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bill, the fate of the Eaft India company, the delinquency of Mr. Haftings, and the characters of his accufers. On the whole, this friend, however zealous, contributes little, by his prefent efforts, to the fame of the Rockingham party.
WE have complied with the request of our Correfpondent at B. in a feparate letter, which we trust he has, before this time, received. This part of our Journal, as we have often hinted, must be confined to questions arifing from the conduct of the Review. The other inconvenience which he mentions we have often felt, and we trust that it will be now remedied.
WE were difpleafed with the application of Vir Medicus, on a former occasion, to another Journal, as it fhowed either an apprehenfion of our attention, or a distrust of our judgment;" particularly as it was made at the time he must have expected an anfwer from us. There is no fuch connexion as he hints at; and a flight reflection must inform him from whence we had our information. If he looks at our Foreign Intelligence, he will perceive whether, from our improved plan, we can be of fervice to him. On the particular subject of Opium, we can add little to what is generally known. Tralles he is now acquainted with: Wedelius de Opio contains the best facts of the later Galenifts, encumbered with much unintelligible theory; Jones on Opium is equally unintelligible, from his employing the mechanical and corpufcularian philofophy, which appears of greater importance to him than collecting facts: Young, on the contrary, contains only crude unconnected facts. In Lindelftolpe's Work de Venenis are fome important obfervations respecting opium. Hailley's Theory, on this fubject, is the only part in which his fyftem of affociation feems to fail. The general writers on the Materia Medica, our Correfpondent may be acquainted with from Dr. Cullen's Introduction; to which we were able, in our review of the work, to make fone additions. Refpecting the collection of opium, he must truft to the defcription of Kampfer in the Amænitates Exotica; and to fome papers in the late volumes of the Philofophical Tranfactions.
In our Review for January we hope to give a particular and fatisfactory view of the dispute refpecting the Bampton Lecture.And in the fame Journal will be given an examination of the prin ciples and tendency of Dr. Price's Difcourfe on the Love of our Country.
VOLUME THE SIXTY-EIGHTH.
Ariftotle's Treatife on Poetry, tranflated, &c. By T. Twining. The Poetic of Ariftotle, tranflated, &c. By H. J. Pye, Efq. (Concluded, from p. 366.)
AS the rival tranflators had the fame object in view, to give
a confiftent, a fuitable, and an accurate version of the Poetics, they become fair objects of comparifon. It is neceffary, however, to difcriminate our obfervations; and we shall first confider-Mr. Twining's tranflation feparately, and then attend to Mr. Pye: after a few remarks on each, we shall bring the paffages which we have quoted together, and compare their different merits. Perhaps we may conclude with the old paftoral umpire-Vitula tu dignus & hic! As Mr. Twining's verfion is accompanied by numerous notes, it is beft adapted for the first examination; and convenience, as we observed in our former article, is the only foundation of this preference.
We must first felect the introduction, as we have already hinted that we differ in opinion from Mr. Twining, in the tranflation of one paffage.
My defign is to treat of poetry in general, and of its several fpecies to inquire, what is the proper effect of each-what conftruction of a fable or plan is effential to a good poem-of what, and how many parts each fpecies confifts; with whatever elfe belongs to the fame fubject: which I fhall confider in the order that moft naturally presents itself.
Epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambics*, as alfo for the most part, the mufic of the flute, and of the lyre-all these are, in the most general view of them, imitations; differing, however, from each other in three refpects, according to the different means, the different objects, or the different manner, of their imitation.
Dithyrambic poetry among the ancients, was very frequently narra. tive and fometimes dramatic.
APP. VOL. LXVIII.
For as men, fome through art and fome through habit, imitate various objects, by means of colour and figure, and others again by voice; fo with refpect to the arts above-mentioned, hythm, words, and melody, are the different means by which, either angle, or varioufly combined, they all produce their imi
For example: in the imitations of the flute and the lyre, and of any other inftruments capable of producing a fimilar effect, as the fyrinx, or pipe, melody and rhythm only are employed. In thofe of dance, rhythm alone without melody; for there are dancers who, by rhythur applied to gesture, ex prefs manners, patlions, and actions.
The epopeia imitates by words alone, or by verse; and that verfe may either be compofed of various metres, or confined according to the practice hitherto establified to a fingle fpecies. For we fhould otherwife have no general name which would comprehend the mimes of Sophron and Xenarchus, and the So cratic dialogues; or poems in iambic, elegiac, or other metres, in which the epic fpecies of imitation may be conveyed. Custom indeed, connecting the poetry, or making with the metre, has denominated fome elegiac poets, i. e. makers of elegiac verfe; others, epic pocts, i. e. makers of hexameter verfe; thus di-' ftinguishing the poets, not according to the nature of their imitation, but according to that of their metre only. For even they who compofe treaties of medicine or natural philofophy in verfe, are denominated poets; yet Homer and Empedocles have nothing in common, except their metre; the former, therefore, july merits the name of poet, while the other fhould rather be called a phyfiologift than a poet.
So alfo, though any one fhould chufe to convey his imitation in every kind of metre promifcuoufly, as Chaeremon has done in his Centaur, which is a medley of all forts of verse, it would not immediately follow, that on that account merely, he was entitled to the name of poet.-But of this enough.
There are again, other fpecies of poetry which make use of all the means of imitation, rhythm, melody, and verfe Such are the dithyrambic, that of nomes, tragedy, and comedy; with this difference, however, that in fome of thefe, they are employed all together, in others, feparately. And fuch are the differ ences of thefe arts with refpect to the means by which they imitate.'
In this introduction we might make some minuter remarks, and doubt whether it were proper to alter the terms of an author fo frialy logical as Aristotle. To treat of poetry itself, and its various forms, conveys a more accurate idea than species. What fable or plan is effential to a good poem is probably a corredt verfion of ει μέλλοι καλώς εξείνη ποιεσις ; but if we could have found fuch a mode of expreflion employed, we should have fufpe&ted that the author meant is effential to its fuccefs, ut bene evadat. Thefe are, however, trifles: what we for
merly alluded to is the music of the flute or lyre,' nai rūs αυλιτικῆς ἡ πλείςη και κιθαρισικῆς —the literal conftru&tion certainly is the greater part belonging to the flute and the lyre; as Toinois occurs before, and as the whole is afterwards connected by the word acai, there is little doubt but poetry was meant, especially as poetry and the conftruction of a poem is the subject announced. Indeed, in a fubfequent paragraph, ävλstin and basin are connected with harmony and cadence, and opposed to hoy, which fhould certainly be tranflated lan guage; but the author alludes there to the power of the intrument, independent of the words added to it, and diftinguishes it in a manner not to be mistaken.
In a fubfequent paragraph, for as men, &c.' Mr. Twining has not preferved the force of amatores, affimilantes; but we know no word appropriated to it in English, Mimics would be improper, as not including painters, and the last would not. include the former. To make the fentence more elegant, we fufpect our author has confufed the meaning of the Stagyrite.A natural and almost literal translation might have been adopted, we think, with fuccefs. For as fome painters imitate by means of figures and colouring, fome mimic through fkill, fome through habit, and others only in the tone of the voice; fo, in the arts we have been speaking of, imitation is effected by rhythm, by language, and by harmony. We own that there may be exceptions to this tranflation, which cannot easily be avoided, unlefs we adopt the fuggeftion of Heinfius and fome others, and read δι αμβοιν inftead of δια της Çoνης. We would then tranfate more accurately, for as fome painters imitate by means of figures and colouring, either through skill, practice, or both; fo in, &c*.
In the fame way, Mr. Twining has in another paragraph. altered the close pointed manner of Aristotle, to make a more rounded period; and we fufpett too that σχεματιζόμενων ῥυθμῶν is not properly rendered by rhythm, applied to gefture. If he had faid connected with figure, or with figured movements, it would have been lefs liable to objection.
The epopeia undoubtedly means every fpecies of compofition that is imitative; and the λoy, which have puzzled commentators fo much, like the exigui elegi in Horace, probably mean either what we should call humble profe,' or verse divested of its poetic fire. Mr. Twining has rendered it with
An emendation propofed by Mr. Twining from the conjecture of Robortelli, and faid to occur in an ancient MS. is very ingenious, and the paffage would then have this force. -For, as fome artifts imitate by means of figures and colours, either through skill or practice, and fome by means of the voice steps as in win, &c. If this be allowed, dia rexing and dianas are parenthetical.
M m 2
great propriety, though we think he has confined it too much. In the notes, he distinguishes Aoyei ↓ as words without metre, or, more ftrictly, without melody or rhythm. But imitation is fo fully in Ariftotle's mind (and the narrative and the dramatic forms of dialogues are species of it) that we can perceive no impropriety in the meaning which we have affigned, a meaning not very different from the common one, and fupported by the almost literal tranflation, which occurs in his follower, Horace. In a fubfequent paffage, where Ariftotle fpeaks of the Centaur of Chæremon, we own that we are not fatisfied with our author's argument, and are willing to fuppofe with him, that the text is corrupted. The tenor of the paffage leads us to adopt Heinfius' addition of the note of interrogation, for the general diftinguishing principle imitation is allowed, and this is the only foundation on which Empedocles' verfe is excluded. The word oog is not a great obftacle, for we might tranflate-' in a similar way; even if any one should mix every kind of metre, and of these form an imitative work, thould he not be ftill called a poet ?'
This paffage has detained us fo long, that we shall step on more quickly; and the next that we shall examine, is defigned rather as a ipecimen of the precision and the judgment of Ariftotle, than a trial of skill between the tranflators. It is the fourteenth chapter, on the means of exciting pity and terror. We shall tranfcribe, as before, from Mr. Twining.
Since, therefore, it is the bufinefs of the tragic poet to give that pleasure which arifes from pity and terror, through imitation, it is evident, that he ought to produce that effect by the circumstances of the action itself.
Let us then fe of what kind thofe incidents are, which appear most terrible or piteous.
Now fuch actions mult, of neceflity, happen between perfons who are either friends or enemies, or indifferent to each other. If an enemy kills, or purposes to kill, an enemy, in neither cafe is any commiferation raised in us, beyond what neceffarily arifes from the nature of the action itself.
The cafe is the fame, when the perfons are neither friends nor enemies. But when fuch difafters happen between friends, when, for inftance, the brother kills, or is going to kill his brother, the fon his father, the mother her fon, or the reversethefe, and others of a fimilar kind, are the proper incidents for the poet's choice. The received tragic fubjects, therefore, he is not at liberty effentially to alter; Clytemnestra muft die by the hand of Orettes, and Eriphyle by that of Alemaon but it is his province to invent other fubjects, and to make a skilful use of those which he finds already established.-What I mean by a fkilful ufe I proceed to explain.
The atrocious action may be perpetrated knowingly and