Intuitive Combinatorial Topology
Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 9, 2013 - Mathematics - 142 pages
Topology is a relatively young and very important branch of mathematics. It studies properties of objects that are preserved by deformations, twistings, and stretchings, but not tearing. This book deals with the topology of curves and surfaces as well as with the fundamental concepts of homotopy and homology, and does this in a lively and well-motivated way. There is hardly an area of mathematics that does not make use of topological results and concepts. The importance of topological methods for different areas of physics is also beyond doubt. They are used in field theory and general relativity, in the physics of low temperatures, and in modern quantum theory. The book is well suited not only as preparation for students who plan to take a course in algebraic topology but also for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduates interested in finding out what topology is all about. The book has more than 200 problems, many examples, and over 200 illustrations.
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1-cycles algebra Betti numbers called cell decomposition chromatic number circle closed surface complement space connected graph Consider continuous deformation curvilinear image cyclic group defined diametrically opposite points direction disclination disk edge path embedded endpoints equation Euler characteristic Example exterior fiber bundle finite number follows function fundamental group glue gluing graph G handles holes homologous to zero homology groups homotopic interior intersection index isotopic Jordan curve theorem knot Let Q linking number liquid crystals mapping f maximum point midline Möbius strip modulo nematic liquid number of edges number of points number of vertices obtain a surface one-dimensional parallel Peano curve point x0 polygonal trail polyhedra polyhedron Problems projective plane regions saddle point segment self-intersections Show shown in Figure simple closed curve singular points spanning tree sphere square stationary points surface homeomorphic surface Q surface with boundary tangent three-space topological invariant topological product torus traversed vector field vertex yields zero-dimensional