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1265 May.-DANTE, son of Alighieri degli Ali

ghieri and Bella, is born at Florence. Of
his own ancestry he speaks in the Paradise,

Canto xv. and xvi.
In the same year, Manfredi, king of Naples

and Sicily, is defeated and slain by Charles

of Anjou. H. xxviii. 13, and Purg. ii. 110. Guido Novello of Polenta obtains the sove

reignty of Ravenna. H. xxvii. 38. Battle of Evesham. Simon de Montfort,

leader of the barons, defeated and slain. 1266 Two of the Frati Godenti chosen arbitrators of

the differences of Florence. H. xxiii.104. Gianni de Soldanieri heads the populace in

that city. H. xxxii. 118. Roger Bacon sends a copy of his Opus Majus

to Pope Clement IV. 1268 Charles of Anjou puts Conradine to death,

and becomes king of Naples. H. xxviii.16.

and Purg. xx. 66. 1270 Louis IX. of France dies before Tunis. His

widow, Beatrice, daughter of Raymond Berenger, lived till 1295. Purg. vii. 126.

Par. vi. 135. 1272 Henry III. of England is succeeded by Ed

ward I. Purg. vii. 129. Guy de Montfort murders Prince Henry, son

of Richard, king of the Romans, and nephew of Henry III. of England, at Viterbo. H. xii. 119. Richard dies, as is supposed, of grief for this event.

Abulfeda, the Arabic writer, is born. 1274 Our Poet first sees Beatrice, daughter of

Folco Portinari.
Rodolph acknowledged emperor.
Philip III. of France marries Mary of Bra-

bant, who lived till 1321. Purg. vi. 24.


1274 Thomas Aquinas dies. Purg. xx. 67. and

Par. x. 96.

Buonaventura dies. Par. xii. 25. 1275 Pierre de la Brosse, secretary to Philip III.

of France, executed. Purg. vi. 23.
1276 Giotto, the painter, is born. Purg. xi. 95.

Pope Adrian V. dies. Purg. xix. 97.
Guido Guinicelli, the poet, dies. Purg. xi. 96.

and xxvi. 83. 1277 Pope John XXI. dies. Par. xii. 126. 1278 Ottocar, king of Bohemia, dies. Purg. vii.

97. Robert of Gloucester is living at this

time. 1279 Dionysius succeeds to the throne of Portugal.

Par. xix. 135. 1280 Albertus Magnus dies. Par. x. 95.

Our Poet's friend, Busone da Gubbio, is born

about this time. See the Life of Dante prefixed.

William of Ockham is born about this time. 1281 Pope Nicholas III. dies. H. xix. 71.

Dante studies at the universities of Bologna

and Padua. About this time Ricordano Malaspina, the

Florentine annalist, dies. 1282 The Sicilian vespers. Par. viii. 80.

The French defeated by the people of Forli.

H. xxvii. 41.
Tribaldello de' Manfredi betrays the city of

Faenza. H. xxxii. 119. 1284 Prince Charles of Anjou is defeated and made

prisoner by Rugier de Lauria, admiral to

Peter III. of Arragon. Purg. xx. 78. Charles I. king of Naples, dies. Purg. vii.lll. Alonzo X. of Castile, dies. He caused the

Bible to be translated into Castilian, and all legal instruments to be drawn up in that language. Sancho IV. succeeds him. Philip (next year IV. of France) marries Jane,

daughter of Henry of Navarre. Purg. vii.

102. 1285 Pope Martin IV. dies. Purg. xxiv. 23.

Philip III. of France and Peter III. of Arra

gon die. Purg. vii. 101 and 110. Henry II. king of Cyprus, comes to the throne.

Par. xix. 144.


1285 Simon Memmi, the painter, celebrated by

Petrarch, is born. 1287 Guido dalle Colonne (mentioned by Dante in

his De Vulgari Eloquio) writes The War

of Troy."

Pope Honorius IV. dies. 1288 Haquin, king of Norway, makes war on Den

mark. Par. xix. 135. Count Ugolino de' Gherardeschi dies of fa

mine. H. xxxiii. 14. The Scottish poet, Thomas Learmouth, com

monly called Thomas the Rhymer, is living

at this time. 1289 Dante is in the battle of Campaldino, where

the Florentines defeat the people of Arezzo,

June 11. Purg. v. 90. 1290 Beatrice dies. Purg. xxxii. 2.

He serves in the war waged by the Floren

tines upon the Pisans, and is present at
the surrender of Caprona in the autumn.

H. xxi. 92.
Guido dalle Colonne dies.
William, marquis of Montferrat, is made pri-

soner by his traitorous subjects, at Ales

sandria in Lombardy. Purg. vii. 133.

Michael Scot dies. H. xx. 115. 1291 Dante marries Gemma de' Donati, with whom

he lives unhappily. By this marriage he

had five sons and a daughter. Can Grande della Scala is born, March 9.

H. i. 98. Purg. xx. 16. Par. xvii. 75. and

xxvii. 135. The renegade Christians assist the Saracens to

recover St. John D'Acre. H. xxvii. 84. The Emperor Rodolph dies. Purg. vi. 104.

and vii. 91. Alonzo III. of Arragon dies, and is succeeded

by James II. Purg. vii. 113. and Par. xix.


Eleanor, widow of Henry III. dies. 1292 Pope Nicholas IV. dies.

Roger Bacon dies.

John Baliol, king of Scotland, crowned. 1294 Clement V. abdicates the papal chair. H.

iii. 56.
Dante writes his Vita Nuova.


1294 Fra Guittone d'Arezzo, the poet, dies. Purg.

xxiv. 56. Andrea Taffi, of Florence, the worker in Mo

saic, dies. 1295 Dante's preceptor, Brunetto Latini, dies. H.

XV. 28.

Charles Martel, king of Hungary, visits Flo

rence. Par. yiii. 57. and dies in the same

year. Frederick, son of Peter III. of Arragon, be

comes king of Sicily. Purg. vii. 117. and

Par. xix. 127.
Taddeo, the physician of Florence, called

the Hippocratean, dies. Par. xii. 77. Marco Polo, the traveller, returns from the

East to Venice.
Ferdinand IV. of Castile comes to the throne.

Par. xix. 122. 1296 Forese, the companion of Dante, dies. Purg.

xxxiii. 44. Sadi, the most celebrated of the Persian

writers, dies. War between England and Scotland, which

terminates in the submission of the Scots to Edward I.; but in the following year, Sir William Wallace attempts the delive

rance of Scotland. Par. xix. 121. 1298 The Emperor Adolphus falls in a battle with

his rival, Albert I., who succeeds him in

the Empire. Purg. vi. 98. Jacopo da Varagine, archbishop of Genoa,

author of the Legenda Aurea, dies. 1300 The Bianca and Nera parties take their rise

in Pistoia. H. xxxii. 60. This is the year in which he supposes

himself to see his Vision. H. i. 1. and

xxi. 109. He is chosen chief magistrate, or first of the

Priors of Florence: and continues in office

from June 15, to August 15. Cimabue, the painter, dies. Purg. xi. 93. Guido Cavalcanti, the most beloved of our

Poet's friends, dies. H. x. 59. and Purg.

xi. 96. 1301 The Bianca party expels the Nera from

Pistoia. H. xxiv. 142.


1302 January 27. During his absence at Rome,

Dante is mulcted by his fellow-citizens in the sum of 8000 lire, and condemned to two years' banishment. March 10. He is sentenced, if taken, to be

burned. Fulcieri de' Calboli commits great atrocities

on certain of the Ghibelline party. Purg.

xiv. 61. Carlino de' Pazzi betrays the castle di Piano

Travigne, in Valdarno, to the Florentines.

H. xxxii. 67.
The French vanquished in the battle of Cour-

trai. Purg. xx. 47.
James, king of Majorca and Minorca, dies.

Par. xix. 133. 1303 Pope Boniface VIII. dies. H. xix. 55. Purg.

xx. 86 ; xxxii. 146. and Par. xxvii. 20. The other exiles appoint Dante one of a

council of twelve, under Alessandro da Romena. He appears to have been much dissatisfied with his colleagues. Par. xvii.

61. Robert of Brunne translates into English

verse the Manuel de Pechés, a treatise written in French by Robert Grosseteste,

bishop of Lincoln. 1304 Dante joins with the exiles in an unsuccess

ful attack on the city of Florence. May. The bridge over the Arno breaks

down during a representation of the in-
fernal torments exhibited on that river.

H. xxvi. 9.
July 20. Petrarch, whose father had been

banished two years before from Florence,

is born at Arezzo. 1305 Winceslaus II. king of Bohemia, dies. Purg.

vii. 99. and Par. xix. 123.
A conflagration happens at Florence.

H. xxvi. 9.

Sir William Wallace is executed at London. 1306 Dante visits Padua. 1307 He is in Lunigiana with the Marchese Mar

cello Malaspina. Purg. viii. 133; xix. 140. Dolcino, the fanatic, is burned. H. xxviii. 53. Edward II. of England comes to the throne.

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