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which it is not conceived necessary, fecting this, they crossed over, landed here to enumerate.

near a guard-house, and were near They had now, after about seven falling into the hands of the guard. months' diligent labour, though in- Owing to the darkness of the night, terrupted at intervals, so far finished however, they avoided them. Here the hole as to reach the outside of the they travelled about in search of a prison walls. A few minutes would place where they could be concealed complete it so as to enable them to for the ensuing day, until being weak pass out.

and fatigued with the difficulties they About this time one of the prison- had encountered, their strength failed ers, Mr. Jeremiah Powell, received a them, and they sat, or rather fell pardon from the king of Spain, and down in the street. It was nearly was discharged from his imprison- daylight; and they had but a short ment.

time to provide for their safety. At On or about the 7th of November, length discovering a light, in a small 1807, about 11 o'clock at night, after hut at distance, they apthe usual hour of rest, they prepared proached it, made themselves known to take French leave of their old ser to the poor tenants, as prisoners in geant. They divided the number of distress, and immediately offered prisoners, who were willing to risk them two or three pieces of gold. the danger, into different companies, They shook their heads, but upon doufor better safety after they were out. bling the sum, they consented to reMr. Lippincott and Sherman formed ceive, and secret them for a short one company by themselves. They time. They remained in this situathen drew lots to ascertain who tion until the next night, when they should first venture out, and the order made their escape to another place, in which they should proceed. The where they remained secreted for seprincipal immediate danger to be veral weeks, when they made another apprehended, was from the sentinels move, trusting to their friend, which upon the top of the wall, who might they carried in their pockets. not happen to be asleep upon their The other sixteen prisoners took a post. The person who drew the first course along the edge of the shore, chance to go out, happened to be a except Moses Smith, . who being prisoner who was unwell, and accordo somewhat unwell, and unable to proingly declined going. Mr. Lippin. ceed, concealed himself in the bushes, cott and Mr. Sherman agreed with where he lay until the second night, him to take his chance off his hands. during which time the cavalry and Mr. Sherman having taken off his other soldiers passed by, and were irons, first went out. Immediately Mr. near falling upon him in pursuit of Lippincott followed, and the rest pure the prisoners. He crept out, and sued in their order. No noise was taking the course that Mr. Lippincott made, and the sentry remained un and Sherman had taken, crossed the disturbed. Lippincott and Sherman river, where he again concealed himcrept round the walls of the town, self until the ensuing night, being until they came to a river, on the two days without eating. The next other side of which was a small vil. day he came across a friend who inlage. After travelling up and down formed him where he could find Mr. the shore of this river, they discover- Lippincott and Sherman. They recd a canoe hauled up before the door ceived him in with them and afforded of a Spanish hut. This with great him their assistance. Shortly afterdifficulty they dragged into the river, wards all three, Mr. Lippincott, Shernotwithstanding they were moles- man, and Smith, embarked on board ted by dogs, whose noise was near of a boat, that they procured for that thwarting their attempt. After el purpose, and put to sea in expecta

tion of being picked up by some En- them to the Indian Territory, about glish vessel off the harbour. This 40 miles from Carthagena, where expectation was realized, though not they might easily make their escape. by an English vessel ; and after a voy. This agreement they concluded, and age of 31 days, they arrived safe in paid him what money they had, bethe United States in January 1808, ing in the whole about 50 dollars. when they proceeded to their homes The next day the Spaniard was inat Philadelphia and New York, ha- formed that the governour had offerving been absent more than two ed ten dollars a head for them. This years, and nearly two years in prison. reward he found would amount to

The other fifteen prisoners pursued more than he had received from the the edge of the shore for about ten prisoners. Accordingly, he went and miles, when their progress was intere most treacherously made an agreecepted by a river or ferry. In pur- ment with the government to give suing this river up and down, in or them up. The next day, towards der to cross, they happened all to evening, he, together with two or meet at an old Spaniard's house, for three other Spaniards, took the prithe purpose of procuring means to soners on board of a boat to carry

The Spaniard imme- them to the place agreed upon. Afdiately knew who they were, and be- ter passing along by the town, he gan to ask them some questions, and rowed them to the shore, under some offered his services to assist them, pretence or other, when immediately which they gladly accepted. He en- appeared about 50 armed soldiers gaged with them, that upon their and horsemen, according to appointgiving him what money they had, he ment, ready to receive them, and inwould conceal them that night, and stantly took them into custody, and the next ensuing night would carry carried them back to their prison.

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Observations on the Stratagems, &c. of Apes and Monkeys in a' Wild State, and in

Captivity. INDEPENDENTLY of the ge Every one will acknowledge that, neral form of these animals, and of in general, both apes and monkeys their external and internal organiza- are excessively ugly. Their limbs Lion, which in many respects presentare peculiarly strong; and they have a striking and humiliating resem great delight in breaking, tearing in blance to those of men, their playful- pieces, or stealing whatever comes in ness, their frolicks, and gambols, have their way. In all their operations and in all ages attracted the notice of man maneuvres, their agility is astonishkind. Some naturalists have asserted, ing. Whenever any thing offends or that they are capable of reasoning throws them into a passion, they and reflecting; and that they are indicate their rage by chattering guided by an instinctive sagacity violently with their teeth. Many of much superiour to that of the brute them, if beaten, will sigh, groan, and creation in general. They are, how- weep, like children; but most of ever, certainly destitute of every es them, on these occasions, uiter dreadsential faculty of man: incapable as ful shrieks of distress. They make well of thought as of speech, there such ridiculous grimaces, place themis an immense interval betwixt the selves in such strange and whimsical creature formed in mind after the attitudes, and in other respects conimage of God, and these mere brutes, duct themselves so singularly, that bearing some rude traits of the ele- few persons, even of those who most mental parts of the human frame. dislike them, can, on these occasions,

refrain from smiling, and nearly all even by captivity. In some houses must be amused by them.

we see the Wanderu (Simia Silenus It is said, that there are some races of Linnæus) a cunning and audacious of monkeys which keep up a cer- monkey, much inclined to ridicule hain discipline among themselves. and grimace. He may be taught to Though active in the highest degree dress and undress himself; to spin; to in pillaging plantations and cultivated poke the fire ; to push a wheelbarrow; grounds, they seldom go on impor. or play on a tambourine. He will tant expeditions for this purpose but wash earthen vessels or glasses within numerous troops. If they medi- out breaking them, and carry light tate an attack, for instance, on a me burthens from place to place, when. lon bed, a large party of them en ever he is ordered to do so. A monters the garden. The animals range key of this species has been obthemselves, if possible, under a hedge served to turn a spit with one hand or fence, at some distance from each whilst with the other he held a piece other, and throw the melons, from of bread under the meat to receive hand to hand, with astonishing rapi. the gravy. It is, perhaps, needless to dity. The line they form usually remark, that he immediately afterterminates in a mountain or forest, wards devoured it. and all their operations are executed A wanderu was exhibited at Bourduring the most profound silence. deaux, in the year 1762, which by his

Wafer tells us, that when he was actions excited much astonishment on shore in the island of Gorgonia, in the spectators. When mounted he observed several monkeys, of the on an extended cord, he first stretchfour fingered species, come down, at ed out each of his feet to have them low water, to the rocks of the seacoast, chalked; then, taking in his hand a for the purpose of devouring oysters. pole weighted at each end, similar They got at the food contained within to the balance employed by ropethe shells, by placing one oyster on dancers, he walked backward and a stone, and beating it in pieces with forward, cut capers, and executed another. The Malbrouk of Bengal numerous other tricks, with infinitely [Simia Faunus of Linnæus] is report greater ease and celerity than the ed to do the same.

most expert rope-dancer that had Many of these animals, and parti- before been seen. cularly the preacher, and four fingered The monkeys, however, that are monkeys [Simia beelzebul and Simia trained and educated by some of the paniscus of Linnæus] have sometimes Indian buffoons, are reported to be dreadful contentions, in which great by far the most agile and adroit of numbers on both sides are frequently all animals that are reared in captislain. They employ weapons in vity. their combats ; and often arm them Some of the apes, such as the oran selves with stones and pieces of wood, otans, the patas, and the dug-faced which they throw with sure aim, and apes, are said always to place a sen. astonishing violence, at each other. tinel on the top of a tree, or on some They have, on these occasions, nei- other elevated situation, to keep watch ther deserters nor stragglers; for in when the rest are either about to sleep times of danger they never forsake or to engage in any marauding expeeach other. They run along the dition. The motions or the cry of plains, and even leap from tree to this animal are a signal of danger, tree with surprising rapidity.

and immediately the whole troop The ins:incts and sagacity of these scampers off with the utmost rapidianimals are, in many instances, such ty. It has been asserted, but few is not to be injured or diminished persons will be inclined to credit the

assertion, that the sentinels are often ed in order of battle. They happen. punished with death for neglecting ed one night to encamp on a mountheir duty.

tain, that was inhabited by a nume. The Europeans at the Cape of rous tribe of monkeys. On the folGood Hope sometimes catch young lowing morning, they saw at a disapes by stratagem, or by previously tance what appeared to be an immense killing their dam, and bring them body of troops approaching them, as up with care for the purpose of if with the intention of coming to an, rendering them afterwards service engagement. The commanders, as able. When they have attained their well as the soldiers, were in the utgrowth, they are taught to guard most astonishment. Having entirely the house of their owner during the subdued the prince of the country, night, and on all occasions of his they could not conceive from whence absence. This they do with great this new force could have come. They fidelity; but as they increase in age, had not previously been informed of their mischievous propensities deve- any thing of the kind. The alarm lop themselves, and they oftentimes was inimediately given, and in a short become extremely illtempered and time the whole Macedonian army was ferocious. These apes, which are drawn up in battle-array, to combat of the ursine species, are so much with this unexpected enemy. The inclined to imitation, that they sel- prince of the country, who was a dom see any thing done without at- prisoner in the camp, was interrogatempting to do the same. Some of ted respecting it. He was surprised them are very stubborn and per- to be informed of such a force in the verse ; but many are readily suscep- neighbourhood, and requested pere tible of education, learning, without mission to behold it himself

. He difficulty, almost every thing that is smiled at the mistake; and the Mataught them.

cedonians were not a little chagrined Condamine and Bouger saw, in that they should have been such fools Peru, some domesticated monkeys as to take a troop of these imitative of large size, which had been admit- animals for a band of armed men. ted into the apartments of the acade All the apes and inonkeys are remicians, during the time they were ported to entertain a natural aversion employed in making observations in and antipathy to the crocodile. It is the mountains. These animals great said, that some of them will even faint ly excited the astonishment of the at seeing or smelling the skin of one academicians, by afterwards, of their of these frightful reptiles. own accord, going through a series The animals of that subdivision of of imitations. Chey planted the sig- the tribe denominated saħajous have nals, ran to the pendulum, and then long tails, which they can coil up, immediately to the table, as if for the and employ in some respects, but purpose of committing to paper the particularly in descending trees, as a observations, they had made. They hand. By means of their tails, they occasionally pointed the telescopes are also able to swing themselves towards the heavens, as if to view the backward and forward amongst the planets or stars, and performed nu- branches of trees. merous other feats of a similar na. Monkeys are seldom known to proture.

duce young opes, except in hot cliThe whimsical occurrence which mates. The Barbary apes, however, took place before the troops of Alex. [Simia inuus of Linnæus) which are ander the Great, is too singular and found wild at Gibraltar, bring young too amusing to be passed over in ones in great abundance amongst the silence. The soldiers under com- inaccessible precipices of the rock. mand of this monarch always march- A female of this species has also been

VOL. II.

H

known to produce offspring in a state

with arrows.

But it often happens, of captivity, at one of the hotels in when the sapajous are shot, that in Paris. A striated monkey (Simia jac- the act of falling from the tree they chus] brought forth young ones in seize hold of a branch with their tail, the house of a merchant at Lisbon, and, dying in this situation, continue and another in that of a lady in suspended even for a long time after Paris.

death. When a monkey of some Female monkeys generally carry of the larger species is woundtheir young ones nearly in the same ed, the rest will frequently collect manner as negresses do their chil- together, and with great fury pur. dren. The little animals cling to the sue the hunters to their huts or lodg. back of their dam by their hind feet, 'ments. and embrace the neck with their It was formerly supposed that man paws. When the females suckle was the only animal which could be them, it is said that they hold them infected by the smallpox and measles; in their arms, and present the teat as but it is now ascertained that mona woman would to a child.

keys, kept in houses where these comMonkeys usually live in much more plaints prevail, are also liable to reextensive troops than apes. The ceive the infection. troops of patas, or red monkeys of In the year 1767, the inhabitants Senegal, are reported to amount some of Saint Germain-en-Laie, near Paris, times to as many as three or four were witness to a monkey's catching thousand. Some naturalists believe the small pox, by playing with chilthat they form a sort of republick, in dren who were infected, and the aniwhich a great degree of subordina- mal bore' the marks of it for a consi. tion is kept up. That they always derable time afterwards. A circumtravel in good order, conducted by stance nearly similar was observed chiefs, the strongest and most expe- also at Paris. M. Paulet, a medical rienced animals of their troop; and man of some eminence, was called that, on these occasions, some of the upon, in 1770, to attend a person largest monkeys are likewise placed who had the measles. As the disease in the rear, the sound of whose voice was contagious, he requested that immediately silences that of any of every possible precaution might be the others that happen to be too noisy. taken to prevent it from spreading; The orderly and expert retreat of and particularly that a monkey,accusthese creatures from danger is an tomed to play with the children of amusing sight to Europeans, unac the house, should, on no account, customed to the native manners of have any communication with the such animals. The negroes believe invalid.The request was made too them to be a vagabond race of men, late. One of the sick person's sis. who are too indolent to construct ters, and at the same time also the habitations to live in, or to culti- monkey, which had been accustomed rate the ground for subsistence. to sleep at the foot of her bed, was They sometimes commit dreadful attacked by the disease. The monhavock in the fields and gardens of key, in consequence, was treated in persons who inhabit the countries the same manner as a human subject. wbere they abound.

M. Paulet, on examining the state of The different species of monkeys the animal's pulse, found it so quick are seldom known to intermix or as that it was scarcely possible to count sociate together; but each tribe gene- the pulsations. In the axillary arterally inhabits a different quarter. The ry these were much more sensible negroes who have not been taught than in any other. And he declared the use of fire arms, are said to kill that, as nearly as he could count them by shooting them in the face them, they were about five hundred

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