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Esuitation of ihe French at the Successes of their Armies.- Their Army in

Italy animated by the Praises of their Countrymen, and the Conversation as well as the Proclamations of Buonaparte to a high Passion for Glory. -Enters the Duchy of Modena.--Spoliation of Monuments of Antiquity and Art.-Abhorrence of the Italian Nobility and Clergy towards the French greater than that of the inferior Classes.—general Insurrection, ready to break out, quashed by the Vigilance and Promptitude of Buonaparte. -The Austrians, under General Beaulieu, with the. Connirance of the Venetians, take Pussession of Peschiera.-Buonaparte advances aguinst Beaulieu, who retreats to the Tyrolese.The Venetians tremble before the French. -Dismiss from their Territories the Brother of the late King and Claimant of the Crown of France.--Buonaparte tahes Possession of Verona.-Blockades Muntua.-Prepares to march into the Tyrolese.

Detained by Insurrections in the Districts, known under the Name of Imperial Fiefs.These being suppressed, he carries his Arms to the Southward.Reduces Turtona, Bologna, and. Urbino.-Menuces Rome.—Armistice between the Pope and Buonaparte.-Suspension of Hostilities with Naples.-Buonaparte the Friend and Patron of Men of Learning and Science. --Ambitious Views of the French Republic.- Insurrection in Lugo. Quelled, and the City reduced by the French.The Blockade of Mantua converted into a close Siege.Raised by Marshal Wurmser.---Actions between the French Army and that of the Austrians, reinforced by Detach. ments from Mantua.- Remarkable, Instance of Presence of Mind in Buonaparte.-The Austrians driven back beyond the Adige.

THE news of these astonishing mies of France, particularly the

successes had, in lbe mean time, English; and to encourage the naflled all France with exultation. tion to bear up cheerfully against A splendid festival was appointed, the pressures of the war, by the at Paris, by the Directory, in or- prospect of terminating it finally to der to celebrare ihem with suit. the advantage and glory of France. able magnificence. To render it During an interval of five days more solemn, it was accompanied rest, allowed by Buonaparte to his with speeches to the citizens, and soldiers, he did not forget to address eulogiums of the victorous army,

them in bis usual manner, and to pronounced by Carnot, the presi- excite their ardour, by a recital of dent of the day, and calculated to their exploits, and a representation animate the public against the ene- of the honours and applause bestowed upon them by their country, mands of pictures, statues, and and by a prospect of the future iri- sculptures. It seems to be the fate umphs awaiting them.


of the great models of the arts, He was

now meditating expe. like the aris themselves, to travel ditions into the territories of those from the east, by the west, to the princes of whose enmity to France north. Perhaps their tour in this die sufficient proofs had een given. rection is not yet terminated. To A detachment of his army bad al. deprive the poor Italians of objects ready entered the duchy of Modena, so long endeared to them, by habit the sovereign of wbich had fled to and possession, seemed an act of ty. Venice with his treasures. From ranny exercised upon the vanquishthis city be deputed a minister to ed in the wantonness of power. the French general, with whom he Those objects had been respected concluded a suspension of arms on by all parties, in the vicissitude of much the same conditions as those those events that had so frequently granted to the duke of Parma. subjected the places that contained

The spoliation of the repositories them to different masters. The of art, which was now annexed to French were the first who had conthe conditions of treaties with the ceived the idea of seizing them as & Italian princes, proved one of the matter of mere property. Herein most vexatious as well as mortifying they were accused of consulting their circumstances of the French inva- vanity rather than their taste for sion. The monuments of painting the fine arts. The Romans, in their and of statuary, which adorned their triumphant periods, had plundered palaces, cities, and churches, were the Greeks of all the master-pieces viewed by the natives with a mix- they could find in their country. ture of delight and veneration. This appeared to the French a preThey entertained a species of affec- cedent fit for their imitation, and a tion for them; and, in the presence sanction for robbing the Italians of of some of them, they placed not a what they esteemed the most va. little confidence. They had be- luable part of their property, and come a kind of tutelary deities and the most honourable proof they still household gods. The Italians were retained of their former superiority sensible of emotions not altogether in those departments of genius. dissimilar to those of the Israelite The conduct of the French, in Micah, into whose house armed tearing the monuments of antiquity men froin Dan entered, and took and art from Italy, and carrying away " the graven image, and the them to Paris, was universally corephod, and the seraphiin, and the demned and execrated by all civimolten image. In one respect, lized nations.

It was, in truth, in the oppressions of the French in

some measure, plucking the rose Italy were greater than those of from the tree. the northern hordes under Attila Motives of this nature, conspiring and Odoacer; for those chiefs did with the dissatisfaction experienced not trouble the Romans with de- by multitudes, at the irreverence *"Ye have taken away the gods which I made, and what have I more!" --- Judges which the French testified for the massacre of all the French they religious practices of the natives, could meet with. Rumours were enabled those who hated them, on circulated, that Beaulieu, strongly this account, to instil their hatred reinforced, was on his march to into others, and to inflame their Milan, and that a number of French indignation against men who pre. detachments had been surprised and sumed to more sense in those mat. put to the sword. Incensed at the ters than other nations.

xvin. 91.

ideas of equality upheld by the The two classes whose inveteracy French, the nobles had dismissed to the French was most notorious, their domestics, telling them, thai, were the nobility and the clergy; as being their equals, they could no the French did not scruple to avow longer employ them as servants. their enmity and contempt for both, The partisans of Austria were, in it was natural that these should short, exerting all their activity to hold them in abhorrence. In their raise commotions, and no place was speeches and conversations, public free from them. and private, the former seldom failed On the receipt of this intelli. to represent the nobles as tyrants, gence, Buonaparte hasted back to and the priests as impostors. The Milan with a large body of borse depression which both these orders and foot. He arrested a number of men had suffered in Fr..nce, of suspected persons, and ordered shewed what was intended for those to be shot who had been taken them in other parts of Europe, were in arms. Heintimated to the arch. the French to succeed in the vast bishop, and to the clergy and nodesign imputed to them, of entirely bles of the city, that they should subverting the political and religious be responsible for its tranquillity. system of this quarter of the globe. A fine was imposed for every ser

Actuated by these apprehensions, vant discharged, and every precauseveral of the most resolute of the tion taken to prevent the conspiracy nobility, and most zealous of the from gaining ground. clergy, resolved, it was said, to in. It was principally at Pavia, that the cite the commonalty to rise against conspirators were the most numethe French, on the first opportunity rous. They had seized on the citadel, that should seem favourable to such guarded by a small party of French, a design. The day fixed upon for whom they made prisoners. Being its execution, was the twenty-fourth joined by some thousands of peaof May. Early in the morning, sants, they resolved to defend the Baonaparte set out for Lodi, at the town, and refused admittance to bead of a strong detachment. He Buonaparte, on his summoning them had hardly reacbed that place, when to surrender. But a body of French he was intormed, by an express, that grenadiers turst open the gates, on an almost general insurrection was which those wbo had the custody spreading ibrough Lombardy. The of the French, who had been comalarm bells were ringing every pelled to surrender in the citadel, where, and the peasantry and lower set them at liberiy. None of them classes throughout the country, in.

were missing : had violeni bands stigated by the nobles and the clergy, bien laid upon them, the determi. were up in arms, and intent on the nation was taken to destroy Pavia, Voli XXXVIII.


and to erect on its site a pillar with broken forces of the Austrians had this inscription, “Here stood the in their retreat taken refuge on the city of Pavia.”

Venetian territory. Hither they In order to deter the inhabitants were closely pursued by the French. of this, and the other towns in. But previously 10 the commenceclined to stir up insurrections, the ment of operations in the Venetian promoters of that at Pavia were state, Buonaparte was careful to give sentenced to be shot, and two hun, formal nutice of his intentions to dred hostages, for their peaceable the senate. behaviour, were delivered io Buona- The disposition of the Venetian parte, who sent them to France. government, towards France, was He next issued a proclamation, de- justly suspected to be inimical. Had claring, that those who did not lay it been friendly before the entrance down their arms within twenty-four of the French into Italy, their suchours, and take an oath of obedience cesses, and the powerful footing they to the French republic, should be had now obtained, would have renireated as rebels, and their houses dered them toodangerous to be viewcommitted to the flames.

ed with a favourable


Situated The nobles and priests in the in- between (wo such powers as France surgent districts were to be arrested and Austria, Venice nad no inclina. and sent to France. The places top to befriend the one more than within the precincts of which a the other, and would gladly have Frenchman was assassinated, were been delivered from the proximity condemned to pay triple taxes till of both. Unwilling to oftend a state the assassin was given up. The between which, and the French re. same fine was laid on places where public, an amicable intercourse concealed arms and ammunition subsisted, the French general pubwere found. Persons of rank and lished an address to that governinent fortuve who excited the people to and people, wherein he assured revolt, either by dismissing their ser- them, that in following the enemies vants, or by holding inimical dis- of France into the Venetian ierricourses against the French, were to tories, he would observe the strictest be sent to France, and to forfeit discipline, and treat the inhabitants part of their estates.

with all the amity and consideration Injunctions and declarations of due to the ancieni friendship exista this nature were posted up in every ing between the two nations. place of note throughout the Mi. In the mean time, the Austrians sanese. Particular precautions were had taken possession of Peschiera, taken for the security of the city of by the connivance of the Venetians, Milan, the castle of which still re- to whom that town belonged. Here mained in possession of the Austri- Beaulieu hoped to be able to make ans, who might, in case of any fur- a stand, till succours arrived to him midable insurrection, have given it from Germany. Buonaparte, desireffectual assistance.

ous to exspel him from Italy, or to Freed from the perplexity occa- compel him to surrender, advanced sioned by these disturbances, Buo. to that town, intending to cut off his naparte prepared io prosecute the retreat to the Tyrol, by the eastern plans he had been forming. The side of the lake of Garda. Early


in the morning of the thirteenth of Verona, the late residence of the May, several divisions of the French French prince. He now determined approached the bridge of Borghetto, to lay siege to Mantua, the only by which Buonaparte proposed to place of strength and importance efect a passage over the Mincio, and left to the emperor in Italy. The surround Beaulieu's army. The reduction of this fortress would effecAustrians made the utmost efforts to tually put an end to the influence defend the bridge ; but the French of the court of Vienna, and transfer crossed it after a warm action : the to France the power and credit Austrian general perceiving their in- exercised by the emperor in all the tent, withdrew in haste from his affairs of lialy. position at Peschiera, and retired

This was a deprivation to which with the utmost expedition to the the head of the house of Austria river Adige, which, baving passed, could not bear the idea of submit. be broke down all the bridges, to ting, and every effort was resolved prevent ihe French from pursuing upon to prevent it. The ill success him. By these means he secured of Beaulieu had been such, that it his retreat to the Tyrol, the only was determined, at Vienna, to subplace of safety now remaining to stitute another commander in his him.

room. Marshal Wurmser, a veteran Buonaparte might now consider general in high esteem, was aphimself as the undisputed master of pointed to succeed him, though he Italy. He was so much viewed in had himself experienced several dethat light by the senate of Venice, feats by the French. even previously to bis passage of the In hope of reducing Mantua beMincio, and the defeat of Beaulieu, fore succours could arrive, Buonathat, foreseeing the danger of ap. parte determined to lay immediate pearing too well inclined to the siege to it. On the fourth of June house of Bourbon, they had warned it was invested by the French, who out of their territories the unfor- drove the out-posts into the town, tunate brother of the lare king of which was now closely surrounded France, who had, on the death

on every side. of bis nephew, son to that monarch, But the want of artillery preassumed the name of Lewis the vented him from doing any more eighteenth, together with the royal than blockading it. He had formed tille.

hopes of reducing that city by other The circumstances of his dismis- means than a formal siege ; which sion did the Venetians no credit: were to cut off all succours from on that prince's demanding the Germany, and all provisions from sword, formerly presented to the its neighbourhood. Senate by his ancestor, the celebrated In order to effect the first of these Henry the fourth of France, as a purposes, he resolved to carry the token of his regard, they refused to war into the imperial dominions in restore it, on pretext that alarge sum Germany, and to invade the Tyrol of money, due from him to the state, itself. This was doubtless a very had never been discharged. bold and hazardous attempt : the

Buonaparte took possession, on natives of that difficult and moun. the third of June, of the city of tainous country being not only a

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