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Albania a prey to anarchy, and on his harshly censured, has no other mobeing beheaded, Ali was named to tive; and it may be considered as the vacant pachalick, and took pos- his means of self-preservation. He session of Janina, che present seat of delights in saying that he is a modern his power.

Pyrrhus (or Bourrhous, as he proPrudent in prosperity, Ali lost no nounces it) but a Pyrrhus, however, time in taking the necessary steps to who shows a due regard for his sovestrengthen his precarious and blood- reign. Unlike most other pachas, stained authority. He accordingly by his general knowledge, his eyes increased his dominions, by reducing are always fixed on what is passing the rebels in arms against the Porte; in Europe. He gets newspapers transthese he afterwards took under his lated; eagerly seeks for information; protection as subjects; and above all and is no stranger to the various oshe sheltered and favoured the Greek cillations of the political system. religion. He also contracted alliances Equally attentive to the frequent with the Agas of Thessalia ; and as.. commotions which take place in the sociated his two sons into his power, Turkish empire, he uniformly avails by obtaining for them the titles of himself of

weakness of that gopachas. Lastly, after a series of vernment, to extend his dominions, successes, which surpassed even his and to seize advantageous posts. He most sanguine expectations, Ali re trusts for his justification in his nuceived the three tails, on his return merous creatures, in the powerful from the Widin expedition against friends whom he pays, even in the Passwan Oglu, in 1798.

divan; and the Porte, knowing his He is now (1809] 52 years of age ; resources, feels deeply interested in and no signs of premature old age are keeping on fair terms with him. discernible in him ; his noble and Not satisfied, however, with an open countenance, marked by strong ephemeral power, Ali has looked features, pourtrays all the violent e forward to futurity, with a determi. motions of his soul. He knows, howe nation not to leave his pachalick to a ever, how to command it, when ne

stranger.

We have already said, cessary; and his looks become en that he has obtained for his two sons, gaging. Yet even at such times, his the titles of pachas; and the Porte, but half-constrained laughter, denotes which generally waits for the death that his tongue is at variance with his of its officers, to reassume its rights, heart. On the other hand, when he seems to have lost Albania for ever. punishes, he is unable to conceal his Mouctar, the eldest son of Ali, fol. wrath ; and the convulsive distortion lowing his father's example, has of his features manifests without re- given proofs of the greatest energy; serve his violence of temper. In he may even be accused of ferocity. figure he is tall and athletick : brave Veli, of a more gentle disposition, to the extreme : and his arms and seems engrossed by the cares of adbosom are graced by numerous ministration. United, however, by honourable scars.

the firmest friendship, no motives of Steady in his plans, he has adopted interest have hitherto divided these a line of conduct, from which he has brothers. Ali has governed Orta, sometimes deviated through circum- and Negropont, with the title of stances, but which he has kept con- pacha. Veli fills the place of Derstartly in view. Convinced that by vendgi Pacha, or inspector of the money he can always preserve favour highways." By this union of offices, with the Porte, he regularly pays his the sensible Ali has secured supports tributes to the Sultan, though he has in his two sons, whose strict union made hiniselt independent in fact. strengthens his authority more and His avarice, for which he has been more. Ali, always a true Albanese

at heart, speaks only that language, in their thick surtouts, seem to disor modern Greek. He places his hap- regard the difference of seasons. piness in commanding those to whom While encamped they spend the he is indebted for his elevation. whole day in wrestling, singing, and Mouctar has learnt Turkish, and dancing; and from their habitual from his youth has been familiar sobriety, a slight distribution of with the din of arms, as led by his wheaten, or maize bread, with black warlike disposition. Veli, better in- olives, or a few pickled sardines, is formed, acquires every day more in reckoned a treat. Very different struction, and is acquainted with the from the Turks, whom they call Osoriental languages.

manlis, and whose sole happiness is Ali has chosen his residence in a in indolence, the Albanese are alpeninsula, formed by the lake Ache. ways in motion. They hail the aprusia ; and connected with Janina by proach of danger with joyful accla-. a narrow isthmus, which is defended mations; but, whatever be the event, by a strong castle. Here, inaccessi. they never fail of claiming the whole ble to attack, Ali lives secluded from merit of the success; and above all the town, and from his subjects. In they never acknowledge a defeat. this strong hold, capable of resistance When repulsed, they only say, that for a long while, even after the taking they have not been victorious; but of Janina, he is surrounded by a if they can carry off a head, they chosen band of Albanese, secured by loudly exult in the trifling advantage. conscious bravery rather than by the At night, those thick surtouts we display of terrour.

He does not,

have mentioned serve them as beds. however, neglect that mean of en Their head is barely covered by their forcing his authority in his capital; fechs (a kind of bonnet, somewhat but it is tempered with occasional like that of the Highlanders) their marks of condescending confidence. legs aré, however, well guarded by Not long ago [in 1805]

all the shops cothurns; they are, literally, loaded were shut on his appearance in the with arms; and satisfied with their streets; and he felt some complacen lot, they place their happiness in a cy, in seeing himself thus feared. camp life. Diseases are so few among He begins to perceive, that the love them, that out of six thousand men enof his subjects is preferable to their camped on active service, for a length fear; and he has laid aside part of of time, no more than twenty could the terrifick pomp that surrounded be found on the sick list. It must be him. Free from that barbarous fe said, on the other hand, that as an rocity which sheds blood without mo. Albanese never complains, except tiye, he never imbrues his hands in when actually ill, so no power can it, but through interest, or to secure keep him in the ranks when he is his tranquillity, which, from his mis sick. He then retires to his family, trustful temper, he perhaps considers in his native mountains; but hastens as exposed to more dangers than ac to join his colours when recovered. tually exist. Moreover he protects The Albanese soldier glories in his commerce and industry. These he profession. He shows, with pride, his delights in fixing in his dominions : numerous scars, as titles to honouraand his views on this subject are ble distinction. The tattered state really astonishing, considering the of his linen and garments, is also an barbarous state in which he has been occasion of exultation; and to express till now supposed to live.

the utmost bravery of an Albanese, The army of Ali pacha is almost they say, that he never quits his shirt exclusively composed of Albanese, till it falls in rags. In short, in the who being accustomed to the keen men of Epirus an observer might find air of their mountains, and wrapt up

the soldiers of Alexander, of Pyrr

our

hus, and of Scanderberg. With such emergency, as in the expedition men properly disciplined, a general against Passwan Oglu, he has brought might do wonders, and could, per five and twenty thousand men into the haps, change the face of the oriental field; but then the additional expense world. In the decline of the empire, is amply repaid by the Porte. He the Albanese alone have maintained has, besides, in his dominions, the their true characteristicks; proud, elements of a most excellent militia; and panting for battle, they are de- for the profession of arms is that of lighted, they are transported, at the every Albanese. They are found clashing of arms. The Albanese throughout the empire, in the service officers are generally accompanied of every pacha, whose guard they by a kind of squire, who, on a march, generally compose, and they take an carry their cuirass, and their arms. active and leading part in all the Their dress and mode of living, give commotions which desolate the em, some faint idea of

ancient pire. When by these means they knights.

have acquired what they consider a It would be useless here to detail competency, they invariably return the petty intrigues, the desultory to their native mountains ; and are warfare and the crimes of all kinds always ready to obey the call of their by which Ali gradually extended his pacha. Others prefer the profession dominions. They now comprise Epi- of haïdouts, i. e. highway robbers, rus, Arcadia, the mountains of Pine and after having acquired a property dus, Phocida, a part of Etolia, Thes. by that course of life, they likewise salia, and some districts of Macedo- return, and are never thought the nia ; together with Crevesa, and other worse of, on that account. As they seaports formerly belonging to the are acquainted with the darkest passes Venetians, and which he has wrested of the country, they are most formi. from the French.

dable in partial encounters, in which The pachas of Arta, Argyro-case the Mussulmen are known to be ge. tron, Ochrida, and Delvino, are, in nerally superiour to the disciplined fact, dependent on him, though he troops of Europe. suffers them to enjoy the show and To these natural means of defence trappings of authority; and even the and attack, Ali unites all the craft of fierce tribes which dwell in the crag a politician ; as well in attaching men gy mountains of Epirus, have either to his interests, as in effecting the felt the power of his arms, or have ruin of those whose designs he susbeen subdued by his intrigues. pects. He never vexes his agas by

The revenue drawn by Ali from preventing their extortions. On the these countries, may be valued at contrary, he lets them act at their 400,0001, including the taxes, which own discretion; well convinced, that are collected with less severity than rogues will never seek for change, in the rest of the empire ; the produce when they are assured of impunity ; of his numerous flocks, and his pro- and from this conduct some of them fits on the sale of wool and timber, are fanatically devoted to him. and indeed on trade in general, for he He never lulls himself in dangeris the greatest trader and first mo ous security ; and, always on the nopolist in his dominions. This sum watch for European news, as we have is sufficient to pay his tributes to the observed already, he never lets a foPorte ; to defray the expenses of his reigner pass through his dominions, household; and to maintain his army, without summoning him into his

His forces may amount in peacea- presence; not so much with a view ble times to six or eight thousand to extort

present from him, Albanese; though in cases of great though he is as greedy as any other

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Turk, as to get information. He af- Italy. Their women, whose greatest
terwards compares the various intelli- finery is a gold-embroidered hand-
gence that he has received; he cal- kerchief, receive gold and silver
culates events ; and every thing in thread from Vienna, Germany also,
duces a belief that Ali will be one of supplies them with woollen cloth and
the strongest supports of his master, hardware.
though his services will be those of From the ports of Orta, Crevesa,
a great feudatory, rather than of a Vallona, Durazzo, and from the
devoted slave.

mouths of the Boïnna, they export
The pachalick of Ali, like the rest annually in Sclavonian, or Ragusan
of the Ottoman empire, having a po vessels, five or six cargoes of oil, for
pulation infinitely disproportionate to Trieste and Venice; three or four of
its extent of territory, the land though wool, of all kinds, mostly unwashed,
not remarkably fruitful or well culdestined for Ancona and Genoa ;
tivated, produces more than is ade- three or four of corn for Genoa; and
quate to the wants of the inhabitants. one or two of tobacco, for Naples and
With the surplus they procure the Messina.
money for paying their taxes; and to Before the revolution, France,
purchase European manufactures, so which had a constant intercourse
necessary in a country where even with Albania, monopolized most of
the most common arts of civilisation that trade, with the addition of several
are utterly unknown. Arms of every valuable cargoes of timber, much
kind form an object essentially neces- superiour in quality to that of the
sary to such a warlike people. They Baltick. It was employed in the
even are an object of luxury among dock yards of Toulon ; and it has
them. They generally prefer the been remarked that the finest frigates
guns and pistols from the manuface in the French navy were built of that
tures of Brescia. They likewise im. kind of oak, which had been furnish
port their glass and their paper from ed by the forests of Albania.

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PREMATURE ERUDITION.

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AN article in the foreign jour youths around him. In the course nals, under the head of Mersburgh, of his translating, he was also exa. June 10, says:

“ A distinguished mined on the parts of speech, conprofessor in one of our colleges being cord, syntax, &c. which he analyzed desirous to excite emulation among and explained with a facility and achis pupils, brought before them a curacy which excited the astonishchild of only seven years and ten ment of all who were present. He months. He listened with attention construed, likewise, an Italian book, to the Greek lesson which the pro- which one of the company had fessor was expounding, and which brought with him, and conversed fahe desired the child to go on with. miliarly in that language. The seAll his astonished pupils heard the quel of the conversation proved his child construe, to the satisfaction of extensive knowledge in history, geoevery one, a passage in Plutarch with graphy, &c. Fortunately for this prowhich he was previously unacquaint- digy of learning, he is well formed, ed, and give every explanation that and enjoys perfect health. He poscould be required. Cesar's Commen- sesses all the playfulness, all the taries were next handed him, and modesty and simplicity of a child of he translated, readily and distinctly, his tender years, and is not even sentences which had puzzled the conscious that he is the object of

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universal admiration. His father is excelled in knowledge at the tender the celebrated doctor Charles Wette, age of two years, and that he died beminister of Lochan, near Halle, who fore he had completed his fourth. unfortunately refuses to communicate Baratier, after having astonished Euthe method (peculiar to himself) rope by the variety and extent of his which he adopted to instruct a child acquirements at a very early period, who resembles Heincken, and Bara- died, apparently of old age, before tier, the prodigies of their times. It he attained his nineteenth year. is a well attested fact, that the former

OBITUARY.

ACCOUNT OF THE LATE MRS. HANNAH COWLEY.

ON the 11th of last March, died fire of youthful genius, and the geat Tiverton, Devonshire, the place nuine effusions of filial gratitude. of her nativity, in the 66th year of Mrs. Cowley's first dramatick Coup her age, Mrs. Hannah Cowley, an d'Essai, was the comedy of the Runauthoress, who may be justly said to away. This play, produced in March, have been celebrated in every walk 1776, was the last new piece brought of the drama, and in every measure out by Mr. Garrick, previous to his of poetry.

resigning the management of DruryThis lady was the daughter of the lane theatre. late Mr. Parkhurst, also of Tiverton; The first act of this play, verbaa gentleman as universally respected tim, as it now stands, is said to have and esteemed for his learning and been produced one morning before probity, as for a peculiar flow of dinner. It met the encouragement of humour which enlivened his conver her husband, who wished to see it sation. Mrs. Cowley's genius may, finished. It was accordingly complein some respects, be considered as ted in a fortnight, and transmitted to hereditary. Her grandmother by the · Mr. Garrick, at his then residence, father's side having been first cousin at Hampton court. to the celebrated poet Gay, by whom This comedy which was so favourshe was held in such high estima- ably received, that it first introduced tion, that he passed a considerable the practice of what, in dramatick portion of his time at her house in phraseology, is termed “ Running Barnstaple.

Plays," was performed a successive In addition to his other qualifica. number of nights, with distinguished tions, Mr. Parkhurst had attained a applause. And we may judge what proficiency in classical literature, must have been the receipts of the which gained him the reputation treasury of the theatre, when it proof having been an excellent scholar. duced to the fair authoress eight hun

Under such a tutor, was the ge- dred guineas. nius of our authoress inspired and Her next effort in the drama, in cultivated ; and she presented him point of composition, though not of in return with the first fruits of her representation, was the tragedy of muse, by prefixing his name to the Albina, which was brought out by poem of the Maid of Aragon, in Mr. Colman, at his summer theatre dedication, which evinced at once the in the Haymarket, on the 30th of

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