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in a minute. We ought to remark, is no other quadruped which bears that this monkey was of a very low any resemblance to them. Most anistature, and that in all animals, the mals seem at times to be actuated by shorter they are the quicker is their the spirit of revenge. By the differpulse. These facts, which are well ent means that are employed to graauthenticated, sufficiently prove (in- tify this passion, we may in a meadependently of others) that the small. sure judge of the different degrees pox and measles are not diseases en- of their instinct; and every one knows tirely confined to the human species; how greatly the monkey exceeds all but that animals, as well as men, are other brutes in its vindictive malice. liable to receive the infection from There appears, in some measure, an them. Numerous instances have oc- analogy even betwixt the vices, if we curred of the smallpox being com may so call them, of the monkeys, municated to and from animals. and the disgusting brutality too often Those from cattle are now well observable in the vitious and degraded known. A shepherd infected with part of mankind. the smallpox has been known to The animals of the monkey tribe communicate the disease to his differ very essentially from each other sheep, and these sheep to those of in their general manners and habits another flock. A horse has been ob- of life. The oran otan is susceptible served to be covered with the pus- of more considerable attainments than tules of the smallpox. Goats are any of the others. The short muzsometimes attacked by it ; and, when zled monkeys, with long tails, such this is the case, great numbers gene- as the greater part of the guenons, rally perish. (See Roder. à Castro, sapajous, and sagoins, are for the most lib. 4. de Meteor. Microc. cap. 6.] part exceedingly tractable, and reThis dreadful contagion is likewise ceive a certain degree of instruction frequently known to extend to the without much difficulty. But some of flocks of raindeer in Lapland.
the apes, and baboons, with long muzSuch is the summary of the prin- zles, are so savage and ferocious as cipal observations that have been to be incapable of any education whattransmitted to us by different travellers, respecting the manners and ha The monkeys of the new continent, bits of life of the animals which con. as might naturally be supposed, differ stitute this interesting tribe; and (at least in some degree) in their hafrom what has been said, it appears bits of life from those of the old that they have a nearer alliance than world. The great Author of Nature any other quadruped, in the general has assigned to them several characconformation of their bodies, to the teristicks that are peculiar to them. human race. They consequently have selves : such, amongst others, are the art of imitating human actions the situation and separation of the better than any others, since they nasal orifices; and the presence of are able to use their fore feet as two additional grinders in each jaw. hands. From the general organiza. We, likewise, are acquainted with ro tion of the monkeys, they are like. species of monkey, belonging to the wise capable of an education nearer ancient world, that has a preheusile allied to that of man, than any other tail, or the bony pouch observable in animal. Some naturalists have attri- the throat of the preacher monkey buted infinitely too much sagacity to and the arabata (Simia beelzebul and them, whilst others have certainly Simia seniculus of Lirnæus.] not allowed enough. The monkeys In some countries monkeys, even seem to do those things which man. in their wild state, are rendered serkind do before their reason is matu. viceable to mankind. It is said, that red by age ; and in this respect there in districts where pepper and cocoa
grow, the inhabitants, availing them- times, when they have caught the selves of the imitative faculties and young ones, they put them into a the agility of the monkeys, are able cage, and appear to teaze and torment to procure an infinitely greater quan- them, in order that they may likewise tity of these articles than they could catch the parents. do by any other means. They mount The hunters of some countries some of the lowest branches of the place near the haunts of monkeys trees, break off the extremities where vessels containing strong and intoxithe fruit grows, and then descend and cating liquors. The animals drink carefully range them together on of them, and in a short time become the ground. The animals afterwards so drunk, as to lie down on the spot ascend the same trees, strip the and fall asleep. branches all the way to the top, and Some of the Indians ascend to the dispose them in a similar manner. summits of the mountains in which After the monkeys have gone to rest, the animals breed, and construct there the Indians return and carry off the a pile of wood, round the base of spril.
which they spread a quantity of In some places, it is this inclina- maize. They place on the pile some tion to imitate human actions which substance, which, on being exposed leads to their destruction. The In- to heat, explodes with tremendous dians carry in their hands vessels fill. noise. This is contrived to explode ed with water, and rub their faces during the time that the monkey's with it in the presence of the mon are employed in devouring the maize, keys; then substituting a kind of and, in the terrour and astonishment, glue instead of water, leave the vès. the oldanimals scamper off on all sides sels benind them and retire. The with the utmost rapidity, leaving their observant creatures seize the vessels young ones a prey to the hunters. and do the same; when the glue, ad The dexterity of monkeys is such, hering strongly to their hair and eye. that, although burthened by their offlids, completely blinds them, and pre- spring clinging to their backs, they vents every possibility of their effect can leap from tree to tree, if the dising an escape.
tance is not very greats and secure In other places, the natives take to their hold among the branches with the habitations of the monkeys a kind the greatest certainty. When they of boots, which they put on and pull perceive any person taking aim at off their legs several times successive- them, either with a gun or bow, they ly. These are then rubbed over in the cry out and grind their teeth someinside with a strong glue ; and when times in the most horrible manner. the monkeys attempt to do the same, They are often able to avoid the arthey are unable to disengage them rows that are shot at them, and someselves, and, consequently, are caught times they even catch them in their without difficulty.
hands. When any one of their comSometimes the inhabitants carry in munity is shot, and falls to the ground, their hands a mirror, and appear to all the rest set up a dismal and treamuse themselves by looking at it in mendous howl, which makes all the different attitudes. In place of these adjacent mountains and woods rethey leave a kind of traps, not unlike sound. If a monkey is wounded, and the glasses in external appearance, does not fall, it frequently happens which, when the animals take them that his companions will seize and up, seize and secure them by the carry it off far beyond the reach of paws.
their enemy: and miserable is the The inhabitants of St. Vincent fate of that hunter who is imprudent le Blanc catch monkeys in several enough to venture near their haunts kinds of traps and snares. Some. during that same day. When the
animals reascend the trees, they each dered an excellent sudorifick, and carry a stone in their hands, and ge- likewise as anti-venereal. In the gallnerally another in their mouths; and, bladder of one or two of the Indian in such case, these are thrown at species, but particularly of the dorick their adversary with a correctness of and wanderu, a kind of gall-stone is aim that is truly astonishing.
sometimes found. These, says TaThe inhabitants of several coun- vernier, the natives have been known tries derive a means of subsistence to sell for as much as a hundred from the flesh of these animals. We crowns each. They will not, in geare assured by Condamine, that in ' neral, permit them to be exported Cayenne the monkeys are the kind out of their country as articles of of game that is more frequently pur. commerce, but chiefly preserve them sued than any other; and that the as an invaluable present to foreign amIndians of the country bordering on bassadours residing amongst them. the river of the Amazons are peculi. They are considered to possess all arly fond of their flesh. Their fat is the properties that have been attriesteemed a sovereign remedy for buted to the most precious of the stiffness in the joints. In the Portu- bezoar stones. guese settlements in South America, powdered monkey's bones are
BY W. WOOD, F.L.S. THOSE persons who are totally minerals, this substance is placed unacquainted with the operation of among the combustible bodies : nechymistry, will not readily believe vertheless, we have taken the liberty that the most precious stone in the to leave it at the head of the precious world, is nothing but modified char- stones, as a more natural, though coal; and that, far from being inde- less scientifick, situation than the structible, it may be entirely con other. sumed by fire. Such, however, is Diamonds, when brought to Euthe fact ; for the knowledge of which rope in their rough state, are said to we are particularly indebted to the be either in the shape of roundish decisive experiment of Mr. Tennant; pebbles with shining surfaces, or in though other chymists have not been octaëdral crystals; but they are not deficient in their operation on the entirely confined to this form, as they same subject. It was found, from vary in several respects, and some some experiments which preceded times occur with twenty-four, and those of Mr. Tennant, that the dia even forty-eight sides. mond, though it was capable of resiste These precious stones are princiing the effects of violent heat in a close pally found in the East Indies, in the vessel, might be consumed when ex. kingdoms of Golconda and Visapour posed to the joint action of heat and in the peninsula on this side the air. These experiments, however, Ganges, nearly eighteen degrees from if we except those by Lavoisier, only the line. They are likewise in the proved the inflammability of the dia- kingdoms of Pegu and of Siam, in mond. Mr. Tennant and, we ought Brasil, and in South America. One to add, Mr. Guyton, went further, circumstance is worthy of remark and not only proved its combustible respecting the situation of diamond nalure, but likewise ascertained its mines. It is, that those of America component parts. According, there are at the same distance in the southfore, to the present arrangement of èrn hemisphere that the Asiatick
mines are in the northern. The According to this account of Tadiamonds of India are, in general, vernier's, the Indian lapidaries are larger, and of a finer water, than very expert in cutting the diamonds, those of Brasil, but by no means so and will frequently undertake to diabundant. As a proof of this, Patrin vide a stone, which, from its unfa. tells us, that when the mines of Bra. vourable appearance, the Europeans sil were first discovered, the Portu will not venture upon. guese were so successful in their Speaking of the government of the researches, that in 1730, the Rio mines, Tavernier says, they trade Janeiro fleet brought away eleven · very freely and honestly, the king hundred and forty-six ounces. This receiving two per cent. on all that are prodigious quantity, brought imme- bought, besides a certain duty from diately into the market, so reduced the merchants for leave to dig. When the price of diamonds, that, to pre- these traders have fixed upon a spot, vent their becoming too common, they begin their search, and employ the court of Portugal afterwards con a number of miners, in proportion to fined the employment of diamond the hurry they may be in. hunting to a certain number of per Sometimes, a hundred men are em
ployed at once; and when this is the The account which Tavernier has case, the merchant pays four pagodas given us of the diamond mines of to the king for every day they work, Asia is very circumstantial, and de- and two when the number is not so serves our particular attention, as great. being written by a person who travel When Tavernier visited these led so many years for the sole pur- mines, the poor people never got pose of collecting diamonds." The above three pagodas* for the labour first mine he visited was at Raolcon- of a year, though they understand da, in the kingdom of Visapour; their business extremely well. These and the account he gives of this place trifling wages, and the distress they is nearly as follows:
suffer in consequence, make them « Round about the place where hide a stone whenever they can find the diamonds are sound, the ground an opportunity. This, it must be conis sandy and full of rocks, which fessed, is but seldom, as, besides contain veins from half a finger to a being strictly guarded, they work alfinger wide. These veins are full of most naked; and therefore, not having earth, or sand, which the miners pick any outward protection for their stolen out with instruments on purpose, and goods, they are sometimes induced carefully deposit in a tub, as it is to swallow them.
When any of amongst this earth that the diamonds
these people chance to meet with a are found.
They are sometimes large stone, they carry it to the masobliged to break the rock in order to ter of the work, who rewards them trace the veins for the sake of the accordingly. . earth ; and as soon as this is accom Every day, after dinner, the master plished, and all the sand removed, it of the miners brings the diamonds to is carefully washed two or three times the lodgings of the merchants, in and the diamonds, if there be any, order to show them; and if the stones picked out. There are several dia are large, or sufficiently numerous mond cutters at this mine, but none to amount to more than the sum of of them have above one mill, which two thousand crowns, he will leave is of steel. They never cut more them for some days, that the merthan one stone at a time upon each chants may have time to consider mill, and use oil and diamond powder their value, and agree about the to facilitate the operation, at the same price. This, it seems, they are time loading the stone with a heavy weight.”
* About 11. 58. 60.
obliged to do before the return of the without speaking a word ; so that no owner, who will never bring the same by stander can possibly tell what they stones again, unless mixed with have been doing. The manner in others.
which this is accomplished has been It appears from Tavernier's ac.
thus described by Tavernier :
66 The count, that the diamond traffick is buyer and seller sit one before anocarried on by persons of all ages, and ther like two tailors; and the seller, that even children are taught to bar. opening his girdle, takes the right ter for them. “ It is very pleasant,” hand of the purchaser, and conveys says the traveller, " to see the young it, together with his own, beneath his children of the merchants and other girdle, where the bargain is secretly people of the country, from the age driven in the presence of many merof ten to fifteen or sixteen years, who chants, without the knowledge of any seat themselves on a tree that lies in
The parties never speak or a void place in the town. Every one make any signs with their mouths or of them has his diamond weights in eyes, but only converse with their a little bag hanging at one side; on hands; and this is managed in the the other his purse, with five or six following manner :-When the seller hundred pagodas in gold in it. There takes the purchaser by the whole they sit, expecting when any person hand, it signifies a thousand; and as will come to sell them some dia often as he squeezes it, it means so monds. If any person brings them many thousand pagodas or rupees, a stone, they put it into the hands according to the money in question. of the eldest boy amongst them, who If he takes but half, to the knuckle is, as it were, their chief, who looks of the middle finger, that is as much upon it, and after that gives it to him as to say fifty; the small end of the that is next him ; by which means finger to the first knuckle signifies it goes from hand to hand, till it re ten. When he grasps five fingers, turns to him again, none of the rest it signifies five hundred; but if one speaking a word. After that he de- finger, one hundred.” mands the price to buy it, if possible ; Seven days journey from Golconbut if he buy it too dear, it is upon da, towards the east, there is another his own account. In the evening the diamond mine, called Gani, or, in the children compute what they have laid Persian language, Coulour. This out; when they look upon their' mine is said to have been discovered stones, and separate them according by a countryman, who, digging a to their water, their weight, and clear- piece of ground to sow millet, found ness. Then they bring them to the a pointed stone that weighed above principal merchants, who have gene- twenty-five carats. This, being carrally great parcels to match ; and the ried to Golconda, immediately inprofit is divided among the children duced the inhabitants to search furequally, only the chief among them ther; and such was the success of has a fourth in the hundred more their industry, that not only many than the rest. Young as they are, other stones of considerable size were they so well understand the price of found, but the wonderful diamond, stones, that if one of them has made weighing nine hundred carats, which any purchase, and is willing to lose Mirzimala afterwards presented to one half in the hundred, the other Aureng-zeb. will give him his money."
When Tavernier first visited this The secrecy which the Indians ob. mine, there were about sixty thousand serve in their dealings with each o persons at work, consisting of men, ther is singular enough ; for they will women, and children; the men being contrive to sell the same parcel of di- employed to dig, the women and amonds several times to each other children to carry the earth. When