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THE AGE OF DANTE.
1265 May.-DANTE, son of Alighieri degli Ali
ghieri and Bella, is born at Florence. Of
Canto xv. and xvi.
and Sicily, is defeated and slain by Charles
of Anjou. H. xxviii. 13, and Purg. ii. 110. Guido Novello of Polenta obtains the sove
reignty of Ravenna. H. xxvii. 38. Battle of Evesham. Simon de Montfort,
leader of the barons, defeated and slain. 1266 Two of the Frati Godenti chosen arbitrators of
the differences of Florence. H. xxiii.104. Gianni de Soldanieri heads the populace in
that city. H. xxxii. 118. Roger Bacon sends a copy of his Opus Majus
to Pope Clement IV. 1268 Charles of Anjou puts Conradine to death,
and becomes king of Naples. H. xxviii.16.
and Purg. xx. 66. 1270 Louis IX. of France dies before Tunis. His
widow, Beatrice, daughter of Raymond Berenger, lived till 1295. Purg. vii. 126.
Par. vi. 135. 1272 Henry III. of England is succeeded by Ed
ward I. Purg. vii. 129. Guy de Montfort murders Prince Henry, son
of Richard, king of the Romans, and nephew of Henry III. of England, at Viterbo. H. xii. 119. Richard dies, as is supposed, of grief for this event.
Abulfeda, the Arabic writer, is born. 1274 Our Poet first sees Beatrice, daughter of
bant, who lived till 1321. Purg. vi. 24.
1274 Thomas Aquinas dies. Purg. xx. 67. and
Par. x. 96.
Buonaventura dies. Par. xii. 25. 1275 Pierre de la Brosse, secretary to Philip III.
of France, executed. Purg. vi. 23.
Pope Adrian V. dies. Purg. xix. 97.
and xxvi. 83. 1277 Pope John XXI. dies. Par. xii. 126. 1278 Ottocar, king of Bohemia, dies. Purg. vii.
97. Robert of Gloucester is living at this
time. 1279 Dionysius succeeds to the throne of Portugal.
Par. xix. 135. 1280 Albertus Magnus dies. Par. x. 95.
Our Poet's friend, Busone da Gubbio, is born
about this time. See the Life of Dante prefixed.
William of Ockham is born about this time. 1281 Pope Nicholas III. dies. H. xix. 71.
Dante studies at the universities of Bologna
and Padua. About this time Ricordano Malaspina, the
Florentine annalist, dies. 1282 The Sicilian vespers. Par. viii. 80.
The French defeated by the people of Forli.
H. xxvii. 41.
Faenza. H. xxxii. 119. 1284 Prince Charles of Anjou is defeated and made
prisoner by Rugier de Lauria, admiral to
Peter III. of Arragon. Purg. xx. 78. Charles I. king of Naples, dies. Purg. vii.lll. Alonzo X. of Castile, dies. He caused the
Bible to be translated into Castilian, and all legal instruments to be drawn up in that language. Sancho IV. succeeds him. Philip (next year IV. of France) marries Jane,
daughter of Henry of Navarre. Purg. vii.
102. 1285 Pope Martin IV. dies. Purg. xxiv. 23.
Philip III. of France and Peter III. of Arra
gon die. Purg. vii. 101 and 110. Henry II. king of Cyprus, comes to the throne.
Par. xix. 144.
1285 Simon Memmi, the painter, celebrated by
Petrarch, is born. 1287 Guido dalle Colonne (mentioned by Dante in
his De Vulgari Eloquio) writes The War
Pope Honorius IV. dies. 1288 Haquin, king of Norway, makes war on Den
mark. Par. xix. 135. Count Ugolino de' Gherardeschi dies of fa
mine. H. xxxiii. 14. The Scottish poet, Thomas Learmouth, com
monly called Thomas the Rhymer, is living
at this time. 1289 Dante is in the battle of Campaldino, where
the Florentines defeat the people of Arezzo,
June 11. Purg. v. 90. 1290 Beatrice dies. Purg. xxxii. 2.
He serves in the war waged by the Floren
tines upon the Pisans, and is present at
H. xxi. 92.
soner by his traitorous subjects, at Ales
sandria in Lombardy. Purg. vii. 133.
Michael Scot dies. H. xx. 115. 1291 Dante marries Gemma de' Donati, with whom
he lives unhappily. By this marriage he
had five sons and a daughter. Can Grande della Scala is born, March 9.
H. i. 98. Purg. xx. 16. Par. xvii. 75. and
xxvii. 135. The renegade Christians assist the Saracens to
recover St. John D'Acre. H. xxvii. 84. The Emperor Rodolph dies. Purg. vi. 104.
and vii. 91. Alonzo III. of Arragon dies, and is succeeded
by James II. Purg. vii. 113. and Par. xix.
Eleanor, widow of Henry III. dies. Par.vi.135. 1292 Pope Nicholas IV. dies.
Roger Bacon dies.
John Baliol, king of Scotland, crowned. 1294 Clement V. abdicates the papal chair. H.
1294 Fra Guittone d'Arezzo, the poet, dies. Purg.
xxiv. 56. Andrea Taffi, of Florence, the worker in Mo
saic, dies. 1295 Dante's preceptor, Brunetto Latini, dies. H.
Charles Martel, king of Hungary, visits Flo
rence. Par. yiii. 57. and dies in the same
year. Frederick, son of Peter III. of Arragon, be
comes king of Sicily. Purg. vii. 117. and
Par. xix. 127.
the Hippocratean, dies. Par. xii. 77. Marco Polo, the traveller, returns from the
East to Venice.
Par. xix. 122. 1296 Forese, the companion of Dante, dies. Purg.
xxxiii. 44. Sadi, the most celebrated of the Persian
writers, dies. War between England and Scotland, which
terminates in the submission of the Scots to Edward I.; but in the following year, Sir William Wallace attempts the delive
rance of Scotland. Par. xix. 121. 1298 The Emperor Adolphus falls in a battle with
his rival, Albert I., who succeeds him in
the Empire. Purg. vi. 98. Jacopo da Varagine, archbishop of Genoa,
author of the Legenda Aurea, dies. 1300 The Bianca and Nera parties take their rise
in Pistoia. H. xxxii. 60. This is the year in which he supposes
himself to see his Vision. H. i. 1. and
xxi. 109. He is chosen chief magistrate, or first of the
Priors of Florence: and continues in office
from June 15, to August 15. Cimabue, the painter, dies. Purg. xi. 93. Guido Cavalcanti, the most beloved of our
Poet's friends, dies. H. x. 59. and Purg.
xi. 96. 1301 The Bianca party expels the Nera from
Pistoia. H. xxiv. 142.
1302 January 27. During his absence at Rome,
Dante is mulcted by his fellow-citizens in the sum of 8000 lire, and condemned to two years' banishment. March 10. He is sentenced, if taken, to be
burned. Fulcieri de' Calboli commits great atrocities
on certain of the Ghibelline party. Purg.
xiv. 61. Carlino de' Pazzi betrays the castle di Piano
Travigne, in Valdarno, to the Florentines.
H. xxxii. 67.
trai. Purg. xx. 47.
Par. xix. 133. 1303 Pope Boniface VIII. dies. H. xix. 55. Purg.
xx. 86 ; xxxii. 146. and Par. xxvii. 20. The other exiles appoint Dante one of a
council of twelve, under Alessandro da Romena. He appears to have been much dissatisfied with his colleagues. Par. xvii.
61. Robert of Brunne translates into English
verse the Manuel de Pechés, a treatise written in French by Robert Grosseteste,
bishop of Lincoln. 1304 Dante joins with the exiles in an unsuccess
ful attack on the city of Florence. May. The bridge over the Arno breaks
down during a representation of the in-
H. xxvi. 9.
banished two years before from Florence,
is born at Arezzo. 1305 Winceslaus II. king of Bohemia, dies. Purg.
vii. 99. and Par. xix. 123.
H. xxvi. 9.
Sir William Wallace is executed at London. 1306 Dante visits Padua. 1307 He is in Lunigiana with the Marchese Mar
cello Malaspina. Purg. viii. 133; xix. 140. Dolcino, the fanatic, is burned. H. xxviii. 53. Edward II. of England comes to the throne.