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the village of Valle, with a considera- confusion, with the loss of his library ble degree of obstinacy; after which, and his baggage. Having with some he retired with about six thousand difficulty assembled a few of his faithmen to the top of a mountain, sur ful followers, among whom was his mounted with a Turkish mosque, own brother, he repaired to the seaoriginally built by the Saracens, and side, and being accompanied by these since converted into a Christian on board an armed vessel, bearing church, dedicated to St. Peter. As the English flag, which had been prothis commanded the four adjacent vided for his reception, he was landed valleys, and was considered as the in Italy. last and chief defence of the island, After remaining a short time at every thing depended on keeping Leghorn, he repaired to England, possession of it. But the Corsicans where he had many friends and adwere equally overpowered by num- mirers. Indeed, it was but a few days bers and by skill; and fifteen hundred before his final retreat, that he had of them having been nearly cut off, in received a liberal subscription, from an attempt against the French army a number of private individuals, for at Ponte Nuovo, the final subjugation the express purpose of enabling him of the natives was now unhappily ac to continue the war against France.* complished.
Immediately on his arrival, the paDumourier, who served on this oc- triots, at the eastern extremity of the easion, with the rank of adjutant ge- metropolis transmitted a formal inviperal, is liberal enough, in the Me- tation to the general, to repair to the moirs of his own Life, to pay the city, where an entertainment had highest compliments both to the Cor- been provided for him. Alderman sicans and their chief. In respect to Beckford, Mrs. Macaulay, alderman the former, he observes as follows: Fecothick, and a number of his
“ It is astonishing, that this hand- friends and admirers were all present ful of islanders, destitute of artillery, on this occasion, and expected his fortifications, magazines, and money, appearance with impatience : but the should have kept France at bay during general, having received an intimation two campaigns, although she had no from the patriots of the west end of other enemies to cope with. But li- the town, that his presence would berty doubles the valour and strength give offence to the court, he felt him. of man."
self suddenly indisposed, and sent his “ Paoli,” says he, in another place, secretary with an excuse. « has rendered his name illustrious, Meanwhile Paoli was presented to in consequence of the vigour with his majesty, at St. James's, and most which he supported the cause of pub- graciously received. He was at the lick liberty among the Corsicans; but same time gratified with a pensiont in truth, it was a little at the expense for himself, while a liberal provision of their individual freedom. In the was made for his brother, signor Clecourse of this war, he displayed great mente Paoli, and also for his nephew, genius, and a noble consistency. Had signor Barbaggio, the latter of whom he been endowed with military ta- had accompanied him to England, lents ; had he known how to have in- while the former resided in Italy. structed his countrymen in that spe
From this time forward, the excies of hostility best suited to the na- general remained chiefly in London, tural bent of their genius, he would leading the quiet life of a private genhave destroyed our little army in 3768, and done us much more harm * The aldermen Beckford and Feco. than we experienced in 1769."
thick, together with Samuel Vaughan, This celebrated chief had the good esq. were the trustees. fortune to escape during the general + Twelve hundred pounds per annum.
tleman, keeping a hospitable table, nation." He, at the same time, ex. a carriage, and every thing appertain- pressed his readiness to contribute, ing to a man of fortune. Having as much as it was in his power, to been waited upon, soon after his arri. the happiness of his fellow citizens." val, by Mr. Boswell, the latter pre These sentiments, being highly sented Dr. Johnson to him, on the popular at that period, experienced 10th day of October, 1769. “ They general applause; and Paoli having met with a manly ease," says Mr. B.* taken the oath of fidelity in the face "mulually conscious of their own of the nation, was thus enabled to reabilities, and of the abilities of each instate himself in all his former other. The general spoke Italian, power and authority. Soon after this, and Dr. Jobnson English, and un. he embarked for Corsica, where he derstood one another very well, with was received with an extraordinary a little aid of interpretation from me, degree of attachment and respect. In in which I compared myself to an consequence of this, he was elected isthmus, that_joins two great conti- mayor of Bastia, commander in chief nents.”
of the national guard, and president During the space of twenty-three of the department. In fine, he soon years, Paoli enjoyed an honourable acquired more authority in the island and secure asylum in Great Britain, than before its subjugation by the where he, of course, expected to end French. his days. But the extraordinary Notwithstanding this, he appears. events of the French revolution at to have been still ambitious of its en. length induced him to embark anew tire independence, and an epoch soon in the storms of civil strife.
arrived, when he imagined that so No sooner had the constituting as- desirable an event might be effected sembly proclaimed liberty to the na with impunity. This was the execution, than the fate of Corsica appeared tion of Louis XVI. which divided to be meliorated, and a people so long the French nation into two parties, oppressed, received a glimpse of free- rendered a civil war exceedingly prodom. On perceiving that his native bable, and animated the enemies of country had become one of the de- the new republick with new hopes. partments of France, her ancient The convention having been inchief transinitted a letter to his fel- formed of his secret practices, immelow citizens, in which he expressed diately issued orders to Paoli, to rehis congratulations on this event, but pair to their bar, and defend himself lamented, at the same time, that he against the accusations of his enea could not rejoin them consistently mies: but he pleaded his age and inwith his gratitude and attachment to firmities, with a view of gaining time, tbe British nation,
and assured that assembly he would Notwithstanding this, he took leave never be found defective in respect to of his friends here, and repaired 10 his duty. To a second decree, more Paris in 1792 ; having been well re- peremptory than the first, he replied ceived by the party then in power, he in a different manner, and with more pronounced a speech at the bar of frankness : after which he repaired the assemhly, in which he observed, to Corte, the ancient capital, situate " that after a painful exile of more in the centre of the island, where, than twenty years, he now rejoiced surrounded by his friends and adheto behold his country restored to the rents, he laughed at the proclamation possession of her rights and privi- which had been issued, declaring him leges, by the generosity of the French a traitor, and setting a price on his
head. * Life of Samuel Johnson, L. L. D. vol. On this occasion, however, a num. ii. p. 76.
ber of the most powerful families in
Corsica declared against him; and evacuated, Bastia and Calvi, also, Saliceti, Arena, Gentili, Casa Bianca, yielded to the victors. together with many of those who had Immediately after this, a general sworn fidelity to the new constitu- consulta was assembled at Corte ; and tion, and like himself subscribed the Paoli having been elected president, civick oath, publickly declared, that the representatives of the nation unathey could not assist in subverting nimously voted the union of Corsica those regulations, in favour of which with the British crown. This propo. they had taken so soleinn a vow, in sition having been readily accepted, the face of Heaven and of mankind. on the part of sir Gilbert Elliot (now
On the other hand, the whole body lord Minto) then his majesty's comof the clergy, disgusted at the late missioner, he was immediately inreforms, which had deprived them of vested with the dignity of viceroy. a large portion of their revenues, A new constitution was soon after sided with their ancient chief; and formed, which, if not exactly suitable to these adhered all such as were to the genius of the nation, must be eminently devoted to the church of allowed to have been exceedingly faRome, a numerous and powerful vourable to liberty ; for these subjects class of men, who assumed to them. now received as a boon, many of selves the appellation of the sacred those very privileges which the inhaband. But as Paoli knew from long bitants of England had long demand. experience, that it was impossible to ed in vain as a right, particularly resist the power of France, alone and short parliaments, and an equal reunsupported, he determined to call in presentation of the people. the assistance of England, which at It might have been supposed, that this period occupied Toulon, and the triumph of Paoli was complete, waged war, with a degree of vigour and his happiness placed on such a and of bitterness, hitherto unexam permanent basis, as never to be either pled in the annals of that kingdom. ruffled or disturbed during the reHe accordingly invited the British mainder of his life. Bui the fact, admiral,* who had been recently foil. which proved directly the reverse, ed in an expedition against his native tends not a little to demonstrate the country, to invade it anew, with a mutability of human happiness. А fleet, accompanied by a body of jealousy, how justly founded we are troops, to whom he was prepared to unable to determine, soon after took give every possible succour, having place between the British viceroy, been once more elected generalissimo, and the Corsican chief, the result of in a grand council of the nation. which was undoubtedly connected That officer, having first despatched with the future fate of the island. colonel, now general sir John Moore.† Paoli, however, on this occasion, together with the late major Kæhler, cheerfully yielded to the force of to examine into the prospects and circumstances, and generous resources of the insurgents, an expe- enough before his departure, to addition sailed from the bay of Hieras, dress a valedictory letter to his counJanuary 24, 1795, for the express trymen, in which he exhorted them purpose of driving the French out of to cultivate the friendship of the Enthe island. A body of troops having glish, and remain firm in their alle. been landed under lieutenant general giance to his majesty George III. Dundas, the tower of Mortella was These loyal effusions, however, taken with some difficulty ; after during his absence, were altended which, Fornelli was attacked with with but little effect ; for the natives, success, and St, Fiorenzo having been naturally inconstant, soon became
disgusted with their new allies and * Lord Hood.
protectors. Dazzled, also, at the same + Lately killed at the battle of Corunna time, perhaps, with the splendour
of the victories of their countryman might have been said of him, as had Buonaparte, in Italy, and determined, been formerly uttered by the cardinal above all things, on a reunion with de Retz, in respect to the famous France, it was at length deemed ne- Montrose, “ that he was one of those cessary, on the part of the English men who are no longer to be found troops, to evacuate an island which any where, but in the lives of Pluhas always proved destructive to tarch." every nation connected with it, either That the Corsican chief was a by friendship or by enmity.
great man, cannot well be denied ; Meanwhile, a sad reverse of fortune but it is the opinion of those, who attended on Paoli; for, by the failure have enjoyed an opportunity of stuof a commercial house at Leghorn, dying his character, that he was a he lost the sum of five thousand politician rather than a soldier; that pounds, which was all that he pos- he shone in council more than in sessed in the world. In addition to arms ; and that the leading feature this, the payments of his pension had of his publick conduct, was a certain been suspended ; and on his arrival degree of Italian policy, which tauglit in England, he was not received at him to refine and speculate on every court with so much attention, as event. heretofore.
Among his countrymen he was About this period, he was visited adored ; and to support his superioriby the author of this article, who ty, he made use of those arts which found him in an obscure lodging, have usually passed under the name above a shop in Oxford road, whence of pious frauds. These, perhaps, he at length removed into a small appeared indispensably necessary for house in Edgeware road, on the right the government of barbarians ! Achand side, a little beyond the turn- cordingly, like Numa, he pretended pike. The remainder of his life is to a direct communication with the one entire blank, totally devoid of Deity,* and also affected, on all occaincidents, until his death, which had sions, after the manner of the heroes been preceeded by a lingering ill. of old, to be surrounded by dogs of ness, on Thursday, February 5, 1807, a particular breed, which were inin the 81st year of his age.
deed necessary to preserve him from Few foreigners, however distin- assassination. guished, have been so much caressed It is not a little remarkable, that in England, as the late general Pas- Corsica, an island which seems to quale Paoli. By living in habits of fa- have been equally despised, both by miliarity with men of letters, his name the ancients and moderns, should and exploits acquired fresh celebri. have produced two men, one of whom ty; and Boswell, Goldsmith, John- engaged the attention of all Europe, son, Macaulay, Barbauld, and lord towards the middle of the last centu. Littleton, although differing in almost ry, while another seems, unhappily every thing else, most cordially united for the repose of mankind, destined in his praise Abroad, too, his repu. to regulate its fate, at the beginning tation was greatly respected; and the of the present. eulogiums of such a man as Rousseau,
* That this amiable chief should have then in the zenith of his reputation, persuaded an uncivilized nation, that he was alone sufficient to ensure reputa- received intimations of future events from tion throughout the rest of Europe. above, is but little surprising ; but that
While his laurels were still green, he should have also persuaded one of the it was usual to compare Paoli to Ti- inhabitants of an enlightened country, is moleon and Epaminondas: and it absolutely unaccountable. Let it be recol. was apposiely remarked by an En lected, however, that some of the coun
trymen of Mr. Boswell, at that very pe. glish minister, that the same thing riod, actually believed in second sight.
A brief Account of the Earliest Discovery of Diamonds in Brasil, together with some
Particulars Relative to the Quality, &c. of those Precious Stones, the Laws respecting them, &c. &c.
THERE was a time when dia- they were not the produce of the monds were found only in the Fast places wherein they were found, but Indies, principally in the lower part were brought thither by the current of of Hindoostan; and during the period the river. Nevertheless, their source when the Portuguese were powerful has not hitherto been discovered. Sanin the east, the whole of the Euro- guine hopes are, however, entertainpean commerce in diamonds was car. ed on this subject; as in mining severied on through Lisbon. These pre- ral mountains adjacent to the town, cious stones were brought from Goa, innumerable particles of a hard and which is adjacent to Golconda, where beautiful species of crystal have latethe famous diamond mines of the ly been met with. cast are situated. The Dutch, having The weight of the Brasil diamonds obtained the ascendency in India, de- is, ordinarily, from a grain to six caprived the Portuguese of a source of rats. There are some, however, of wealth which chance, however, soon greater size, and one has been found restored to them. In 1729, the co which weighs no less than forty-six lonists of Brasil discovered those carats. diamond mines, which at present According to the author above nasupply the chief demand of Europe. med, in hue, solidity, and every other
Near the town of Serro do Frio, property, the Brasil diamonds are says Don Sarmento, in the govern- equal to those of the easi; but there ment of the gold mines, there is a are few jewellers who hold this opi. place called by the natives Cay-The- nion. It is observable, he adds, that Meria, where, as well as in the little the diamonds found nearest to the river named do Milho Verde, they surface of the earth, being conse. have found gold for several years quently exposed to the action of the back. The miners who dig the gold air and the sun, are more strongly in. in these parts, sift the earth, and the crusted than the others, and, of sand on the river's bank, for the pur- course, lose more in the polishing. pose of separating the ore. In per. It is not absolutely certain, says Sarforming this operation, it frequently mento, that the diamonds of Brasil happened, that they found several are brought down by the torrents; stones, of which, at first, they made and such too, is the decided opinion no account; and it was not till 1728, of the author of “ L'Histoire des deux that a miner bethought himself of Indes." working or grinding the stones, the From the moment that the Porturesult of which was, that he found guese discovered diamonds in Brasil, them to be diamonds. He thence- they pursued their researches, and forward took care not to let one of with such success, that one fleet from them escape his attention, and the Rio Janiero brought home 1146 other miners, following his example, ounces. This abundant supply loweagerly sought after these valuable ered the price of the article by three gems. After having carefully search- fourths; but the Portuguese minised the earth, they had recourse to ter adopted measures which quickly the river, where they not only found restored it to its original standard. the diamonds in greater abundance, A company, with an exclusive pribut procured them with the utmost vilege to seek for, and to vend, the facility. Experience and a little re diamonds of Brasil, was instituted. flection led them to imagine, that the And in order to limit its cupidity, it diamonds came from a distance; that was allowed to employ no more than