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to reply by means of a line from ers and supplications to heaven for Virgil :
your prosperity and protection." “ Vincit amor patriæ laudumque immensa
Having repaired to his native island, cupido."
he found a sudden change in respect Meanwhile, his father, who appears to the difference of manners. For to have been a man of talents,* the people there were still rude, unbrought him up with the most noble couth, and, in some respects, savage. notions, and carefully inculcated the They seemed, however, admirably practice of all the heroick virtues. In fitted for war; and exhibited, at the addition to this, his own mind being same time, a steady determination filled with important objects, his pas- either to recover their lost indepensions, instead of being wasted in igno- dence, or perish in the attempt. ble pursuits, were occupied solely As it was impossible, on account of with important objects. Accustomed his extreme youth, that he should to contemplate and to reason on the all at once aspire to the honour of practies of former times, he took being one of the chiefs of his nation, part with the stoicks in preference to Paoli officiated for a considerable the epicureans and was eager to re- time as secretary to Caffori, a phymark, that while the former had sician, who happened to be one of produced but one great man, the other his own kinsmen, and who was at could boast of a multitude.”+
this period at the head of the mal. “ Hi mor-s, hæc duri immota Catonis contents. At length, on the assassi. Secta fuit, servare modum, finemque te. nation of that leader, he presented nere,
himself as his successour ; but he Naturamque sequi, patriæque impendere was opposed by signor Matra, the
vitain, Nec sibi sed toti genitum se credere
son of a marquis of the same name, mundo."
who, like Paoli's own father, had been Lucan. Pharsal. lib. ii. I. 380. attached to the popular cause, and At length the time arrived when formed, in conjunction with him, one Paoli was to carry his schemes into of the council of regency. Being a execution. He accordingly took leave man of noble sentiments, and uniting of his father, who, after embracing the patriot and the warriour in his him with affection, expressed himself own person, he formed a formidable as follows:
rival to Pasquale ; and the adherents 66 My dear son,
of both parties having armed on the never see yon again ; but in imaginas occasion, the Paolists were defeated, tion, I shall ever attend on your foot- and obliged, with their chief, to take steps. Your design is great and no- refuge in a convent, where they were ble, and I doubt not but God will bless closely blockaded. But Matra soon and assist you in it. The little which after experienced the same tragical remains 10 me of life,” adds the end as his two predecessors, Samhoary chief, “ I shall consecrate to pieri and Caffori. On this, his comyour cause, by offering up my pray from his confinement, and publickly
petitor was immediately liberated * There is a sonnetto still in existence become once more vacant.
canvassed for the chieftainship, now written by Hiacinte Paoli to celebrate the exploits of his colleague, general Giafferi,
Paoli appears to have been formed who afterwards retired, like himself, to by nature to attain the hearts and Naples, during the siege of Cordone. It suffrages of his countrymen ; for his begins with the two following lines :
deportment was grave and prudent, “A coronar l'Eroe di Cirno invitto, Morte descenda e se l'nchini il fato, &c."
and his judgment was matured by
reflection rather than by age, while + A Tour to Corsica, by James Boswell, his patriotism was unquestioned, and Esq: p. 304.
his eloquence superiour to that of
any of his rivals. He was according- actually laid the foundation of a ma. ly unanimously chosen generalissimo, ritime power; or, at least, what was in a full assembly of the people, considered as such in that part of the when he had attained but the 29th Mediterranean, although it only conyear of his age. This joyful event sisted, in 1760, of a few feluccus, was immediately announced, by under the command of count Perys, means of a proclamation, “ in the who was henceforward designated name of the supreme and general under the pompous title of high ad. council of Corsica, addressed to the miral of Corsica. beloved people of that nation,” dated In 1761, the doge and senate of from St. Antonio of the White House, Genoa, perceiving the change lately July 15, 1755. It was there stated, effected among the natives, by the " that having determined on the elec- good conduct of one man, sent a detion of one political and general chief, putation to a general consulta, con. the voices had been unanimous in fa- voked at Vescovato, for the express vour of Pasquale Paoli, a man whose purpose of proposing terms of acvirlues and abilities rendered him commodation ; but as the pulse of particularly worthy. He had ex- liberty now beat high, it was unani. pressed great reluctance," it was mously resolved never to make any added, “to accept of the command, peace with the enemy, unless on the but had at length been prevailed upon express condition of Corsica being to take upon himself the government; guarantied in the full enjoyment of in the conduct of which he was to its independence. A memorial to the be assisted by two counsellors of same effect was also addressed, at the state, and one of the most reputable same time, to all the sovereigns of persons from each district, all of Europe. whom were to be changed once a At length, in 1768, this petty and
tyrannical republick, being now in Paoli was accordingly intrusted despair of ever bending the Corsicans with the sole management of publick again to its yoke, actually determined affairs, both civil and military, and to dispose of the island to the best soon obtained such an ascendency bidder. Accordingly, the sovereignty over the minds of the people, that was transferred to France (at least, they implicitly assented to every so far as such a transfer can be eg. thing proposed in his name. As teemed legal) for the sum of forty his patrimony* was extremely slen- millions of livres, a large portion of der, it became absolutely necessary which was, however, deducted as an that he should obtain a settled reve- antecedent debt. nue. His expenses were accordingly But Paoli, although greatly alarmprovided for, by means of an annual ed, was not utterly dismayed by this tax, called “ Il pane del generale." cession. On the contrary, he aroused
The situation of the island, in re- and prepared the spirit of his followspect to its internal government, ers for a fresh contention, and anima. being very unpromising, this chief ted them to persevere, with additional new modelled the laws, discouraged zeal, in the defence of their liberties assassinations, imported arms, and and independence against all opposers. established the appearance, if not He, at the same time, solemnly proreality, of subordination. In addi. mised never to abandon the cause ; tion to all this, he instituted schools, but either to triumph or fall at the erected a university at Corte, and head of his countrymen !
This heroick resolution, coupled It consisted solely, as has been con with the justice of the cause in which fidently said, of a house and garden at he had embarked, obtained for him. Rostino, the place of his birtlr.
the esteem and regard of every lover
of humanity throughout Europe. He pearance. He is tall, strong, and had already added to his reputation well made; of a fair complexion, a by driving the Genoese from the open sensible, free, and open countenance, country; shutting them up in the and a manly and open carriage. He maritime towns; and besieging the was then in his fortieth year. He city of St. Fiorenzo ; which he was was dressed in green and gold. He only prevented from taking posses- used to wear the common Corsican sion of by the ignorance of his coun habit ; but, on the arrival of the trymen in respect to the attack of French, he thought a little external fortified places, as well as the total elegance might be of use, to make want of cannon of every description, the goverr.ment appear in a more rewithout which it was utterly impog. spectable light. sible to make any impression on a “ He asked me, what were my town defended according to the mo commands for him? I presented him dern rules of war.
a letter from count Rivarola ; and But the situation of these brave when he had read it, I showed him islanders was soon altered for the my letter from Rousseau. He was worse, as *M. de Marbeuf, an officer polite, but very reserved. I had stood of considerable talents, had landed in the presence of many a prince ; with six battalions, in 1764. But yet but I never had such a trial as in the Paoli was still considered, by all par- presence of Paoli. I have already ties, as the legitimate chief, and it said, that he is a great physiognomist. was not until some time after, that a In consequence of his being in continew war, and that too with such a nual danger, from treachery and aspowerful monarchy as France, be- sassination, he has formed a habit of came inevitable.
studiously observing every new face. Meanwhile, the people of England, For ten minutes we walked backalways impressed with noble ideas in wards and forwards through the behalf of freedom, began to conceive room, hardly saying a word, while a high notion of the inhabitants of he looked at me with a stedfast, keen, Corsica, and to feel a generous wish and penetrating eye, as if he searched to serve them. This passion was not my very soul. a little inflamed by the writings of a “ This interview was for a while young Scotchman,t who had been very severe upon me.
I was very induced to visit that island in 1765, much relieved when his without any other introduction than wore off, and he began to speak more. a letter from the celebrated author of I then ventured to address him with the Social Contract.
this compliment to the Corsicans. By this means he obtained an in “Sir, I am upon my travels, and have troduction to Paoli, whom he de- lately visited Rome. scribes as follows: “ I found him from seeing the ruins of one brave alone, and was struck with his ap- and free people : I now see the rise
of another." M. de Marbæuf was much beloved by the natives. It was he, indeed, who pro
This event, trifling as it may aptected the family of Buonaparte; and pear, tended not a little, in consebeing very much attached, as has been quence of the policy of Paoli, to raise said, to his mother, obtained leave for him in the estimation of his own him, during the reign of Louis XV. to be countrymen, and even of the neighsent to l'Ecole Militaire.
bouring states. Boswell was imme† The late Mr. Boswell, son of lord diately lodged in the house of signor Auchinleck, one of the lords of session, a gentleman who seems to have begun the Colonna, the lord of the manor, and world as a speculative whig, and to have visited by all the nobility. And whenended it as a practical tory.
ever he chose to survey the country,
was attended by a party of soldiers. sion that cannot be accounted for on “ One day,” says he, “ when I rode any honourable principle. Lord Chatout, I was mounted on Paoli's own ham did not, at that humiliating horse, with rich furniture of crimson period, preside in the councils of the velvet, with broad gold lace, and had nation : yet we have always undermy guards marching along with me. stood, that the late marquis of Lans. I allowed myself to indulge a mo downe, then earl of Shelburn, objectmentary pride in the parade ; as I was ed to the tameness with which such curious to experience what could an insult was born, and that he actureally be the pleasure of state and ally resigned the important office distinction, with which mankind are then held by him, in consequence so strangely intoxicated.” It was of it. easy to countenance, or even to ori. Be this as it may, a furious war ginate, the report that a gentleman, ensued between France and Corsica; whose zeal alone carried him into the in which numbers, military science, wilds of Corsica, had been sent thi- money, and discipline, were on one ther on a secret mission; and the side ; and on the other, an almost “ Ambasciadore Inglese," by means unarmed multitude, enthusiasm, braof the Avignon Gazette, was soon in very, and a good cause. troduced to the notice of all the peo As the Corsicans were unprovided ple of Europe.
with artillery, and even with bayoWhile Paoli was thus flattering the nets, and combated individually ravanity of his countrymen, and con ther than in regular masses, it would solidating his own power, the con have been highly impolitick for them quest of the whole island seems to to have encountered the French in have been meditated by the court the plain, and thus placed the fate of of France. Louis XV. an indolent their country on the issue of a pitchand voluptuous prince, addicted to ed battle. On the contrary, it was the loosest pleasures, and regulated their interest to prolong the war, in by the will of his mistresses and his order to give time for the intervenministers, was prevailed upon to make tion of the neutral powers. Paoli, the attempt in 1768. M. de Chauve- ' therefore, posted his troops on the lin, one of his favourites, and the heights of Nebbio, de la Groce, and father of that ambassadour whom we St. Antonio, where they remained have seen at our own court, as the firm ; hoping, in a mountainous warrepresentative of Louis XVI. was fare, to be able to contend with less accordingly nominated to the com- inequality than in the low country, mand of the expedition.
They were obliged, however, after The army destined for the acqui. repeated charges, to retire before the sition of the poor, barren, and deso veteran troops of France, who acted late island of Corsica, was composed in concert, and possessed a variety of of sixteen battalions and two legions, advantages. amounting in all to about 5000 men. On this, the islanders withdrew These were to be supported by a behind the Guolo; but not until they squadron, consisting of two sail of the had already exhibited such a speciline, two frigates, six armed brigan- men of their bravery, that, instead of tines, a number of transports, &c. It pursuing the enemy, Chauvelin fourd was evidently the interest of the En it absolutely necessary to draw retiglish nation to have prevented this ac forcements from his own coast. quisition on the part of France : but a In the course of a short period, secret understanding appears, at that the tide of war turned against the intime, to have subsisted between the vaders; and the Corsicans (who had two courts, and a spirit of compliance hitherto acted on the defensive) at actually evinced itself on this occa. length became the assajlants. Many
officers distinguished themselves on turned alive ; and that place was ack this occasion, particularly Clemente cordingly obliged to surrender next Paoli, the elder brother of the gene- day. ral. He was a singular man, who After this the French general re, united the most exemplary deference tired first to Bastia, and then to Verto the superstitions of the church, sailles, chagrined to behold some of with a passionate aitachment to the the best troops of France circumventprofession of arms, and led the life ed, defeated, and killed, by a body of a monk, when he did not act in of mountaineers, headed by a general the capacity of a warriour. Per who was acquainted with the theory ceiving that a considerable body of of war alone, and had never, until French troops, with the usual auda- now, beheld an engagement. The city of that nation, had penetrated conclusion of the campaign of 1768, into the Pieva, or district of Casinca, so disgraceful to the French army, he called on the natives to rise in a and so honourable to its enemies, body; and having assembled four or afforded a fair opportunity for the five thousand of them, he attacked intervention of the maritime powers. the enemy; forced the post of La But as M. de Choiseul, at that time Penia; obliged the foe to recross the minister to Louis XV. was but too river; and actually drove them before well acquainted with the disposition him to Notre Dame dell'Orto. But of the British cabinet, which could this was not all; for no sooner had alone have animated the allied courts his success been made generally into action, he determined to send known, than the detached camp of powerful reenforcements to CorsiSt. Nicholas was attacked by mul These consisted of twenty battitudes of armed men, and gene- talions, two legions, and twelve hunral Grandmaison, who commanded dred mules; and the command of there, was obliged to fall back to the whole was intrusted to the count Oletta. The town of Borgo was de Vaux. the next object, on which the con This officer unfortunately happen. querors fixed their attention ; and ed not only to be brave and active, although utterly unacquainted with but also to possess a mind well acboth the art and the means of attack- quainted with all the resources of ing fortified stations, they found
He himself was familiar with means to penetrate into the place, the scene of action, and well aware of and make a lodgment there.
all the faults committed by his preOn this M. de Chauvelin resolved decessor, who had escaped from disto advance in person, with the main grace, and even from punishment, onboxiy of the army, while Paoli, being ly by the personal attachment and reencouraged by the recent conduct of gard of the monarch, in whose dehis troops, determined to give him baucheries he had for many years battle. An action accordingly took participated. place on the fifth September, 1768; The new commander in chief, fearfor the French having advanced in ing, above all things, lest the war three separate columns, hoping by should be protracted, determined to means of a combined movement, to divide his army into two columns, of carry every thing before them, the about twelve battalions each, and by Corsicans, as usual, placed themselves one grand movement put an end to in ambush, and, as they fired with the contest, by the complete subjugaall the certainty of American rifle- tion of the whole island of Corsica. men, they of course made a great Paoli, from this moment, foresaw that slaughter. Of three hundred of the his country must not only be overgarrison of Borgo, who sallied out run, but conquered. He, however, during the fight, one man only re- defended the bridge of Guolo, and