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price were lowered, by turning the to calculate the expenses of the prom gas to account, it could hardly fail to cess, of management, of tubes, and become a favourite fuel.

pipes, &c. with any tolerable degree We have taken no notice of the of precision.” p. 19. The experitar and alkaline liquor which are co ment in Pall Mall, therefore, proves, piously produced in the distillation; as yet, nothing more than the possi. because we have few facts to go upon bility of lighting up a street with gas; in estimating their value. The for a curious fact, without doubt; but mer is useful as a coating to preserve, we cannot call it a very important from the worm and rot, timber éx. one, till we be enabled to add, that posed to the air, or lying under this can be done at a cheaper rate water. And it is not unlikely, that than with oil. It is not unlikely that other more important uses may be it may; and we strenuously advise found for it. As to the liquor, we the committee, while they have the believe it to be of no use whatever. command of money, instead of baskAnd it is one of the absurdities of ing in the sunshine of delusive hopes, Winsor's calculations, to reckon at to institute another trial, in which one shilling per gallon, a substance, all these expenses shall be rigidly of which, we are convinced, no man noted, and faithfully carried to acor in London would purchase a hogs- count. It is a point which it is dehead at the expense of warehouse sirable to ascertain, though we by no

means agree in the common opinion, When we said that the facts of Mr. that on its decision depends the quesWinsor and his friends are less satis- tion of the economical advantages of factory than the others we recorded, the gas lights. The committee were we alluded to the circumstance, that, unfortunate in choosing this for their while he makes us stare at the unpa- experimentum crucis. The lights reralleled extravagance of his tables, quired in streets are at considerawhere he gravely strikes a balance of ble intervals, and, consequently, the annual profit to the nation at large, range of tubes is extensive and costof one hundred and fifteen millions ly; and, going to a great distance and while, by a singular effort of from the centre of supply, must be moderation, he reduces the gains of subject to accident and derangement, his subscribers to the absolute cer In lighting the streets, too, the gas tainty” of only “ 600', a year for must beat out of the market the every 5l. adventure," he cautiously coarsest and cheapest of all mate. avoids detailing minutely the expense rials; so that we can imagine a failure, of the apparatus, or taking, as an in this instance, not inconsistent with item on the debtor side, the interest its producing great national and indie of capital sunk, which, in Murdoch's vidual benefit. statement, exceeds the annual ex There is one circumstance in pense, in the ratio of 11 to 1.

We which, as far as we can judge from need not add, how much this must our imperfect knowledge of Winsor's falsify all his conclusions, even if he process, it is superiour to Murdoch’s. had not disproved them himself by a The latter seems to follow the usual deductio ad absurdum. The commit- mode of distillation, by putting the tee, composed, as their report shows, vessel that contains the coal into the of sensible, but not scientifick men, centre of a furnace. But Winsor do away half the value of their expe- puts the fire in the centre, and (leaving riments, when, in a memorial ad- only space sufficient for a draught of dressed to the king, they candidly air) surrounds it with the coal that is subjoin to their account of them : to be carbonized; the evident advan. w Their present experience does not tage of which is this, that the least enable your majesty's memorialists possible heat is wasted, as, in flying

off, it encounters the coal on every imagined. In the first place, we side. Accordingly, we find, that in find, upon examining Mr. Murdoch’s Murdoch's statement, a sixth part of statement, that of 6001. the estimated the annual expense goes for the pur yearly expense of lighting the cotton chase of common coal to distil the mill, 5501. consist of interest of capicannel which he employed; while tal, and tear and wear of apparatus, Winsor's carbonizing process is pere leaving the cost of coal only 501. a formed by the refuse cinder of a for sum so trifling, when we reflect, that mer operation; and as this cinder does it replaces 20001. worth of candies, not appear in the estimate of coke that the price of coal, even where it produced, it may, in fact, be consi- is highest, can but slightly effect the dered as costing nothing. Before ta- general profits. Secondly, the coal, king leave of Mr. Winsor, we shall by yielding the gas and other volapresent the reader with the results of tile products, is converted into a subhis analysis of coal, which, from the stance, increased in bulk, and in the specimen he has given us, of his pow. power of producing heat. And as a ers of exaggeration, we should have manufactory generally requires heatbeen cautious of admitting among ing as well as lighting, there will be authentick facts, had not the commit a gain both ways. By distilling his tee declared, that the experiments coal, instead of burning it as it comes were repeated in their presence, from the pit, the manufacturer will and that they corroborated Winsor's save his candles, and improve his printed statement in the most satis. fuel. One effort at the outset, in factory manner. Two pecks of New- erecting a proper apparatus, will recastle coal, weighing 36 lib. produced duce his annual disbursement, for: 3 pecks of coke, weighing 24 lib. 2 these two articles of prime necessity, oz. about 3 lib. of oily tar, and much in the same manner, though in about 4 of alkaline liquor; and, as a far greater degree, as the farmer the only other product was gas, it is gains by building a thrashing ma. concluded that gas constituted the chine, and laying aside the use of the remainder of the weight, amounting flail. nearly to four pounds.

II. When we reflect on the small From the foregoing facts and rea number of trials that has yet been sonings, we think ourselves entitled made, and the expensiveness and to draw the following conclusions. awkwardness of first attempts, we

I. In all manufactories, whether may reasonably expect considerable on a large, middling, or small scale improvements as the practice be-in all publick offices, printing hou. comes more general, so as to turn ses, theatres, lighthouses, &c.-in the scale still more decidedly in fashort, wherever much light is requi- vour of the gas lights. Anxious as Fed in a given space, the gas lights we are to avoid the charge of visionmay be introduced with very great ary speculation, we cannot help anti. advantage. We need not remind the cipating the pretty extensive introreader, how large a proportion of the duction of them into private houses, artificial light used in this manufac- Mr. Lee has set the example. The turing country is comprehended in whole of his house at Manchester, this description. It may be objected from the kitchen to the drawing to the universality of our conclusion, room, is lighted solely by gas. Its that the price of coals differing very properties render it particularly fit much in different places, will occa for ornamental illumination. As there sion a variation in the expense of is nothing to spill, the flame may be procuring gas. But there are two directed either downwards, upwards, reasons why this should have less or horizontally. And the points from effect than at first sight might be which it issues may be disposed in

VOL. II.

any form that taste or fancy may sug- has been proved, we think, that, in
gest. We are perfectly aware of the the case before us, there are mate-
difficulties that oppose such an appli. rials to work upon; and, whenever
cation of the gas; but we have un this becomes the general opinion, we
bounded confidence in the skill and shall not be afraid of the best means
ingenuity of our countrymen, when 'being adopted to turn them to ac.
they are once fairly brought into ac count. Whether ingenuity should be
tion. The gigantick steam engine has left to its own workings, and the sti.
been reduced to a convenient, and mulus of private gain, or restrained
even portable size ; and its power and directed by the interference of
made so divisible, as to be dealt out government, is a question which we
in portions to petty manufacturers, do not feel ourselves called upon to
who know nothing of the machine, decide.
but by the power which they hire. It

FROM THE BRITISH CRITICK.

Fragments in Prose and Verse. By a Young Lady, lately deceased. With some Ac

count of her Life and Character. By the Author of “Sermons on the Doctrines and Duties of Christianity.” Fourth Edition. 8vo. 227 pp. 1808.

AT certain protracted intervals could believe that a very young woof time, some extraordinary pheno- man should be, not superficially, but menon makes its appearance in the thoroughly and familiarly acquainted intellectual world, so gifted and so with Hebrew, Arabick, Persick, Ladistinguished above its fellows as to tin, Greek, Erse, and all, or almost excite one universal feeling of won- all, the languages of Europe ; that der and admiration. No one will she was expert in mathematicks; presume to deny that this has hap- perspective, musick, dancing, drawpened more frequently in one sex ing, and, to crown the whole, a than in the other; and that though charming poet. That she was not many females have appeared, whose equally and alike accomplished in all claims to genius and learning also these branches of art and science will never be denied, there have been may easily be imagined, and her no rivals to the illustriou's names of warmest admirers may readily conHomer, Plato, Archimedes, lo New- cede; but sufficient proofs remain fon, Locke, or Milton. Never, how. that she was elevated in powers of ever, since the time of madam Schur- mind, natural and acquired, above man, have we heard of a

all general competition. whose endowments, natural and ac Her life, we are sorry to add, was quired, have been equal to those of short, and checkered by misfortune. the individual, the Fragments of All that seems necessary on our part whose writings are here preserved, is, first, to thank the editor for the and edited with great modesty, part she has acted, in erecting this though with a becoming animation durable mausoleum to her friend; of friendship

and, in the next place, by a selection Of what kind they are, and how from the Fragments, to enable the generally acceptable, is sufficiently reader to judge how far the high apparent from their having already commendations which precede, are to passed through three large editions. be justified. Who, from authority less strong and The first feature which presents less satisfactory than that which is in itself, is that of poetical taste and tathis small volume before the reader, lent. In these accomplishments,

woman

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fall,

Miss Smith, for so we understand Words such as ne'er were given to mortal this excellent young woman

I tell the wos to morrow's sun shall bring, named, might, by cultivation, have

Cambria shall fall, shall lose her much. attained the greatest reputation. The loved king following ode will sufficiently prove, On Vaga's banks, near to where once that in making this assertion, we do Buillt stood, not pass the limits of truth.

O’erlooking fair Sabrina's silver flood,

Pierced with a spear ingloriously, he'll fall, A supposed translation from a Welsh

Whence future times that spot shak Poem, lately dug up at Piercefield, in the

Piercefield call.' same spot where Llewellyn ap Gryffyd

So saying, like the meteor's blaze, was slain, Dec. 10th, 1281.

The spirit flies ; “ Round Snowdon's shaggy brows grim

And while I gaze, darkness hung,

The dim red light in darkness dies ! Save that the moon, the gathered clouds

“ But, oh, my country! how shall I de. among, Shot forth at times a dimly-gleaming ray, Thy cruel doom?

plore

Cambria shall be no Then watery, pale, turned her sad face

more! away. In Merlin's cave I sate,

Llewellyn too, our guardian king, shall And marked her tearful eye:

In him we lose our only hope,

our all! Which seemed to mourn the fate Decreed for some on high.

Blow, ye winds; and roar, ye waves;

Rend the mountains' inmost caves ; “What fate's decreed by heaven, blest Let loose the spirits of the storm, beam of night,

Bid them rise in human form. That so disturbs thy sweetly-smiling light?

“More fierce than they, in human form No more it shines ;-Thou turn'st thy face

appears with scorn,

That barbarous prince, who causes afl And darkly leav'st me, wretched and for

our tears ; lorn. Down the steep the torrent roars,

A tiger's heart he bears beneath that face,

Which seems to promise honour, good. Loud the thunder rings from far,

ness, grace. Billows shake the rocky shores,

Let lightning flash,
All resounds the din of war.

And thunder growl, " But hark !--This elemental war is Let torrents dash, drowned

And the black tempest o'er me In one more great, and more terrifick

scowl; sound;

This soul, in unison with every gust, A sound high Snowdon from his base to

Shall rage and burn till I be turned to tear, A sound the spirits of the dead shall fear! Ne'er shall I patient brook my country's Spirits of my sires, attend !

doom, Down from your clouds, ye blest ones, But sighing, sorrowing, sink into the tomb. bend!

“ DAUGHTERS OF CAMBRIA, with me Tell me, whence these shrieks of wo

mourn, With cries of death confusedly flow?

Sing the sad wo-breathing strain ; “Great Merlin, thou, the chief of prophets, From your fair heads the ringlets torn hear !

Scatter round the ensanguined plain. To thy own cave 'mid stormy winds draw No more in summer's even tide

Your gentle flocks you'll lead Pour on my darkened soul thy light divine,

To where the brook, with flowery side, And give it in fair truth's bright blaze to Slow wanders through the mead; shine,

But soon to conquerors rude a prey,
He comes, he comes, in mist arrayed, You'll quit your native land,
Slow and solemn glides the shade!

And drag through life your mournful way,
And while he speaks, the earth stands A wretched, captive band !
still,

“ WARRIOURS; break the sounding mail, Listening to his mighty will.

Cast down the lance, the helm untie ; “ Heaven-favoured bard, my words at Arms shall now no more avail, tentive hear,

For you before the foe shall Aty,

dust;

near ;

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No more, in deeds of arms renowned, some went over it to the islands within
You'll dare the single fight;

sight, which form the Eastern Archipelago; Or with exulting laurels crowned,

and others followed the coast northwards, Assert your country's right;

till they came to some point from whence But to the woods and marshes driven, they could see America. Thither some Ingloriously you'll sigh ;

of them went; while others spread themFor ah ! to you it is not giv'n

selves westward, and these people I take Amidst your friends to die !

to be the barbarians of the north, who " To Piercefield's Cliffs I'll now a pilgrim afterwards overran all Europe, and who go,

were the same as the wandering Tartars,

Thus the proShed o'er my prince beloved the tears of their brethren, now are.

phecy is fulfilled ; for Japhet is indeed exThere will I seek some deep and rocky tended, and at this day inhabits the tents cell,

of Shem all over Europe. This theory Amidst the thick entangled wood to dwell ; seems to me to derive great force from There indulge my plaintive theme,

the similarity of manners between the To the wan moon's icy beam ;

wandering tribes of the north, the TarWhile the rocks responsive ring,

tars, and the Americans ; for though some To my harp's high-sounding string ;

nations of America, from a long residence Vaga stops her rolling tide,

in one place, have acquired a degree of Listening to her ancient pride ;

civilisation, yet there is always a tradition Birds and beasts my song attend,

of their having been in a wild state. It And mourn with me our country's fatal

is reasonable to suppose the descendants end !” p. 13.

of Japhet, in constantly travelling about,

would lose all the knowledge they had What next, and very strongly im- gained from Noah, except such as was pressed us in the perusal of this vo absolutely necessary for their subsistence. lume, is the turn and employment of We find the descendants of Shem alone, the author's mind, in the general who remained nearly stationary, and the conduct and occupations of her life. Egyptians and Chinese who settled soon This is apparent from her reflections

after they left Babel, had leisure to culti

vate the sciences before the elements of from time to time written down in

them were lost. From my ignorance of her little pocket books. Some of the Chinese language, I am at a loss to these also we transcribe.

determine whether the inhabitants of “ From the little information I can col.

China are descended from Shem or Japhet; lect by tracing languages towards their

the position of the country would incline source, it appears probable that when the

one to believe the latter; though their inhabitants of the earth quarrelled at Ba

manners, so unlike their Tartar neiglia bel, and dispersed in consequence, Ham

bours, seem to contradict it; yet this obturned, as is generally allowed, towards jection may be done away, by supposing Africa, where Egypt was afterwards

them to settle immediately after the discalled by his name, and by that of his persion, which appears probable from son Misraim. Shem remained in the west

their reckoning the cycle of sixty years ern parts of Asia, and spread from thence

from a period so remote as 2277 B. C. over Europe. This opinion is founded on

which answers exactly to the building of the very strong traces of the Persian lan

Babel. Their language consists entirely guage which yet remain in the Celtick

of monosyllables, which, with their known and all European tongues, not excepting clines me to think that it may, perhaps, dif

dislike of innovation in every thing, inGreek and Latin ; though the modern Persian, with which I compare them, is

fer less than any other from the original itself derived from the Pelhevi, the an

language, or at least from that of Noah.” cient language of Persia, which probably p. 52. had a much greater affinity with the Cel

Let those, and alas they form too tick. Noah says, in the 9th chapter of numerous a class of society, who Genesis ; May God extend Japhet, and spend their time either in idleness, or may he inherit the tents of Shem.” In

in continually making good resoluthe 10th chapter it is said, that the islands tions, of which the seductions of the were peopled by the descendants of Japhet. From these circumstances I con.

world prevent the practice, read and clude that the family of Japhet went east

meditate on what succeeds. ward from Babel, till, coming to the sea,

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