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few letters extant, entirely in his own pondence with marshal Souworow, hand-writing. He wrote the following yet having an impression of his seal on the head of a drum, amid the in our possession, we shall attempı to smoking ruins of Tourtoukaya; to convey some idea of the composition the field-marshal Romanzoff, to an- comprised in it to our readers: in an nounce to him the taking of that English nobleman it would be deemplace:

ed a singularity. Slawo Bogou, slawo bowan!

The shield is square, divided into Glory to God! Glory to thee! five principal compartments: in the Tourtaukaya woiala, ia tam.

upper of which is the imperial eagle, Tourtoukaya taken is, by me. over its head a crown; in its right Whatever came from his pen had claw a sceptre, in its left a globe; the the same characteristick energy and field is or. In the compartment to the conciseness. Usually, he gave the right, a plume of three feathers, with subject of his letters to one of his staff a kind of broach marked K. The field officers; who, from his instructions, purpure: a very broad bend, on which wrote them, and brought them to is a heart, separates this from three him for his signature.

cannon mounted, on a field vert. In He was in the habit of frequently the compartment to the left, out of haranguing his troops; but he had a cloud issue three forked lightnings not, on those occasions, the same and strike a falling crescent: the field merit of conciseness. His orations azure; a band, inscribed RHYMNKI, lasted an hour, sometimes two; even separates this from two swords crosin the middle of winter “ I recollect," sed, tied together by a wreath, on a says the author, “ that one day, in the field gules: the centre is charged with month of January, on the parade in a smaller shield, also square; in the the grand square of Warsaw, it was right compartment of which is a coat eleven o'clock, a body of ten thousand of mail, and round it, the word men, formed in a hollow square, BERHOCTI: the left compartment filled that place. The cold. was in- contains a sword crossed by an arrow, tense, a penetrating sleet fell from motto BABERVN. The main shield the icy heavens In the middle of rests on two kettle drums(below) and thal square battalion, the Marshal, two marshal's staffs (above). The clad only in his white dimity jacket, supporters are two lions rampant, began his usual harangue. He soon standing on a bracket, from which perceived that the inclemency of the depend the ribands and stars of all season made his speech appear much the orders obtained by this war jour; in too long; and hereupon ne determin- number ten: the imperial eagle with ed to make it last two hours. Every two marshal's staffs crossed on its hearer returned to quarters benumb. breast, forming a center. The whole ed with cold; and almost every soul, of this is on a spreading mantle, generals, officers, soldiers, and all, gules, surred ermine; surmounted took cold. The marshal escaped the with a large coronet. The height of disorder, notwithstanding his dimity this seal is two inches and a quarter: jacket. I seldom saw him so gay. the breadth is one inch and seven Perpetual coughings echoed through eighths. his apartments. This pleased him It is not in our power to identify highly. He enjoyed himself in the the different orders pendent from the idea, that he had given his army the front of this bracket; neither do we example of bidding defiance to fa- know whether they are arranged in tigues, to winter and all its horrours." any order of precedence; or in the

Though we do not profess to have order of donation. been in the habit of epistolary corres

never

The following character of the celebrated Whitfield is extracted from Jay's Memoirs

of Cornelius Winter, a work lately published. HE used too much severity to patient enough one day to receive a young people, and required too reason for his being disappointed unmuch from them. He connected cir- der a particular occurrence, he hurt cumstances too humiliating with pub- the mind of one who was studious to lick services, in a young man with please. He discovered it by the tears whom he could take liberty; urging it occasioned, and on reflection, he that it was necessary as a curb to the himself burst into tears, saying, “ I vanity of human nature, and referred shall live to be a poor, peevish old to the young Roman orators, who af man, and

every body will be tired of ter being exalted by applauses, were me.” He frequently broke the force sent upon the most trifling errands. of his passiorf by saying: “ How could His maxim was, if you love me you you do so, I would not have served will serve me disinterestedly. Hence you so." He

commanded he settled no certain income, or a haughtily and always took care to apvery slender one upon his dependants, plaud when a person did right. He many of whom were sycophants, and never indulged partiesat his table. A while they professed to serve him, select few might now and then breakunderhandedly served themselves fast with him, dine with him on a effectually. Under this defect his Sunday, or sup with him on a Wedcharity in Georgia was materially in- nesday night. In the latter indulgence jured; owing to the wrong conduct he was scrupulously exact to break up of some who insinuated themselves in time. In the height of a conversainto his favour by humouring his tion I have known him abruptly say: weakness, and letting him act and “But we forget ourselves," and rising speak without contradiction. He was from his seat, and advancing to the impatient of contradiction: but this door, add: “ Come, gentlemen, it is is a fault to be charged upon almost time for all good folks to be at home." all great people. I could mention Whether only by himself, or having some. He was not happy in his wife; but a second, his table must have but I fear some who had not all the been spread elegantly, though it proreligion they professed, contributed duced but a loaf and a cheese. He to his infelicity: He did not inten. was unjustly charged with being given tionally make his wife unhappy. He to appetite. His table was always preserved great decency and spread with variety. A cow heel was decorum in his conduct towards her. his favourite dish and I have known Her death set his inind much at li- him cheerfully say:

him cheerfully say: " How surprised berty. She certainly did not behave would the world be, if they were to in all respects as she ought. She peep upon doctor Squintum, and sec could be under no temptation from a cow heel only upon his table." He his conduct towards the sex; for he was neat to the extreme in his person was a very pure man, i strict exam and every thing about him. Not a paple of the chastity he inculcated upon per must have been out of place, or others. No time was to be wasted; put up irregularly. Each part of the and his expectations generally went furniture must have been likewise in before the ability of his servants to its place before we retreated to rest. perform his commands. He was very He said he did not think he should exact to the time appointed for his die easy, if he thought his gloves were stated meals; a few minutes delay out of their place. There was no rest would be considered a great fault. He after four in the morning, nor sitting was irritable, but soon appeased. Not up after ten in the evening. He never

never

made a purchase but he paid the of outliving his usefulness. He often
money immediately; for small ar. dined among his friends, usually con-
ticles the money was taken in the nected a comprehensive prayer with
hand. He was truly generous, and his thanksgiving when the table was
seldom denied relief. More was ex. dismissed, in which he noticed par.'
pected from him than was meet. He ticular cases relative to the family
was tenacious in his friendship, and and never protracted his visit long af-
when the transition of Providence ter dinner. He appeared often tired
moved from prosperity to adversity, of popularity; and said, he almost
he moved with it to abide by his friend. envied the man who could take his
He felt sensibly when he was deserted, choice of food at an eating house, and
and would remark: “ The world and pass unnoticed. He apprehended he
the church ring changes.” Disap- should not glorify God in his death
pointed by many, he had not sufficient by any remarkable testimony, and
confidence in mankind; and hence I was desirous to die suddenly.
believe it was, he dreaded the thought

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The following is an extract of a letter from the Rev. David Scurlocke, to Mr. John

Nichols, who has lately published a work, entitled, The Epistolary Correspondence of Sir Richard Steele, &c. The letter is dated Lovehill Farm, Langley, December 24, 1784.

STEELE and Addison wrote the dison, “ since it is now past remedy, Spectators, &c. &c. chiefly in the there is nothing to be done but this: room where I now write. They rented if it proves to be a black child, you the house of my father for occasion- shall take it; if a fair one, the care of al retirement, and kept a housekeeper it shall fall to my

lot." between them. It happened that this Though I have lately built a new housekeeper proved to be in a situa- house here, I have religiously resertion that could not escape the prying ved this old part, which is attached to eye of slanderous observation; when it, and have made it my Sanctum Steele asked Addison, very gravely, Sanctorum. Oh! that it would inspire what they should do in such a dread. me with the genius that once inhabit: ful predicament? “ Why," says Ad- ed it!

FROM THE PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE.

Some circumstances relative to Merino Sheep, chiefly collected from the Spanish

Shepherds, who attended those of the Flock of Paular, lately presented to His Majesty by the Government of Spain; with Particulars respecting that great National Acquisition; and also respecting the Sheep of the Flock of Negrete, imported from Spain by His Majesty in the Year 1791.* By Sir Joseph BANKS.

Soho Square, February 18, 1809. the interruption of our trade with Spain Sir John,

may still continue for some time longer, AT a time like the present, when I trust that a paper written with a view to Spanish wools, though at a price unheard. facilitate the production of this valuable of in the annals of traffick, still continue article in the United Kingdom, and to come to find a market; thus clearly proving, that municate some information relative to the their value, in the estimation of the con- important present of Merino sheep lately sumer, is far above any price that has been received by our most gracious Sovereign hitherto offered for them by the menu from the government of Spain, will be inructurer; and when we must all agree, that teresting to you, sir. I beg the favour of

From Communications to the Board of Agriculture,

yon, in case you shall approve it, to do me for that purpose, pass their summer the honour of placing it at the disposal of in the elevated country, which supthe very useful institution over which you plies them with abundance of rich preside with so much advantage to the agricultural interests of this country.

grass; and they do not leave the moun I have the honour to be, sir,

tains till the frost of September beYour obedient and faithful

gins to damage the herbage. humble servant,

A flock in the aggregate is called a JOSEPH BANKS.

cavana. This is divided into as many Sir John Sinclair, Bart. President

subdivisions, as there are thousands of of the Board of Agriculture.

sheep belonging to it; each sheep, A considerable part of Estrema- besides being sear-marked in the face Gura, Leon, and the neighbouring with a hot iron when young, is bran. provinces of Spain, is appropriated ded after every shearing with a broad to the maintenance of the Merino pitch brand, generally of the first leto flocks, called by the Spaniards tras. ter of the name of the proprietor, and humantes, as are also broad green each subdivision is distinguished roads, leading from one province to from the rest by the part of the sheep's the other, and extensive resting-pla. body on which this mark is placed. ces, where the sheep are baited on By the laws of the mesta, each the road. So careful is the police of cavana must be governed by an offie the country to preserve them during cer called mayoral; for each subdi. their journeys from all hazard of dis- vision of a thousand sheep, five shep turbance or interruption, that no pero herds and four dogs are appointed. son, not even a foot passenger, is Some of these inferiour shepherds obsuffered to travel upon these roads tain the office of rabadon, the duty of while the sheep are in motion, unless which is to give a general superintenhe belongs to the flocks.

dance under the control of the mayo. The country on which the sheep ral, also to prescribe and administer are depastured, both in the southern medicines to the sick sheep. At the and the northern parts, is set out into time of travelling, and when the ewes divisions, separated from each other are yeaning, one or two extra shepby land marks only, without any herds are allowed for each thousand kind of fences. Each of these is called sheep. a dehesa, and is of a size capable of The number of Merino sheep in maintaining a flock of about a thou- Spain is estimated by Burgoyne at sand sheep; a greater number of 6,000,000; these of course must be course, in the south country, where attended by 30,000 shepherds, and the lambs are reared, and fewer in 24,000 dogs at ordinary times, and the north country, where the sheep they find occasional employment for arrive after the flock has been culled. 5 or 16,000 additional persons in the

Every proprietor must possess as seasons of lambing and of travelling. many of these in each province as In their journey, each subdivision will maintain his flock. In the tem- is attended by its own shepherds and perate season of winter and spring, dogs, and kept separate, as far as may the flocks remain in Estremadura, be, from all others. The duty of the and there the ewes bring forth their dogs is to chase the wolves, who are al. lambs in December. As soon as the ways upon the watch when the sheep increasing heats of April and May are on the road, and are more wily have scorched up the

than our foxes. They are taught also, dered the pasturage scanty, they com when a sick sheep lags behind, unob. mence their march towards the served by the shepherds, to stay wiih mountains of Leon; and, after having and defend it, till some one returns been shorn on the road, at vast esta back in search of it. There are, beblishments called esquileos, erected sides, in each subdivision about sis.

grass, and

ren

VOL. II.

3

taire wethers, called mansos. These does not appear that any account is wear bells, and are obedient to the ' rendered by them to their employers, voices of the shepherds, who fre- of the value of the skins, the tallow, quently give them small pieces of &c. The profit derived by a proprietor bread. Some of the shepherds lead; from a flock, is estimated on an avethe mansos are always near them, rage at about one shilling a head, and and this disposes the flock to follow. the produce of a capital vested in a

Every sheep is well acquainted flock is said to fluctuate between five with the situation of the dehesa to and ten per cent. which its subdivision belongs, and The sheep are always low kept. It will at the end of the journey go is the business of each mayoral to straight to it, without the guidance of increase his Hock to as large a numthe shepherds. Here the flock grazes ber as the land allotted to it can posall the day under the eyes of the atten- sibly maintain. When it has arrived at dants. When the evening comes on, that pitch, all further increase is usethe sheep are collected together, and less, as there is no sale for these they soon lie down to rest. The shep- sheep, unless some neighbouring herds and their dogs then lie down on flock has been reduced by mortality the ground round the fock, and below its proper number. The most sleep, as they term it, under the stars, of the lambs are, therefore, every year or in huts that afford little shelter killed as soon as they are yeaned, from inclement weather; and this is and each of those preserved is made their custom all the year, except that to suck two or three ewes; the shepeach is allowed, in his lurn, an ab- herds say, that the wool of a ewe that sence of about a month, which he brings up her lamb without assistance spends with his family; and it is re- is reduced in its value. markable, that the families of these At shearing time the shepherds, shepherds reside entirely in Leon. shearers, washers, and a multitude of

The shepherds who came with his unnecessary attendants, are fed upon majesty's Hock were questioned on the flesh of the culled sheep; and it the subject of giving salt to their seems that the consumption occasion. sheep. They declared that this is only ed by this season of feasting is suffidone in the hottest season of the year, cient to devour the whole of the sheep when the sheep are on the mountains; that are draughted from the flock. that in September it is left off; and Mutton in Spain is not a favourite food; that they dare not give salt to ewes in truth, it is not in that country pre. forward with lambs, being of opinion pared for the palate as it is in this. that it causes abortion.

We have our lamb-fairs, our hogIt is scarcely credible, though it fairs, our shearling-fairs. our fairs for appears on the best authority to be culls, and our markets for fat sheep; true, that under the operation of the where the mutton, having passed laws of the nesta, which confide the through these different stages of precare of the sheep to the management paration, each under the care of men of their shepherds, without adnitting whose soil and whose skill are best any interference on the part of the suited to the part they have been proprietor, no profit of the flock taught by their interest to assign 10 comes to the hands of the owner, ex themselves, is ofiered for sale; and if cept what is derived from the wool. fat and good, it seldom fails to comThe carcases of the culled sheep are mand a price by the pound, from five consumed by the shepherds,* and it to ten per cent. dearer than that of

The shepherds, on discovering the shearers and washers, at the esquileos, drist of the questions puti to them ou ihis allowance is made for the mutton with lead, said that in seitling the wages of the which they are fed.

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