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takes place. Labienus' actual words were of this kind : ea quae imperavero diligenter administrate. imperasset would also have been used if Labienus' words had been ea quae imperavi administrate; but the commands had not been given at the time of his addressing them.

quattuor milia passuum] This would bring them, says Nap., to the village of Point-du-Jour.

adverso flumine] 'up the stream'. By this manoeuvre the enemy were thrown off the scent.

post paulo] cf. n. on post paulum 50.

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CHAP. 61.

13 ut omni] 'just as they had been stationed here and there along the

river', i.e. they were overtaken and cut down just as they stood, without any opportunity of escaping or of summoning aid. For this use of ut cf. 46 end, Teutomatus in tabernaculo oppressus ut meridie conquieverat, and 68, ut collocaverat ; and for inopinantes opprimuntur cf. 8 oppressis

inopinantibus. 18 praeter consuetudinem tumultuari] ‘that there is an unusual como

motion'. 26

progrediatur) one would expect progrederetur. Tr. 'which is to advance'.

CHAP. 62, PAGE 32. 14

neque] =neque tamen. Cf. 45 neque tanto spatio certi quid esset explorari poterat. 18 die tertio] After inde some mss. have diem, which is supposed to

have arisen from die III, that is, die tertio.

24

CHAP. 63.
dubitantes territant] 'the waverers', cf. 7 timentes confirmat.

7 25 rationes belli gerendi] ‘his plans for the campaign'. 31 Remi, Lingones, Treveri] The Remi were a powerful Belgic tribe

occupying a tract of country corresponding roughly to the departments of Marne and Ardennes. Their chief town Durocortorum was afterwards called Remi from the name of the people, hence its modern name Rheims. For the Lingones cf. n, on 9. The Treveri, a Keltic tribe of considerable importance (cf. 11. 24; v. 3), were situated on the left bank of the Rhine. They have given their name to the district of Trier and the town of Treves (Augusta Treverorum). We may gather from Cicero's puns on the word that the second e was short in ordinary pronunciation (Ep. ad Fam. VII. 13).

illi] the Remi and Lingones.

PAGE 33. toto bello] (throughout the whole war'; abl. of duration of time : not were absent from the whole war', since Caesar always repeats the preposition with abesse. K. [Mr Reid proposes to read toti bello, and to take abesse as=deficere, “to fail,' but toto itself may be dative, cf. n. on 89.]

CHAP. 64. 7 diemque ei rei] so F. K. has huic. 9 quem antea habuerat] This is a parenthetical remark of Caesar's.

Had it been part of the reported words of Vercingetorix habuerit would

have been written. 13 modo corrumpant] 'only let them destroy'. aedificia "barns', as

in 14.

16 Segusiavis] The Segusiavi occupied a region comprising the depart

ments of Rhone and Loire. Lugdunum (Lyons) was at a later period

their most important town. 19 Allobrogibus] The provinces of Dauphine and Savoy represent the domains of the Allobroges. Their largest town was Vienna, still Vienne. For the Gabali, Helvii, and Volcae Arecomici cf. 7; for the Ruteni, 5.; for the Cadurci, 4.

CHAP. 65. 27

provincia] the province of Gallia Narbonensis. cf. 6.

Lucio Caesare] son of L. Julius Caesar, cos. B.C. 90, and himself cos. B.C. 64. He was a relative of G. Julius Caesar. 30 Caburi filio] Caburus had been presented with the Roman citizen

ship by G. Valerius Procillus, whence he took the name of G. Valerius Caburus ; cf. I. 47. He had two sons, G. Valerius Procillus (cf. 1. 19) and G. Valerius Donnotaurus.

PAGE 34. equitatu superiores] We read of 15,000 cavalry in 64. 3 Germaniam] Caesar had twice crossed the Rhine and invaded Ger

many, in the years 55 and 53 B.C. cf. iv. 16—19: VI. 9–28. He had

also conquered several German tribes who had entered Gaul. 5 levis armaturae pedites] cf. n. on 18 expeditis. 7 evocatis] The evocati were men who had served their time and had

re-enlisted at the invitation of the military authorities. They were exempted from many of the duties that fell to the lot of the rank and file. Cf. S. D. A.

1

10

CHAP. 68, Caesar] We read (56 end) that Caesar, after crossing the Loire on his march northward from Gergovia, proceeded to the country of the Senones. In 62 (end) it is stated that Labienus joined Caesar three P. C.

6

days (?) after quitting Agedincum (Sens), whither he had come from Paris. The junction of the two forces is supposed by G. to have taken place at Troyes on the Seine, by Nap. at Joigny on the Yonne. Caesar now wished to march into the domain of the Sequani in order to be nearer the province; his line of march then lay according to G. from Troyes to Besançon (Vesontio), according to Nap. from Joigny to Besançon. Both authorities agree that he probably intended crossing the Saône in the neighbourhood of Gray in the department of Haute Saône. The Aedui at this time were hostile, and that is the reason why Caesar was obliged to march per extremos Lingonum fines, that is, along the southern border of the Lingones. The Sequani were situated between the Saône, the Rhone and M. Jura; the first-named river

separated them from the Lingones. 14

trinis castris] Nap. places these camps on the heights of Occey, Sacquenay and Montormentier, between Dijon and Langres, on the left bank of the Vingeanne, about 7 or 8 miles N.E. of Thil-Châtel. Vercingetorix thus commanded the routes leading to the three places at which the Saône could be crossed, viz. Gray, Pontailler and Châlons. Caesar's camp he considers to have been near Longeau, 9 or 10 miles S.

of Langres. 18 ad reliqui temporis] 'little advance was thereby made towards securing peace and quiet for the future'.

adorirentur] adoriantur might have been expected, as the present tense is used throughout the reported speech of Vercingetorix. The imperfect presupposes some such word as imperabat "he bade them

attack', 23 confidat] The clause is viewed as subordinate, otherwise Caesar

might have written quod se magis futurum confidere. Cf. 39 provideat. 25 progredi modo] ‘so much as to advance outside of the line of

march'. 31 perequitasset] = perequitaverit (fut. perf.) in oratio recta.

21

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CHAP. 67, PAGE 35. a primo agmine] 'in the van'.

consistit] This, the reading of the inferior mss., is preferable to constitit. 6 videbantur) . were seen'. aciem constitui “the troops to be drawn up.

in order of battle '. acies is fighting order, agmen marching order. 7 ad insequendum tardabat] For the construction cf. 26 palus Romanos

ad insequendum tardabat. 9 summum iugum] Montsaugeon. The river mentioned immediately

afterwards is the Vingeanne. 14 perducuntur] This is, I think, better than producuntur, which is read

by F., though on no good ms. authority. 18 Eporedorix] not the Eporedorix often mentioned in conjunction

with Viridomarus. K.

CHAP 68.

21

Alesiam] The site of Alesia is certain. It is Alise-Sainte-Reine on M. Auxois in the department of the Côte d'Or near Flavigny. If a man will approach Alise from the railway station Les Laumes on the line from Paris to Dijon, and if he has read Caesar's description, he will recognise the place as soon as he sees it'. Long, Decline of the

Roman Republic, iv. 335. So Heller, Kraner, Göler, Napoleon, etc. 23 impedimentis deductis] dative after praesidio, K. 27

altero die] There is some difficulty here. If Nap. has accurately determined the site of the battle described in the last chapter, which there seems no good reason to doubt, it would seem necessary to follow him in explaining altero die to mean the second day after Caesar's departure, for Alesia is about 40 miles from the battle-field, and Caesar could hardly have accomplished this distance in a hilly country on the day following that of his departure. Cf. Long, Decline, &c. IV. 335, who denies this interpretation of altero die.

CHAP. 69. 32 expugnari] ‘reduced'. 33

duo flumina] The river Ose washes the north, and the Oserain the south side of the hill. They are both tributaries of the Brienne.

PAGE 36.

I

a

2

planities] the 'plaine des Laumes’ lies W. and S.W. of Alesia. The Brienne flows through the middle of it in a S.E. direction.

mediocri interiecto spatio] spatium denotes the space between the hills in question and M. Auxois on which Alesia was situated. It was nearly one mile in width. The hills vary in height from 1300 to 1400 feet above the level of the sea.

quae pars collis...hunc omnem locum] Notice the fulness of expression for omnem partem collis quae. The W. corner of the hill was occupied

by the town of Alesia ; all the E. portion by the Gauls. 7 munitionis] The investment was effected by camps placed in

favourable positions together with 23 castella (redoubts). The whole line of investment measured nearly 10 miles. The Roman camps are still clearly traceable, as also are five of the 23 castella.

4

12

CHAP. 70. instituto] 'started', 'set on foot'.

planitie] the plain of Les Laumes. 15

Germanos] German cavalry, cf. n. on 13. 19

angustioribus portis relictis] relinquere 'to leave' is not used here in the sense of 'to quit', but Caesar means that the spaces which they had left' for the gates in the maceria were too narrow. The Gallic cavalry had left their camp on the E. side of M. Auxois, and had engaged in a skirmish with the Roman cavalry in the plain of Les Laumes

. Caesar, seeing his men hard pressed, had summoned the German cavalry to their aid, and thus reinforced the Romans had driven back the Gauls to their camp; but the gates in their stone wall were so narrow, that when the Gauls pursued by the Romans tried to re-enter their fortifications, they became completely blocked in the

narrow entrances, and were cut down in great numbers. 23 pro vallo]=pro castris ab the Roman camp being always sur

rounded by a vallum. When Caesar ordered his legions to advance, the Gauls in their fortified post (intra munitiones) on M. Auxois were thrown into no less consternation (non minus, i.e. than those who had just been defeated in the cavalry engagement), and some even attempted to force their way into Alesia itself, whereupon V. ordered the town-gates (portas) which opened into the Gallic camp to be closed.

CHAP. 1. 31 dimittere] For the inf. after consilium capere cf. 26 consilium ceperunt

profugere. 32 adeat...cogant] For the change of number K. compares atvolaret...

possent 72. 33 sua in illos merita proponit] Compare a former speech of Ver.

cingetorix 20 haec, inquit, a me, Vercingetorix, beneficia habetis, etc.

PAGE 37. 3 milia hominum LXXX.] Mr Long says, “it is not credible that

80,000 men shut themselves up in Alesia'. The Duc d'Aumale is also inclined to think the number too large. The whole extent of the plateau is said to be about 15,000,000 square feet, which would give

nearly 190 sq. ft. to each man. 5 dierum XXX.] The Duc d'Aumale is doubtless right in supposing

that Alesia had been provisioned and fortified in anticipation of a siege before the arrival of Vercingetorix : otherwise it is not easy to see how the Gauls could have procured in the time so great a quantity

of provisions as would suffice to keep 80,000 men for 30 days. 9 paruerint] cf. v. 58 magna proponit iis qui regem occiderint praemia and n. on 27.

recepit] Perhaps recipit should be read from the inferior Mss.

I 2

CHAP. 72. 15 directis lateribus] 'with perpendicular sides'; consequently the

bottom (solum) of the ditch would be as wide as the top : cf. VIII. 9 imperat fossam duplicem pedum quinum denun lateribus deprimi directis. This ditch appears only to have been dug across the Plaine des Laumes from the Ose to the Oserain : recent excavations bave brought the

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