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The present edition of the GALLIC War is based on, and for the most part paraphrased from, the 13th issue of Kraner's well-known edition, thoroughly revised by Dr. Dittenberger, to whom our best thanks are due for his kind permission to make use of his valuable work.

We have also consulted most of the first-class editions, whether of the whole war or of separate parts of it. Among these we may particularize the Commentaries of Schneider, Rudolf Menge, and Doberenz; of Messrs. Long, Moberly, Peskett, Rutherford, and Merryweather and Tancock; and the texts and critical notes of Whitte, Nipperdey, Dinter, Frigell, Holder, and Prammer. The plans in Book ii. are borrowed from Dr. Rutherford's edition of that book; those in Book vii. from von Kampen's indispensable Descriptiones nobilissimorum apud classicos locorum.

Among recent publications, serviceable in the study of Caesar, we have made use of Froude's sketch, Kiepert's Manual of Ancient Geography [English translation : Macmillan and Co.), and Mr. Bryans' Latin Prose based on Caesar, the introduction to which contains lists of phrases and idioms used by Caesar.

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In that part of the Introduction which treats of the Roman army—the most valuable feature of the book--we have availed ourselves of some of the elucidatory notes added by the French translators of the same [L'Armée Romaine, translated by L. Baldy and G. Larroumet; Paris : Klincksieck). References to the first part of the Introduction are made by pages, to the “war” part by sections.

In the body of the Commentary, to economize space, we have as a rule merely referred to parallel passages in the Gallic War without quoting. By a careful examination of such passages it is hoped that an intimate acquaintance with Caesar's style will be gained, which will amply repay the labour involved.

On points of Grammar we have added some references to Roby to those from Madvig's Latin Grammar.

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Map of Gaul,

Plans and Illustrations,

After the Introduction.
I. The position on the Aisne-Book ii.

II. Battle with the Nervii-Book ii.

III. The Rhine Bridge-Book iv.
IV. Works at Alesia-Book vii.



CICERO made a thoughtful remark about Gaul when he said (Cons. Prov. 13. 22), Bellum Gallicum C. Caesare imperatore gestum est, antea tantummodo repulsum. Semper illas nostri imperatores refutandas potius bello quam lacessendas putaverunt. The tribes north of the Alps came into contact with Rome at a time when she was conquering her neighbours and did not guess that from them her final destruction would one day come. According to Livy: the Keltic king Ambigatus, at the time of Tarquinius Priscus, sent southwards a horde of various tribes under his nephew Bellovesus, who crossed the Little St. Bernard into Lombardy, where the Insubres settled, making Mediolanum (Milan) their chief town. Then the Cenomani, Boii, Lingones followed and occupied the country between the Alps and Apennines. The Senones alone pressed southwards, came into contact with the Romans and laid Rome in ashes. Afterwards the

1 Cp. Sall. Jug. 114. 2.

2 Lucan Phars. i. 256, quoties Romam Fortuna lacessit, Hac iter est bellis.

3 Liv. v. 34.

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