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beef. In Spain they have no such Paular, Negrete, and Escurial, have sheep-fairs calculated to subdivide the been withheld from exportation, and education of each animal, by making retained for the royal manufactory of it pass through many hands, as works Gaudalaxara, ever since it was first of art do in a manufacturing concern; established. and they have not any fat sheep mar The cavana of Paular consists of kets that at all resemble ours. The 36,000 sheep. It originally belonged low state of grazing in Spain ought to the rich Carthusian monastery of not therefore to be wondered at, nor that name, Near Segovia. Soon after the poverty of the Spanish farmers. the prince of the peace rose into powThey till a soil sufficiently productive er, he purchased the flock from the by nature; but are robbed of the re- monks, with the land belonging to it, ward due to the occupier, by the want both in Estremadura and in Leon, at of an advantageous market for their a price equal to twenty French franks produce, and the benefit of an exten a head, 168. 8d. English. All the sive consumption. Till the manufac- sheep lately arrived are marked with turing and mercantile parts of a com a large M. the mark of don Manuel. munity become opulent enough to The number sent from Spain to the pay liberal prices, the agricultural king was 2000, equal to two subdivi. part of it cannot grow rich by selling. sions of the original cavana. To make
That the sole purpose of the jour- the present the more valuable, these neys taken annually hy these sheep were selected by the shepherds from is to seek food in places where it can eight subdivisions, in order to choose be found; and that these migrations young, well shaped, and fine woolled would not be undertaken. if either in animals. This fact is evident, from the northern or the southern pro- the marks which are placed on eight vinces a sefficiency of good pasture different parts of the bodies of ihe could be obtained during the whole sheep now at Kew. year, appears a matter of certainty. The whole number embarked was That change of pasture has no effect 2,214. Of these, 214 were presented upon their wool, is clear, from all the by the Spaniards to some of his maexperiments tried in other countries, jesty's ministers, and 427 died on the and in Spain also; for Burgoyne tells journey, either at sea or on their way us, that there are stationary flocks, from Portsmouth to Kew. His maboth in Leon and in Estremadura, jesty was graciously pleased to take which produce wool quite as fine as upon
himself the whole of the loss, that of the trashumantes.
which reduced the royal flock to 1573. The sheep lately presented to his Several more have since died. As the majesty are of the cavana of Paular, time of giving the ram in Spain is one of the very finest in point of pile, July, the ewes were full of lamb when and esteemed also above all others they embarked. Several of them cast for the beauty of carcase. In both their lambs when the weather was these opinions, M.Lasteyrie, a French bad at sea, and are rendered so weak writer on sheep, who lived many years and infirm by abortion, that it is in Spain, and paid diligent attention much to be feared more will die, notto the Merino sheep, entirely agrees. withstanding the great care taken of He also tells us, that the cavana of them by his majesty's shepherds. A Negrete, from whence the sheep im- few have died of the rot. This disease ported by his majesty in the year must have been contracted by halting 1791 were selected, is not only one some swampy district, in their of the finest piles, but produces also journey from the mountains to the the largest carcased sheep of all the sea at Gijon, where they were emMerinos. Mr. Burgoyne agrees with barked, as one sheep died rotton at him in asserting, that the piles of Portsmouth. There is every reason,
however, to hope, that the disease will Fifteen more, not necessary to be not spread, as the land on which they enumerated. M. Lasteyrie, the are now kept has never been subject French writer on sheep, ranges to its ravages, being of a very light them not very differently. He states and sandy texture.
them as follows. But both English It is well worthy of observation, and French agree, that all the that although the Swedes, the Saxons, prima piles are nearly equal in finethe Danes, the Prussians, the Aus- ness of fibre, and consequently in trians, and of late the French, have, value to the manufacturer. either by the foresight of their go Escurial, called by us Patrimonio, vernments, or the patriotick exer. Guadalupe, tions of individuals, imported Merino Paular, sheep, no nation has bithertó ventured
Infantado, to assert, that they possess the complete and unmixed race of any one Negrete, &c. cavana. This circumstance does not The Danes, he tells us, procured appear to have been attended to any their sheep from the best piles. But where but in England;lhough, in fact, there is no appearance of their haveach cavana is a separate and distinct ing, since they obtained them, kept breed of sheep, not suffered by the the flocks separate, nor are they at Spaniards to mingle with others. The present, so remarkable for fine wool, difference in value of the wool of dif as the Saxons, whose wool is now at ferent Spanish flocks is very great. At least, as fine as that of Spain is, upon this time, when Spanish wool is in an average of prima and second l'ate usually dear, the prima piles are piles. worth more than 78. a pound, and The Swedes were the first people yet the inferiour ones scarce reach who imported the Sparnish breed. 58.* Even the French, attentive as This good work was undertaken and that nation is to all things that con- completed by the patriotick exertions cern the interest of individuals, ap- of a merchant of the name of Alpear to have overlooked this circum- stroemer, in the year 1723. The next stance, and to have contented them- who obtained an importation of Meselves with making up the numbers rino sheep were the Saxons, who are of their importations, without paying indebted for the benefits they enjoy any regard to it. They have not, at from the improvement of their wools least, stated in any of their publica- to the prince Xavier, administrator tions, that attention was paid to the of the electorate, during the minority securing sheep of a prima pile, and of the elector, and brother-in-law to keeping the breed of that pile pure the king of Spain. The prince obo and unmixed, after they had obtained tained a flock of these valuable aniit.
mais in 1766, and in 1778, an addi. Our merchants in Spanish wool tion to it of 100 rams, and 200 ewes. range the prima piles in the follow. The Danes followed his useful ex. ing order of value, as appears by a ample, as also did both Prussia and statement in the year 1792,
Austria. Every one of these countries Paular,
continue at this moment, to profit Negrete,
largely by the improvement these Muro, Patrimonio, and
sheep have occasioned in their agri.
cultural concerns. So far from truth * Since this was written, Spanish wools
is the too common assertion, that have risen to an exorbitant price. Prima
their wool will not continue fine in Leonesa is this week rated in the Farmers' any country but pain, that in the Journal at 208. a pound, and Seville at year 805, when the ports of Spain 138, 6d.
were closed against us, a very large
quantity of fine wool, the produce of creased as much as possible, and mainGerman Merino sheep, was imported tained in its utmost purity. into this country from Hamburgh, From that time to the present the and used by our manufacturers as á opinion of the publick, sometimes substitute for Spanish wool. In truth; perhaps too unwary, and at others too some of this wool was so fine that it cautious, in appreciating the value carried, in the British market, as high and adopting the use of novel kinds a price as the best Spanish piles were of sheep, has gradually inclined to sold for, in times of peace and amity: give that preference to the Merinos
In the year 1787, the king, guided which is so justly their due. At first, by those patriotick motives which it was impossible to find a purchaser are ever active in his majesty's mind, willing to give even a moderate price gave orders for the importation of either for the sheep or for their wool. Merino sheep for his own use, and The shape of the sheep did not please for the improvement of British wool. the graziers, and the wool-staplers As it was doubtful at that time whe. were utterly unable to judge of the ther the king of Spain's license, merit of the wool, it being an article without which these sheep cannot be so many times finer and more valua. embarked at a Spanish port, could be ble than any thing of the kind that obtained, it was deemed advisable to had ever before passed through their make the first purchases in the parts hands. The butchers, however, were of Estremadura, adjoining to Portu. less timorous. They readily offered gal, and to ship the sheep for England for the sheep, when fat, a fair mutton at Lisbon. The first importation of price; and there are two instances in these valuable animals arrived in which, when the fat stock agreed for March, 1788, and a little flock of was exhausted, the butcher who had them was soon after completed; but bought them anxiously inquired for as these were of various qualities, have more, because he said the mutton was ing been drafted from different cava so very much approved of by his best nas, his majesty was pleased to order customers. an application to be made to the king It was not, however, till the year of Spain by lord Auckland, then his 1804, thirteen years after their first majesty's minister at that court, for introduction, that it was deemed permission to import some sheep practicable to sell them by auction, drafted from one of the prima piles. the only certain means of placing ani. This was obtained; and a little Rock, mals in the hands of those persons consisting of 36 ewes, 4 rams, and I who set the highest value upon them, manso, arrived safe and well at Do. and are, consequently, the most likever, in 1791. These sheep had made ly to take proper care of them. The a part of the cavana called Negrete, attempt, however, succeeded; and the one of the three piles restricted from prices given demonstrated, that some exportation, and which is likewise re at least, of his majesty's subjects, markable for producing the largest had, at that time, learned to put a due carcased sheep that are to be found value, on the benefit his royal patriotamong the Merino flocks, as has been ism offered to them. One of the rams before stated.
sold at the first sale, for 42 guineas, On the receipt of this treasure (for and two of the ewes for 'l guineas such it has since proved itself to be) each; the average price at which the the king, with his usual prudence and rams sold, was 191. 4.s. and that of foresight, ordered the whole of the the ewes 81. 158. 6d. each. sheep that had been procured by the This most useful mode of distri. way of Portugal to be disposed of, bution, has, since that time, been an, (which was immediately done) and nually continued, and the sales have directed the Negrete breed to be in- taken place in the beginning of Au.
gust. The last sale was held on the The race of another capital cavana 17th of August, 1808, when the has now been added to the riches of highest price given for a ram was 741. this country, the Paular, and the 118. for a ewe 381. 178. The aver draught from it is larger than on any age price of rams was 331. 108. ld. other occasion, has been suffered to of ewes, 231. 128. 5d. a most decisive leave Spain. The animals have been proof, not only, that the flock had ri. selected with skill and attention. The sen very materially in publick esti- pile they belong to stands at the very mation, but also, that the sheep have top of our English list, and the sheep not, in any way, degenerated from have been most fortunately placed at their original excellence.
the disposal of our most gracious The wool, was at first, found to be king, whose shepherds have demonquite as difficult of sale, as the sheep strated to the publick, in an expethemselves. Manufacturers rience of seventeen years of their therefore employed to make a consi. management of these interesting aniderable quantity of it into cloth, mals, that they can not only continue which, when tinished, was allowed by the breed in its original purity, but both woollen-drapers and tailors, to can also preclude all danger of degebe quite as good as cloth made of neration in the article of wool. What wool imported from Spain. But even more can be wished for on this head ? this proof would not satisfy the scru That spirit of patriotism, which inples of the wool buyers, or induce duced our sovereign to declare himthem to offer a price at all adequate self the protector of the purity of the to the real value of the article. It was Negrete race, will also, it is most found necessary, therefore, to have earnestly to be hoped, induce his mathe wool scoured, and to sell it in jesty to extend the same protection that state as Spanish wool, which, to the newly arrived Paulars. By this though grown in England, it really measure, and by this alone, the publick was. Thus managed, the sales were will be effectually guarded against all easily effected for some years, at a danger of the admission of impure price equal to that demavded for the blood, which the avarice of ill judging prima piles of imported Spanish individuals, seeking after a premature wool, at the times when the bargains improvement of the carcase, has too were made.
often, it is feared, introduced into our Time and patience, have, at last, English flocks. Thus protected, the superseded all difficulties; and his twofold treasure obtained for the admajesty's wool has now, for some vantage of his subjects by his majesyears, been sold as clipped from the ty's wisdom and foresight, will besheep's backs, the sheep having been come a perennial fountain of true washed, and the whole management Merino blood, to which those agriof them carried on exactly in the culturists who are wise enough 10 English manner, at a price not lower adopt the breed, may, from time to than 45, 6d. a pound, which, allowing time, resort, to correct their errours, for the loss of weight in the scouring, if they fall into bad practices, to carcosts the buyer at least 58. 6d. a ry on their crosses, if any such are pound, a tolerable price for Spanish found to be advantageous, to the -wool, when plenty of it could be pro. highest degree of perfection, and to duced, though not possibly so high restore the originality of their stock, a one as ought to have been given, if, in consequence ofany unsuccessful or as will be obtained for the Anglo- experiment, it should have suffered Negreie pile, when the value of the deterioration. article is fully understood,
Pushionable form of invitation to a 7 The young Man desires that Bidding Wedding in Wales.
all Gifts of the above Nature, due to WHAT is called a bidding wedding
his late Father, may be returned to him is well known in many parts of our
on the said Day, and will be thankful
with his mother and Brothers for all island; but in very few, if any, is it maintained in so much simplicity and
Gifts conferred on him. Also, the
young Woman's Father and Mother publicity as in Wales.--A very cor
desire that all Gifts of the above Na. rect register is kept of the presents made on such occasions; and, as ap
ture due to them, may be returned to
the young Woman on the above Day, pears from a copy of an invitation of
and will be thankful for all Favours this nature, which we have been fa
conferred on the young Woman.” voured with, and inserted below. The fulfilment of the obligations contract THE DUKE OF BOURBON. ed on former occasions, is seriously
THIS illustrious personage, who and firmly demanded. The follow
was taken prisoner at the glorious ing is copied correctly from the form
battle of Agincourt, suffered eighprinted and circulated on the occasion
teen years confinement, and died in described in it. We are too late to
London, on the very day of his enDonation;" and, therefore, largement, after eighteen thousand can only offer to David Jenkins and pounds had been paid for his ransom. Mary Evans, our best wishes for their mutual happiness.
CORNARO. N. B. The difference between this
This celebrated Venetian, who publick preliminary to the contracting wrote on the utility of an absteof matrimony, and the marriage ma
mious regimen, was, till his fortieth nu factory of Gretna Green, described year, tormented with maladies that Select Reviews, C. vol. I. p. 116.
embittered his existence. He, at Yet both are institutions! in the same
length, resolved to change his mode island.
of living; and in one year after the observance of the temperate plan, his complaint entirely disappeared, nor
had he ever afterwards occasion to FEBRUARY 4th, 1809.
have recourse to medicine. He con
tinued healthful, and cheerful, to his “ As we intend to enter the Matri- eightieth year, retaining so perfectly monial State, on Friday the 3d Day that he affirmed he could, at that age,
his mental and corporal faculties, of March next, we are encouraged by our Friends io make a BIDDING perform most of those things that he
had been accustomed to do in his on the Occasion, the same day, at our Dwelling house, called Ty'n-y-ffynnon, but little harassed either with sickness
youth. He died quietly in his chair, in the Parish of Llanddewi-aierarth, when and where the Favour of your
or pain, in 1631. good Company is humbly solicited,
QUEEN HENRIETTA. and whatever Donation you will be Henrietta Maria, the wife of Charles pleased to bestow on either of us that 1. was, at the death of her father, Day, will be cheerfully received, Henry IV but newly born. Barberini, warmly acknowledged, and readily who was afterwards Pope Urban VIII. repaid, whenever applied for, on a being at that time Nuncio in France, similar Occasion, by
came to offer his congratulations on Your very humble servants,
her birth, and found ihat the queen DAVID JENKINS, mother would have beep betier pleas11.4RY EV.INS. ed to have produced a son. Vladam,