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lave liappened, which have brought scarcely any attention was paid to lesolation on town and country? them. In proof of ny assertion, I Has not philo,nphy assum. d all only quote the following passage orms, and borrowed all languages, from Einilius : “ You trust to the in order to make our monarchs existing order of society; without comprehend that they ought inces. reflecting that this order is subject santly to occupy themselves with to inevitable revolutions. The the happies of their subjects; great become little, the rich bethat, in sacrificing the public wel. com: poor, the monarch becomes fare to the desires of some indivi. a subject. Are the strokes of fate duals, they did not even satisfy so u common that you pay exthe avidity of their courtiers; that pect to be exempt from them? they exposed theraselves to the risk We approach ilie state of crisis and of seeing extinguished in the hearts the age of revolution; who can of their subjects that love which is answer to you for what you will so natural to the people under their then beconie?” To render this dominion, and which was the firmest the more striking, the author adels support of their throue? Were not in a note, “ I consider it as imposthe days of the author of Telema. sible that the great monarchics of chus poisoned with exile, because Europe can have long to last; all he dared to trace, under the eyes have shone, and every state which of Louis XIV. the duties of a shines is near to iis decliste: I have great king? Was not Racine over. more particular reasons for this whelmned with a load of disgrace, maxim for my opinion; but it is for having essayed to move the not my business to mention them, heart of the same prince to the and every sees them too misfortunes of his people?

plainly.” Did not Voltaire, Montesquieu, King, prelates, nobles, finan. Mably, Rousseau, in fine, all the ciers, was it possible more clearly philosophical and moral writers, to predict to you your present use all their efforts to snatch Louis stare? Happily for him who foreXV. from his scandalous indolence, told your sudden fall, you only reand to sow in his frozen heart some garded him with contempi. seeds of virtue? What eulogies, If the magistrates had not with even to exaggeration, have ih-y inexorabie insensibility rejected the not given to Henry IV. in order in muxims of the Precarias, the Fi. excite the emulation of his descend. langieris, and the Dupatys, and of ants, and to cause him to be re- all those who conjured them in the vived in the heirs of his throne ? naine of humanity to extend an The wisest counsels have been dis. equitable protection over innocence dained, the best intentions calum- and wretchedness, would they not niated. Then the zeal of philoso- have found defenders in that na. phy was irritated; she assumed tional assembly which destroyed the prophetic tone, and concluded their power? The nobles, so jea. with clearly announcing those lous of their quitarents, their corevents which now strike our eyes vées, their right of the chace, and and astonish our minds. These all those claims of servitude which truths appeared so improbable, that degrade the inhabitant of the coun



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try, have they not leagued against lon, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and a minister who would have been Rousseau himself, were they still the protector of their properties ? living, by their discourses or writ. Far from voluntarily yielding to ings put a stop to the sanguinary the voice of reason, and making acts which tarnish our liberty and slight sacrifices to the public inte excite che lamentation of our legis. res', they have aggravated their lators? Reduced to fruitless revexations, and immolated m:n 10 grets, we hould see them resemthe preservation of the r animals; ble the pilot, who, during the yet, instead of reproaching their fury of a horrible tempest, contem. own injustice, and attribuig to plaies with stupefaction the vessel their pride and unfeeling stermmers which he can no longer govern. the vengeance of their formir vas. Let a single philosopher, worthy of sals, they impute it io philosophy. the nam, be mentioned to me, who Ah! let her no longer be calum. has excited the people to murder piated ! she foresaw all our misfor. and conflagration; who has not retunes, she braved and hazarded cominended to them to be generous persecution to a ert them: but her in victory, to respect legitimate efforts have been fruitless! Princes property, to spare imbecility, to have more heavily burthened their condemn the guilty by the rules of people instead of relieving them; justice alone! the great have humbled instead of succcuring, them; pontiffs have scandalized instead ' of edifying of the Causes of the Increase of

Of them; magistrates have outraged Crimes. From Colquhour's Treatise instead of protecting them. The on the Police of the Metropolis. moment of their power arrived. Then they recollected nothing but IN developing the causes which the insults and sofferings which have so multiplied and increased they had so long endured. If their those various offences and public vengeance has been terrible, it is

wrongs which are at present felt to not philosophy that has directed it; pre-s so hard upon society, it may on the contrary, she has tried to be truly affirmed in the first in. alleviate its effects : bui it has stances, much is to be imputed to more been in her power to stop the deficient and inapplicable laws, and excesses at which she deeply groan. to an ill. regulated police. ed, than it was to realize the good Crimes of every description have which she proposed.

their origin in the vicious and im. It is not during the flame of re- moral habits of the people ;-in the volutions that the voice of sages want of attention to the education has any empire over the human of the inferior orders of society ;passions. What could the Ron and in the deficiency of the system inan orators and philosophers do which has been established for amidst the proscriptions of Sylla guarding the morals of this useful and the triunvirs ? no more than class of the community. the de Thous and l'Hospitals in the Innumerable temptations occur rage of the League. Could Fene. in a great capital where crimes are


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sorted to, in order to supply ima- Poverty is no where to be found inary wants and improper grati. clothed in so great a degree with cations, which are not known in the garb and einblems of the exesser societies : and against which tremest misery and wretchedness, he laws have provided few appli. as in London. able remedies in the way of pre- Develope the history of any given rention.

number of these miserable tellowThe improvident, and even the mortals, and their distresses will uxurious mode of living which be found, almost in every instance, prevails too generally among various to bave been occasioned by extra. classes of the lower ranks of the vagance, idieness, profligacy, and people in the metropolis, leads to crimes :--and ibat iheir chief sup. much misery and to many crimes. port is by thieving in a little Accustomed from their carliest

way. infancy to indulge themselves in Allured and deceived by the fa. cating many articles of expensive cilities which the pawn-brokers food in its season, and possessing and the old iron shops hold out, little or no knowledge of that in enabling the labouring people, kind of frugality and care which when they marry, and first enter enables well regulated families to upon life in the metropolis, to raise make every thing to go as far as money upon whatever can be of. possible, by a diversified mode of fered as a pledge or for sale; the cookery and good management:

first step with too many, is gene. Assailed also by the numerous rally to dispose of wearing apparel temptations held out by fraudulent and household goods, which is fre. lotteries, and places of public re. quently dove upon the least pres. sort and amusement; and above sure, rather than forego the usual all, by the habit of spending a gratification of a good dinner or a great deal of valuable time as well hot supper.--Embarrassments are as inoney unnecessarily in public. speedily the consequence of this houses ; and often allured by low line of conduct, which is too often gaining, to squander more than followed up by idieness and inacthey can afford ;-there is scarce an tivity. The aiehouse is resorted to instance of accommodating the in. as a desperate remedy, where the come to the expendi'ure, even in idle and dissolute will always the best of times, with a consider- find associates, who being unwil. able body of the lowest orders of the ling to labour, resort to crimes for people inhabiting the capital and the purpose of supplying an un

: hence a melancholy conclusion is necessary extravagance, drawn, warranted by a generally It is truly melancholy to reflect assumed fact, that above twenty- upon the abject condition of that thousand individuais rise every numerous class of profligare pa. morning in this great metropolis, rents, who, with their children, without knowing how, or by what are constantly to be found in the means they are to be supported tap-rooms of public houses, spending during the passing day, or where in two days as much of their earn. they are to lodge on the succeeding ings as would support them a week night,

comfortably, in their own dwel:



lings;---destroying their health ;- onder an active and zealoos saagi. wasting their sin, and rearing up siracy, would soon be dimisistes, their children to be ; izutes and if not totally annihilated. thieves before they know what it is By the 12th of Georget' e Second, a crime,

" the games of Frieda ftaza de ve. Soearly as the reign of Queen Anne, are declared :c Lister23, s. b. this abandoned and mischievous race jecting the price, he of men seem to hiyo aliračieu tien. to a persity of twists pounds, tice of be legislature m a verv pır. ani!, who play, is by ticular degree, for the act of the pour do."-One witness is caly re. 9th of her majesty reciting " that cessary to prove the offince ktore divers lewd and dissolute persons why justice or the peace, who fos. live at great expences, having no fits ten pounds if he neglects to visible estate, prote-sion, or caling, do his dury :--and by the sth of to maintain themseives; but sup- George the First, “ihe keeper of port these expenses by gaming a Faro sable may be prosecuted for only; and enacts that any two jus. a lottery, where the penalty is fire rices may cause to be brought before hundred pounds." them, all persons within their li. Such bas late the anxiety of the mits, whom they shall have just legislature to suppres, Faro tables cause to suspect to have no visible and o:her games of charce, that estate, profession, or caliing, to the severest penalties have been maintain themselves by, but who for infifted, founded on the fullest the most part support themselves impression of the perricious conseby gaming, and if such persons quences of such practices, and yet shall not make the contrary appear to the disgrace of the police of the to such justices, they are to be metropolis, houses are opened un. bound to their good behaviour for der the sanction of high sounding a twelve month, and in default of names, where an isxliscriminate sufficient security, to be committed mixture of all ranks are to be found, to prison, until they can find from the finished sharper to the saw the same, and if security shall be inexperienced youth, and where given, it will be forfeited on their all those evils exist in full force playing or betting at any one time which it was the object of the lefor more than the value of twenty gislature to restore. shillings."

When a species of gambling, If in conformity to the spirit of ruinous to the morals and to the this wise statute, sharpers of every fortunes of the younger parts of denomination who support them- the community who move in the selves by a variety of cheating and middle and higher ranks of life, is swindling practices, without hav. suffered to be carried on in direct ing any visible means of support, opposition to a positive stalute, were in like manner to be called surely blame must attach some. opon to find security for good be. where! haviour in all cases where they The idle vanity of being introcannot shew they have the means duced into what is supposed to be of subsisting themselves honestly, genteel society, where a fashion. the number of shese pes ts of society, able name announces an intention


of seeing company, has been pro. prudence and discretion, have no ductive of more doinestic misery alternative but to follow up the and more real distress, poverty, and same mischievous trade, and to wretchedness to families in this prey upon the ignorant, the inexgreat metropolis (who but for their perienced, and the unwary, until folly might have been exisy and they too see the fatal delusion when comfortable), than many volumes it is too late. could detail.

When such abominable pracA mistaken sense of what con. tices are encouraged and sanctioned stitutes human happiness, leads the by high-sounding names,—when mass of the people who have the sharpers and black-legs find an means of moving, in any degree, easy introduction into the houses above the middle ranks of life, into of persons of fashion, who assem. the fatal error of mingling in what ble in multitudes together for the is called genteel company, if that purpose of playing at those most can be called such where Faro odious and detestable games of Tables and other games of hazard hazard, which the legislature has are introduced in private families, stigmatized with such marks of

- Where the least recommendation reprobation, it is time for the (and sharpers spare no pains to ob. civil magistrate to step forward :tain recommendations) admits all and to feel, that in doing that duty ranks who can exhibit a genteel which the laws of his country im. exterior, and where the young and pose on him, he is perhaps saving the inexperienced are initiated in hundreds of families from ruin and every propensity tending to debase destruction, and preserving to the the human character, and taught to infants of thoughtless and deluded view with contempt every acquire. parents that property which is their ment connected with those duties birth-right: but which, for want which lead to domestic happiness, of an energetic police in enforcing or to those objects of utility which the laws made for the protection can render either sex respectable in of this property, would otherwise the world.

have been lost, leaving nothing to To the horde of sharpers at pre. console the mind but the sad re. sent upon the town, these places of fection, that with the loss of for rendezvous furnish a most produc- tune, those opportunities (in contive harvest.

sequence of idle habits) were also Many of this class, ruined per- lost of fitting the unfortunate suf. haps themselves in early life in se- ferer for any reputable pursuit in minaries of the same description, life, by which an honest livelihood to which they foolishly resorted, could be obtained. when vanity predominated over


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