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seem to be seated in the breadth and « who had two Saharawan horses in strength of his chest, which is two his stables (horses of the desert] and spans between his fore-legs; these, finding it inconvenient to feed them though extremely fine in bone, are constantly on camel's milk, he reuncommonly strong in sinew, and his solved to try them on the usual food swiftness and durability exceed those given to Barbary horses. He accordof the common barb almost in the ingly had their food gradually changed, same degree, as the sebayee exceeds and in a short time fed them altogethe common camel. The arab em ther with barley, and occasionally ploys him chiefly in hunting the os wheat and straw. They grew fat, trich, a sport in which he is particu, and looked better than before; but larly expert. The motion of this they lost their speed, and soon afterlittle speedy animal is uneasy to an wards died, as if nature had desi ned unpractised rider. He is very low in them to be appropriated solely to that the crest, and carries his head straight district, whose arid and extensive out, and so tucked up (as the jockey plains render their use essentially nephrase is) that he must be girted cessari.” l'ound the breast. The Scheik Abyd If Mr. Jackson's famous barb was Allah, a familiar friend of Mr. Jack, as speedy as one of our profest run. son, rode one of these horses from ning horses, the experiment of his Mogodor to Santa Cruz, which is match with the Scheik Abyd Allah not less than a hundred English miles, might tempt our gentlemen of the between the dawn of day and four turf to speculate upon an importation o'clock in the afternoon. My author of one of these Sh’rabah Er’rechs, also informs me, that upon meeting or wind suckers, accompanied with this Scheik on the sands of Mogodor, a nursery of camels, and an Arab so mounted, and being challenged to for his training groom and rider. His try the speed of his Barbary horse, breed, however, might be attainable, which was one of the finest in that
and an object, perhaps, which some country, fifteen hands and a half may think worthy of ihe experiment. high, the Scheik upon his desert gal " Gold and silver mines are found Joway gave
him a start of one hundred in several parts of the empire of yards in the distance of about one Marocco, particularly about Messa, mile, and soon passed him with a in the province of Suse." Of these velocity that put all competition of the emperour head caused some to be speed instantly out of question. destroyed from reasons of policy, and
The Arabs, who inhabit the culti- others, particularly one very rich in vated spots, called Oasis, in the de. silver, which being situated between sert, where this horse is bred, feed two clans, who were continually him upon camel's milk, to which he fighting for it, was rendered of no becomes so attached as to reject all use to either. Iron, copper, and lead other sustenance, even water; and ore, saltpetre, sulphur, and antimony, when brought to Marocco, which of the finest quality are in great sometimes happens, he falls away abundance, and “ vast quantities of (and if obliged ultimately from hun salt are conveyed by the Akkabas to ger, to eat barley and straw, the Moor. Soudan, where none is produced, and ish provender, he recovers, gradually on that account is so valuable at Timfills up, and becomes handsome to buctoo, that a pound weight is frethe sight, but loses entirely his usual quently bartered for an ounce of gold speed. Nay, he does more than dust.” To that city, the great emthiş, for Mr. Jackson quotes an in- porium of central Africa, where imstance within his knowledge, of Alkaid mense treasures of gold are amassed, Omar ben Daudy, an Arab of Raham and which is as yet unvisited by any menah, and governour of Mogodor, European açlventurer, the curiosity
of the reader will naturally be di- finest ostrich feathers and ambergris rected.
are collected by the caravans in their The caravans of Marocco, Fez, passage on the confines of the desert. Tunis, Algier, Tripoli, Egypt, &c. As the caravans perform their have, from time immemorial, carried stated daily journies over this trackon a very extensive and lucrative less waste, they direct their course trade with Timbuctoo, across the to certain well known hospitable spots, great desert Sahara, between the interspersed like islands in the ocean, months of September and April in- called Oasi's, or Wahsi's, which are clusive. From Fez, the distance inhabited, cultivated, and of amazing may be reckoned at fifteen hundred fertility and luxuriance ; in these the miles, S.S.E.
caravans halt about seven days, for “ The articles transported by the com the purpose of feeding, refreshing pany, of merchants trading from Fez to
their camels, and recruiting theiv Timbuctoo, are principally as follows:
water skins. Various kinds of German linens, viz. platillas, rouans, brettanias, muslins of dif
There is no reason why any Euroferent qualities, particularly muls, Irish pean traveller might not safely attach linens, cambricks, fine cloths of particu- himself to one of these accumulated Jar colours, coral beads,, amber beads, caravans, and visit Timbuctoo, propearls, Bengal raw silk, brass nails (in vided only that he had made himself great request) coffee, fine hyson teas, refined sugar, and various manufactures
a master of the western Arabick; an of Fez and Tafilelt, viz. shawls and sashes indispensable accomplishment, which of silk and gold, hayks of silk, of cotton I understand Mungo Parke to have and silk mixed, of cotton and of wool; been deficient in, and of course unalso an immense quantity of (hayk filelly) qualified for the task he undertook. Tafilelt hayks, a particularly light and fine manufacture of that place, and admirably
The caravans perform the traverse adapted to the climate of Soudan; to these of the desert, including their sojournmay be added red woollen caps, the ge ments at the watering places, in about neral covering of the head, turbans, Ita one hundred and thirty days, going lian silks, nutmegs, cloves, ginger, and
at the rate of three miles and an half pepper, Venetian beads, cowries, and a considerable quantity of tobacco and salt,
an hour, and travelling seven hours the produce of Barbary and Bled-el-jer a day. Out of these one hundred rêde."
and thirty, they rest seventy-five The returns made for these arti days, which leaves fifty-five days for cles by the traders at Timbuctoo, actual travelling, and from these data consist in gold dust, twisted rings of the reader may easily make a loose Wangara of pure gold, gold rings computation of the distance. It is wrought at Jinnie, where they make practicable, however, for caravans to various trinkets of such workmanship perform this journey in much less as would be difficult to imitate either time, and there is a note [p. 241] in England or France, bars of gold, in which Mr. Jackson says, " That elephant's teeth, gum of Soudan, when he had a commercial establishgrains of Sahara (called by us grains ment at Agadeer, he himself received of paradise) odoriferous gums of ex a caravan of gum Soudan from Timquisite perfume, for the purposes of buctoo in eighty-two days." fumigation, slaves in great number, As the slaves of langara and brought from the regions which bor. Houssa, purchased by the caravans der on the Jibbel Kumra, or Mountains at Timbucton, are sold on their reof the Moon(so called from their white turn to the Moors and Arabs of Barba. or lunar colour) a chain, which, with ry, it is clear that there is a traffick for little or no intermission, runs through the human species carried on between the continent of Africa from west to inhabitants of the same continent, in east, viz. from Assentee in the west to which no European nation, or even Abyssinia in the east-whilst the individual, is concerned. This traf
fick is of high antiquity, long ante es, and can take away with him, is cedent to any European practice of that precious metal, the very object that reproachful nature. So far, he adores, the crown of all his wishes, therefore, as it may have contami. the reward of all his travel, the first nated the character of the Christian and last great ruling passion of his trader, he has to plead in extenuation heart? of his errour, that he was the last to The name of the rich and potent begin, and the first to leave it off. monarch, who governed Timbuctoo,
The territory of Timbuctoo, as de- in the year 1800, and was sovereign scribed by Mr. Jackson,
of Bambarra, was Woolo. He is “ May be said to extend north ward to native of the country, and, like his the confines of Sahara, or the Desert, a people, black. His usual residence tract of country about ninety miles in
is in the neighbouring city of Jinnia, breadth; the western boundary is one hundred and thirty miles west of the city, though he has three palaces at Timand the eastern extends to the Bahar Sou- buctoo, which are said to contain an dan, or the Sea of Soudan, which is a iminense quantity of gold; and forlake formed by the Nile El Abeede, whose tunate it is for Woolo, that his suropposite shore is not discernible. On its rounding deserts are such an impassaopposite or eastern shore, begins the ter
ble barrier, else his black army of ritory of the white people, denominated by the Arabs Ņ'sarrath, Christians, or
five hundred thousand negroes would followers of Jesus of Nazareth. South hardly serve to keep certain maraudof the river is another territory of immense ing white men from unfurnishing extent, the boundary of which extends to those palaces, whose stores are so Lamlem, or Melli, which latter is report much more tempting to the plundered to be inhabited by one of the lost or missing tribes of Israel.”
er than the statues and pictures of The city of Timbuctoo would fur- Italy and Spain. Still there are avenish to the traveller a most interest.
mies, by which commerce may ap. ing spectacle, forasmuch as it is re.
proach and reach him, and as he sorted to by traders from all the
will weigh gold even against salt,
when there is a dearth of that neneighbouring nations, who enjoy per. fect security of property and person,
cessary in his country, we have only with unlimiteci toleration as to their
to find those avenues, and his hoards religious worship, of whatever de at Timbuctoo will gradually melt
The scription that may chance to be. The away into general circulation. city is about twelve miles in circum- climate of this yet unvisited city, is ference, and without walls. The salubrious in the extreme, which is houses are on one floor, spacious,
more than men bargain for, when and the apartments lighted by doors, they go to a country that abounds in that open into an interiour square ;
gold. The sexes marry early, for the inhabitant not requiring the ac
they are in the latitude of 16° 40'; commodation of a window, whilst the and the natives, as well as those who climate never reminds him of the have resided there any considerable inconvenience of an open door. The time, have a suavity of manners,
not to be observed on the northern women are extremely handsome, and the men proportionably jealous. In side of the desert. There are seveevery other respect they are hospita- ral large caravanseras, or houses of ble, splendid, and particularly pride accommodation for travellers in Tim. themselves in their attention to stran
buctoo, where they will find lodging gers. What, then, has a European for themselves and their cattle, till to fear in such a community, and better provision can be made for their where can he be so entirely to his establishment. heart's content, as in a country whose I particularly recommend the folmines of gold are inexhaustible, and lowing extract to the attention of my where every thing he sees and touch readers.
“ It has been said, that there is an ex- belong to the sultan, and are deposittensive library at Timbuctoo, consisting ed in bis before mentioned palaces." of manuscripts in a character diftering
I shall now conclude by giving the from the Arabick. This I am inclined to think has originated in the fertile imagi- substance of certain passages, exnation of some poet, or perhaps some tremely curious, which relate to the Arab or Moor, who, willing to indulge at river near Timbúctoo, which is called the expense of European curiosity, has fa the Nile el Abeede, or Nile of the bricated such á story. In all my inquiries Negroes. In the interiour of Africa, during many years, I never heard of any such library at Timbuctoo. The state li
and amongst the rich traders, who brary, which is composed for the most part of engage in this traffick across the conmanuscripts in the Arabick, contains a friv tinent, there is but one opinion with Hebrew, and perhups Chalduickd. books; regard to the Nile of Egypt and the amongst the Arabick it is probable there are Nile of Timbuctoo, and that opinion many trunslations from Greek and Latin is, that they are one and the same authors at present unknown to Europeans." river, or rather that the latter is the [P. 257.]
western branch of the former. The It seems by this account that there
source of the Nile of Timbuctoo is is a state library, and probably many
at the foot of the western branch of Arabick translations of Greek and
the chain of mountains called Jibbel Latin authors hitherto unknown. How much, therefore, is it to be re
Kumra, where it forms a merja, or gretted that Mr. Jackson, qualified throw the water up with great force;
swamp. The copious springs, which as he is by his perfect knowledge of Arabick, had not found leisure and
are very numerous, and are found
on both sides of the mountain, that ambition to visit and examine this
is on the eastern as well as on the library, which perhaps contains a
western side. That these streams treasure richer and more valuable to
communicate with each other is an the enlightened world, than all the opinion so general, that the Africans golden palaces, which the negro monarch of Bambarra has in his pos
express their astonishment, whenever
the Europeans dispute the fact, and session!
assert that it is a folly to doubt whatthe The path seems open to adventure, experience of succeeding ages has and the time may come, when those demonstrated to be true. That the who send forth missionaries to ex Nile of Timbuctoo communicates plore those interesting regions, will with Cairo, has been ascertained to a recollect, that when a traveller can certainty by a party of seventeen nenot speak the language of the country groes of Jinnie, who proceeded thi . he is in, he will gain very little in ther in a canoe, on a commercial formation from the people that inha speculation, and reached Cairo, after bit it.
a trafficking voyage of fourteen It is asserted that the mines belong months, who reported that there are ing to the sultan Woolo are so pure,
twelve hundred cities and towns, with that lumps of virgin gold are con mosques or towers in them, between stantly found of several ounces in
Timbuctoo and Cairo, built on or weight. These mines are worked near the banks of the Nile el Abeede by the negroes of Bambarra, who and the Nile Massar, or in otherare thereby made extremely rich, words the Nile of Soudan and the “ for 'all pieces of ore, which they Nile of Egypt. Precisely where they take from the mines, not weighing join is not ascertained, or, more protwelve mizams, or about two ounces, perly speaking, has not come to the. become a perquisite to themselves, knowledge of my author. The Nile as a remuneration for their labour, el Abeede being the greater, and and all pieces of a greater weight running through a larger tract of
country than the Nile Cham, or Nile ern banks is covered with forests of Massar, is called Nile el Kabeer, the primeval growth, in which are many greater Nile ; the Nile of Egypt, trees of great size and beauty. These however, is not called the lesser Nile, forests abound with elephants of an but always, as above, the Nile Cham, enormous size. or Nile Wassar ; Cham being the I now close my imperfect review Arabick name for Egypt, when united of this very interesting work, which to Syria and other countries. The I earnestly recommend to my reaVile el Abeede overflows in the ders, not doubting but they will find same manner as the Nile of Egypt, it altogether as worthy of their study when the sun enters Cancer. At and attention, as the Swedish literati Kabra near Timbuctoo, it becomes have of theirs, who, as I am well ina very large stream. River horses formed, are preparing a translation and crocodiles are found in it, and in the Swedish language at the unithe country contiguous to its south-versity of Upsala near Stockholm.
FROM THE MONTHLY REVIEW.
A Poetical Picture of America, being Observations made during a Residence of se.
veral Years at Alexandria and Norfolk, in Virginia ; Illustrative of the Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants : interspersed with Anecdotes, arising from a general Intercourse with Society in that Country, from the year 1799 to 1807. By a Lady. 12mo. 48. 1809.
A picture of America in doggerel “ Such dull stupidity was there rhymes, but not a poetical picture ; I thought it seemed exceeding clear
That those who chose to live and stay unless this epithet be taken in a sense
In this same Alexandria, which the fair writer, we suppose, Must feed on air, or for a treat, cannot mean. We are very modestly Their household furniture soon eat." told that “no muse is invoked ;” and At Norfolk, the lady promenaded as the lady seems to have no acquain to see the lions :" tance whatever on the forked hill, we " The weather fine, I walked about should have commended her pru To see the town, and view the fort.” dence had she abstained from any To open our eyes respecting the trespass on the manor of the muses, supposed cheapness of living in Ameand confined herself to the plains of rica, it is hinted humble prose. Nothing is gained by
“ That living is not near so low lazy and hobbling rhymes, except it
As people hope when first they go."
Sometimes the lady “ cares not a be the amusement of the reader at the expense of the author ; for it is pin” for grammar, when it opposes
the formation of a rhyme ; though, impossible, when verse is execrably bad, to refrain from laughing at it, in general, she is not very nice in
this latter respect :* whether the subject be the travels or even the sorrows of a lady. For “ Sometimes the young men smart apo
pears example : - Unwilling serious thoughts to check,
And some look well spite of their ears."
In allusion to female resources in I took a place upon the deck."
Further on, we contemplate the America, we are presented with this ady at her ease, regardless even of somehowing couplet: the restraints of rhyme:
“ As money must be had somehow, “We'd time enough to look about,
There every lady has a cow.” The wind grew slack--the mate had sport.”
* In one piece, milk is selected as a The state of society in Alexandria rhyme to think. is thus depicted :