are even found in the mountains among the bufh Hottentots, preferring a fcanty and precarious fubfiftence, furrounded with perils from the beafts or the more ferocious Bofhmen, to the calm fecurity, which, with a comfortable livelihood, a life of labour might procure in Europe. Their occupation is grazing; but the cattle are very unhealthy, probably from the numerous poifons of the vegetable world.
The third journey was directed to Cafiraria. Our author went much farther eastward than his predeceffor Dr. Sparrman. He goes nearly in his tract, and fleps quickly over what we may comparatively call frequented ground, till he comes to great Sunday's river, the extent of Mr. Mafon's
journey, and Hapagni wood, the extent of Dr. Sparrman's journey eastward. Caffre Land, which lies to the east of this point, and is bounded on the weft by great Fish river, was the object of our author's enquiries, and the scene of his botanical researches. The country on the unexplored western fide of the river appears fertile, though no inhabitants were found except wild beafts. The palm, defcribed by Mr. Mafon in his fecond journey, of the pith of which the inhabitants make bread, is very common in this boundary of Caffre Land, and is often seen growing to twenty feet in height.
On croffing the river, the travellers entered a fpacious plain," adorned with a great variety of evergreens, and various flowers in full bloom.
After paffing this extenfive plain, we entered a wood about eight miles broad. In many places the trees were thinly fcattered; in thefe openings we difcovered numerous herds of buffaloes, which had not the leaft appearance of fhynefs; one of them we wounded. Soon after this we faw a herd of elephants about eighty in number, which approached so near to us, that we could obferve the length and thickness of their. teeth. After leaving the wood, we afcended a steep mountain, where we had a view of the Indian Ocean to the fouthward; and to the northward, a hilly country covered with trees and evergreen fhrubs, which extended about thirty miles. The profpect was bounded by a range of mountains called the Bamboo Berg, on which grows a fpecies of bamboo. To the east we had a view of a pleafant country decorated with great variety of plants. The country is here well watered, and produces excellent pafture for cattle. Towards the evening of the feventh, we obferved a fire about ten miles to the eastward of us, upon the flope of a green hill. Our interpreter told us this was at a Caffree village. At funfet we difcovered an-' other much nearer, and faw feveral herds of cattle. About eight in the evening we met three of the Caffrees, who were much furprised at our appearance, as we were certainly the first Europeans they had ever feen. They fpeedily returned and alarmed the whole village before we arrived; but on our arrival they received us kindly, brought us milk, and offered us a fat bullock agreeably to their ufual hofpitable cuftom. This village confifted of about fifty houfes, lituate on the banks of a pleasant river called in the Caffree language, Mugu Ranie; and it belongs to their chief. It contained about three hundred inhabitants, all of whom were fervants or foldiers to their chief, who was likewife the proprietor of the numerous herds of cattle. These people fubfift on the milk of their cows, and on game, not being allowed to kill any of their cattle. The men milk the cows, and the women take care of the gardens and corn.'
They generally live on the banks of rivers, in patriarchal fimplicity, with their cattle around them. The chief had one hundred cows and twenty-two fervants, who generally attend, ed him. He accepted fome beads, but preferred his own tobacco, and offered the travellers a herd of fat bullocks. He feemed hurt on their refufing them.
After a few words between us I accepted of one, which we immediately fhot; this furprifed all the fpectators, who were about fix hundred perfons, few of them having ever feen a gun, or heard the report of one. We had a part of the bullock drefled, which I thought much fuperior to the beef near the Cape. The rest of the animal I diftributed to the king and his fervants. He still feemed difpleafed that I would accept of nothing more in return. I then asked him for fome of their baskets, which he gave me, and alfo two of their lances or haffagais, which they make with great ingenuity; but the construction of the baskets which are made by their women, is much more furprifing; they are compofed of grafs, and woven fo clofely that they are capable of holding any fluid. Khouta, the chief, intreated me to remain with him a few days, this, however, we did not confent to; but after much perfuafion agreed to stay all night. In the afternoon I ranged the neighbouring woods in fearch of plants, and at night returned to my companion, who stayed at the Becha Cum (the river on which his house was built.) As the weather was hot, we chose to fleep in the woods rather than in any of the huts. During the night I obferved that there were two guards placed on each fide the door of the chief's houfe, who were relieved about every two hours."
The men are faid to be from five feet ten inches to fix fect high; and in general evince great courage in attacking lions or beafts of prey.
The colour of the Caffrees is a jet black, their teeth white as ivory, and their eyes large. The cloathing of both fexes is nearly the fame, confitting entirely of the hides of oxen, which are as pliant as cloth. The men wear tails of different animals tied round their thighs, pieces of brafs in their hair, and large ivory rings on their arms; they are alfo adorned with the hair of lions, and feathers fattened on their heads, with many other fantaflical ornaments. When they are about nine years of age they undergo the operation of being circumcifed, and afterwards wear a muzzle of leather which covers the extremity of the penis, and is fufpended by a leathern thong from their middle. This covering is in general ornamented with beads and brafs rings, which they purchase from the Hottentots for tobacco and dacka. They are extremely fond of dogs, which they exchange for cattle, and to fuch a height do they carry this paffion, that if one particularly pleafes them, they will give two bullocks in exchange for it.