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tunnel for nearly half its length. To cross the rugged district of thirty-four miles that intervenes between Loch Katrine and Glasgow, difficulties of no ordinary nature had to be overcome. Successive ridges of obdurate rock, separated by deep wild glens and mountain torrents, had to be traversed. The hard schistose groups, the old red sandstone, and the compact clay slate which constitute the geological character of the Highland mountains were bored, blasted, and perforated to form a subterranean passage to the stream which was destined to cool the parched throat of the great city. The very blasting materials cost, on the average, about 2,000l. a mile; the expense of the works was something near 800,0001., and the entire expense (with compensation for land, &c.) 1,500,0001. Loch Katrine was selected as the fountain head, not only from the well-known purity of its water, but also from its elevation (360 feet above the sea), and from its being fed by a large amount of annual rainfall. The In his speech at the Glasgow Banquet, Mr. Bateman said: The engineering cost of these works was to have been above 540,0001. for 26,000,000 gallons per day. They have cost about 700,0001., but have produced 30,000,000 gallons a-day.' Nevertheless, in the address presented by the Commissioners to her Majesty, the daily supply was stated at 50,000,000 gallons. Loch Katrine, Loch Vennachar, and Loch Drunkie,' says the address, ' are all laid under contribution, either for the supply of the city, or for affording an increased and more regular supply in dry seasons to the river Teith, below Loch Vennachar, as compensation for the privilege of diverting 50,000,000 gallons per day to Glasgow. The total area of these lochs is upwards of 4,000 acres, and the available capacity within the limits to which they may be drawn off is 160,000,000 cubic feet of water. The drainage area is more than 45,000 acres. After passing the valley of the Endrick, the aqueduct is conducted to a reservoir at Mugdock, near Strathblane, seventy acres in extent, and capable of holding 500,000,000 gallons. From thence, the water is conveyed in a double line of 3-feet pipes (up to the reservoir, the pipes are 4 feet) to Glasgow, about eight miles distant, where fortysix miles of piping distribute the stream to the several parts of the city. LOCH KATRINE WATERWORKS.

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purity of its water is so great* that Glasgow is probably supplied with a nearer approach to distilled water than any other city in Great Britain. Of the London waterwork companies, the Chelsea Company takes the lead in purity, their water containing in the gallon, on the average, from 17 to 22 degrees or grains of foreign matter in solution; but the Loch Katrine water contains only two such degrees or grains. Of a copious supply of such pure water as this the rapidly increasing population of Glasgow stood greatly in need. Up to the end of the last century, forty or forty-five wellpumps furnished the city with a precarious supply of water. In 1806, the Glasgow Water Company supplied the people, but very inadequately, with water pumped from the Clyde. Great credit is therefore justly due to the corporation of the city for the energetic measures taken by them for the sanitary improvement of the city, as well as for the comfort of its inhabitants, in the

* According to Mr. Bateman, the purity of the water is such that, compared with the hard water they had previously been forced to use, it makes a saving in articles of domestic consumption equivalent to the whole water-rate, and a free gift to the city of nearly a million sterling. He then adds the following remarkable statistics (but we know that figures may be made to prove anything):- In the consumption of soap alone, the saving to the inhabitants on the north of the river will be nearly 30,0001. a-year. The total population of Glasgow may be taken at present at 460,000; deduct for Gorbals, 110,000; total on north of river 350,000. Mr. Porter estimates the annual consumption of soap at 9.2 lbs. per individual. This, at 5 d. per lb., will give 72,0001. as the annual cost of soap, on the average of the country, consumed by the 350,000 persons on the north of the Clyde. Since the introduction of the Loch Katrine water careful returns show that nearly one-half of the soap formerly used will now suffice. If these calculations were to be applied to London, the saving there, allowing for the harder character of the water, would amount to not less than 400,0001. per annum, equivalent to the outlay of 10,000,000l. of money, which it would be worth the while of the Londoners to pay for water equal in quality to that of Loch Katrine.'

† From the analysis of Dr. R. D. Thomson, F.R.S.

completion of a work which, in the words of her Majesty's answer to the address presented to her at the opening, “Both in its conception and its execution reflects so much credit upon its promoters, and is calculated to improve the health and comfort of that vast population which is rapidly increasing round the great centre of manufacturing industry in Scotland. Such a work is worthy of the spirit of enterprise and the philanthropy of Glasgow, and I trust that it will be blessed with complete success. The works were three years and six months in the course of execution, giving employment to about 3,000 men, besides the ironfounders and mechanics engaged in the manufacture of the iron pipes and the rest of the machinery connected with the works. The gentleman to whose skill and daring invention the complete success of this gigantic work is due, is the engineer of the works, John Frederic Bateman, Esq., who is now said to be engaged in developing the plans of an engineering work far more colossal than that of taking the waters of Loch Katrine into the heart of Glasgow; for it is Mr. Bateman's belief that, at an expense of some six or seven millions of money, the waters of the Welsh lakes may, in a similar manner, be conveyed to London; and it is expected that his belief will be no mere chimæra, but may ultimately be developed into a solved problem of the highest importance to the health of our great metropolis.

It was a notable day for the busy annals of Loch Katrine when, on October 14, 1859, the Queen, the late Prince Consort, the Princesses Alice and Helena, and the royal suite, steamed up from the Trosachs pier, on board the little "Rob Roy,' in order to inaugurate the new waterworks. The royal party had

THE QUEEN'S VISIT.

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left Edinburgh at ten o'clock that morning, and by half-past eleven had reached Callender, where they were received by the lord of the manor, Lord Willoughby d’Eresby, the Duke of Montrose, and other distinguished persons. There was an immense crowd of enthusiastic spectators, and abundant decoration in the way of arches and flags; but, alas! there was no • Queen's weather, and the royal party drove off for the Brig o' Turk amid uprising cheers and down-pouring torrents. The rain began at seven and lasted till one, and then, just as the Queen entered the Trosachs, the weather fortunately cleared. The route from Callender to Loch Katrine may be said to have been lined with people, and on no previous occasion had so great a multitude been gathered together in this romantic territory. As the Queen and the Princesses, clad in dresses of Stuart tartan, stepped on board the “Rob Roy,' they were welcomed by the Lord Provost and magistrates of Glasgow, and floated past Ellen's Isle amid the echoing cheers that were buffetted back from Ben Aan and Ben Venue.

Great preparations had been made at the further end of the Loch. A covered landing-stage had been erected, on which was a daïs for her Majesty, from whence a narrow platform led to the mouth of the aqueduct, and a second platform was conducted to the cottage of the Water Commissioners, where the royal luncheon was prepared. Gathered round the platform and landing-stage were those who had received special invitations to be present. Here were the Duke and Duchess of Atholl, the Duke and Duchess of Montrose, the Duke of Richmond, the Earl of Mansfield, Lord Ernest Bruce, Lady Violet Graham, Lady Harriet Herbert, Lady Emily Foley, Lord Alfred Lennox, Sir

James Colquhoun, and such a host of notables as had never before been gathered together on Loch Katrine's banks. At a short distance behind them, gathered in dense groups, and forming a dark crescent on the lower ridge of the mountain, was an immense concourse of her Majesty's liege subjects, who had travelled from far and near, and braved the pelting of the pitiless storm, in order to be present at such an undertaking as had never before been heard of in all Scotland. The Queen arrived, and when all the preliminaries were over, her Majesty opened the sluices of the works by turning a small tap within the daïs, which quickly set in motion a four-horse hydraulic engine at the mouth of the aqueduct; the great iron shuttles were forced up, and the first torrent of water went rushing through the quartz rock on its thirty-four mile race to Glasgow. The cheers of the people were drowned in the thunderings of cannon, and the conflicting echoes buffetted from crag to crag proclaimed the most important and useful fact in the history of Loch Katrine. After luncheon her Majesty and the royal party again steamed down by Ellen's Isle, and set foot on the little pier, en route through the Trosachs to Holyrood, which was reached at seven that evening.

This little pier at the Trosachs end of Loch Katrine is the centre of one of those beautiful pictures in which the head of the Loch abounds. The pier itself communicates with a rustic gallery leading along the side of the rock to the open space where the Trosach coaches wait. All around are wooded heights rising precipitously from the water; and half-way up one of these, on the southern shore, is the watch-tower of Roderick Dhu.'

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