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whole of it to view. The works hereafter described were carried the

whole way round M. Auxois. 19 id] The pronoun is used by a curious brevity of expression where

one would have expected atque id fecit or something similar ; perhaps it is merely a repetition of the last syllable of reduxit.

esset...cingeretur] The subjunctives are not dependent on quoniam, but are used because the clauses in which they occur express not so much an actual fact as Caesar's own thoughts: 'since (as he reflected) he had of necessity' etc. corpus is probably a blunder of the copyist for opus, his eye having caught the first syllable of the following word co

rona. In the next clause ne...advolaret etc. is explanatory of hoc consilio. 23 hoc intermisso spatio] abl. abs. spatium is the 400 feet mentioned above.

eadem aititudine] These words mean that the two ditches were of the same depth; what the depth was Caesar does not say, but the recent examination of the site has shown that it was about 8 or 9 feet.

interiorem] the one nearest Alesia. campestribus ac demissis locis ‘in the low-lying meadow-land'. The flumen from which Caesar

filled the ditch appears to have been the Oserain. 26 post eas] 'behind these' and therefore beyond the outer of the

two fosses.vallum is the palisading on the top of the agger, the two

together were 12 feet. 27 loricam] a kind of breast-work or parapet called loricula viminea,

VIII. 9; cf. v. 40; Tac. Ann. IV. 49; Hist. IV. 37. Vegetius says obsidentes ultra iactum teli fossam faciunt eamque non solum vallo et sudibus sed etiam turriculis instruunt ut erumpentibus ex civitate possint obsistere ; quod opus loriculam vocant, et saepe cum obsidio describitur invenitur in historiis lorica urbem esse circumdatam.

pinnas] pinnacles ; 'pieces of wood rising above the rest of the structure', Mr Long, who translates loricam pinnasque 'a crenelated parapet'. Apparently the lorica and pinnae were constructed on the top of the agger alongside of the palisade. On the inside of this structure, i. e. on the side facing the besieged town, a number of large stakes with branching ends were fixed in, so as to project (eminere) horizontally from where the parapets were attached to the rampart (ad commissuras pluteorum atque aggeris). These stakes were called cervi 'stags' from their fancied resemblance to stag's horns. For the plutei cf. n. on 25. A continuous row of these plutei composed the Lorica,

CHAP 73. necesse] Notice the twofold construction of necesse erat in the same 32

sentence, (i) with the inf. of the deponent, necesse erat materiari et frumentari, it was necessary to get timber' etc.: (ii) with the acc. and inf. pass., nec. erat tantas munitiones fieri, 'it was necessary for so great works to be made'. To avoid this harsh change Schneider writes tueri for fieri.

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PAGE 38. 3 quo] For the position of quo 'whereby' before another ablative, cf. 2 quo more eorum, and perhaps 26 quo timore.

aut] I have retained aut, which is rejected on inconclusive grounds by N. and K. ; without aut the words will mean “trunks with very stout branches'. Hotoman wrote haud, so Forcellini even in 1862 (ed.

Devit). 6 perpetuae] "continuous', cf. 23, 57. Caesar does not say how many

trenches there were. huc 'into these', cf. the use of eo in 58. 7 ab infimo revincti] 'made fast at the bottom'. ab ramis eminebant

stood out from their branches upwards', i.e. showed only their

branches above ground. 8 quini erant ordines] This may mean either (i) there were 5 fossae with

a row of cippi in each, or (ii) 5 rows of cippi in each fossa: so K. 9 acutissimis se vallis induebant] The valli are the sharp pointed

branches of the cippi. Cippus properly means a block of wood or stone to mark a grave or a boundary.

ante quos] 'in front of which', i.e. on the side of the town. obliquis in transverse rows arranged in the form of a quincunx'. scrobes 'wolfpits' ('trous de loup', Nap.).

paulatim angustiore] 'with the sides gradually converging towards the bottom'. 13 feminis] femur is used as the nom. of this word; the cases may be

formed from either of the stems femor- or femen-. R. $ 454. 14 non amplius digitis quattuor] 'not more than three inches'. digitus

'finger's-breadth 16 singuli ab infimo solo pedes terra exculcabantur] 'in each pit one

foot from the bottom was stamped down with earth', i.e. each of these pits, which were three feet deep, was filled to the height of one foot with earth firmly trodden down; the remaining two feet (reliqua pars) of the pit was covered over (integebatur not ‘filled up') with rushes etc. to conceal the pitfall. I take the following from a short account of the campaign in the Birman Empire in the years, 1824, 5 : 'the approach to the stockade was rendered very arduous owing to its being bearded with small sharp bristles of bamboo, stuck in the earth, and sloping outwards and so arranged as not to be easily visible, being concealed by

the herbage'. 18 huius generis) 'of pits such as these there were set 8 rows at distance from each other'.

taleae] blocks of wood with iron hooks fastened in them; these blocks were buried in the ground in such a way that the hooks projected above the surface. The soldiers called them "spurs' or 'caltrops'. Five of these stimuli have been found at Alesia, and of the wolf-pits more than fifty have been discovered in such a perfect state of preservation that they appear as though they had been made but yesterday'. Nap.

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CHAP 74. 23 secutus] ‘following', 'keeping to'. 25 diversas ab his] ‘fronting a different way from the others'. The

works previously described formed Caesar's lines of countervallation; those now mentioned were lines of circumvallation 13 miles in circuit to defend the besiegers from any army of relief that might be levied from

the neighbouring states of Gaul. 27 eius discessu] There is no meaning in these words in their present

position, and no satisfactory alteration has as yet been proposed. 30 habere convectun] cf. R. § 1402.

CHAP. 75. 32 possent...statuunt] For the change of tense cf. n. on 9 priusquam posset.

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cuique] dat. after imperandum. Cf. n. on 4.

frumentandi rationem] 'a properly organised commissariat'. 3 Aeduis etc.] For the Aedui cf. 5, for the Segusiavi 64, for the Aulerci

Brannovices and Cadurci 4, for the Arverni 3, for the Gabali 7. The Ambivareti perhaps dwelt within the limits of the department of the Rhone ; they must be distinguished from the Belgian Ambivariti on the left bank of the Maas : the Brannovii may still survive in Blanot in Saône et Loire. Eleatetis is probably incorrect; Nap. suggests Eleutheris Cadurcis. The Velavi have left a trace of their name in Velay in

Haute Loire. 7 Sequanis etc.] For the Sequani cf. 66; for the Senones, Lemovices,

Pictones, Turoni, Parisii 4; for the Bituriges and Ruteni 5; for the Carnutes 2; for the Bellovaci 59. The Santones dwelt N. of the Garonne and have given their name to the province of Saintonge and the town of Saintes, formerly Mediolanum. The Helvetii were a powerful Keltic tribe between the Rhone, the Rhine, the lake of Geneva and M. Jura.

Ambianis etc.] The chief town of the Ambiani was Samarobriva, afterwards called Ambiani, now Amiens. The Mediomatrici dwelt E. of the Remi, S. of the Treveri ; their chief town Divodurum, afterwards called Mettis, is now Metz. The Petrocorii occupied the modern Périgord; their chief town was Vesunna, now Perigueux. The Nervii, a powerful tribe of Belgic Gauls, inhabited a part of Hainault and Flanders between the Sambre and the Schelde : their chief town was Bagacum, now Bavay. The Morini dwelt in N. Picardy, cf. Verg. Aen. VIII. 727 extremique hominum Morini. For the Nitiobriges cf. 7; for the Aul. Cenomani 4.

Atrebatibus etc.] Their chief town was Nemetocenna, now Arras, in Artois. The Veliocasses perhaps left a trace of their name in Vexin ; their principal town was Rotomagus, now Rouen. The Lexovii gave their name to Lisieux, once Noviomagus, in Normandy. For the Aul.

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Eburovices cf. 4. The Raurici were situated between the Vosges and

the bend of the Rhine at Basle. For the Boii cf. 9. 15 Aremoricae] The tribes inhabiting the country corresponding to the

modern Bretagne and Normandy between the Loire and the Seine were called by this name, which is said to mean "dwellers on the sea-coast'. Cf. Ausonius Ep. IX 35 sunt et Aremorici qui laudent ostrea ponti. The names of the Curiosolites, Redones, Ambibarii, Caletes, Nannetes still survive in Corseult, Rennes, Ambières (?), Caux, and Nantes (formerly Condivincum). The Osismi had their habitation in the N. W. corner of Bretagne, the Venelli in the N.W. of Normandy.

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CHAP. 76. Commii] Caesar had made him king of the Atrebates. Cf. IV 21 foll. 25 ipsi] Commius. The Morini were to be stipendiarii of Commius. 26 belli] Perhaps belli in such phrases as this was originally a locative=

‘in war”. Cf. the expression victor belli in Statius Theb. ix 624. 31 inibatur] 'was calculated'. Cf. Liv. XXXVIII 23 numerus interfec

torum haud facile iniri potuit; and above 71 ratione inita. 33 consobrino] "cousin'. Consobrini (for consororini) are properly the

children of sisters.

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PAGE 40. quorum]=ut eorum, hence the subjunctive. For the tense of administraretur cf. 75 qui possent...statuunt. 3

ad Alesiam] 'towards Alesia'. 4 aspectum modo] 'the bare sight'. 5 ancipiti proelio] K. qu. I 26 ita ancipiti proelio diu atque acriter pug.

natum. anceps proelium is a battle in which the enemy attacks on two sides.

cum ex oppido etc.] In Greek this clause and the next foris tantae etc. would be distinguished by uév and dé, thus, ék jèr týs mólews... FEW Dé.

CHẤP. 7. .13 censebat] Caesar says that part of the sententiae voted for a sortie; he

means part of the people who expressed the sententiae. The clause dum vires suppeterent is quoted by Roby, $ 1756, as an instance of a reported

temporal clause. 15 magnae habitus auctoritatis] cf. Kenn. $ 168. 18 ad consilium] 'to give their advice'. All the best mss. have concilium.

residere videtur] ‘seems still to do well’. Cf. Mr Long's note on residere.

animi est, etc.] that is softness of mind on your part (ista), not valour, to be unable to bear want for a little time'. A similar idea is found in

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20 cui rei (a pitched battle) propter animi mollitiem studere omnes videret, quod diutius laborem ferre non possent. Animi est ista mollitia=istud

est animi mollitia. 25 dignitas] “the worth or authority of those who have given this

opinion'. K. 27 quid] Join quid animi 'what feelings'. For the separation of quid

from its dependent genitive cf. 36 quid in quoque esset animi. propinquis consanguineisque nostris is dat. after fore.

PAGE 41. 3 animi causn] ‘for the sake of amusement'. Cf. v 12 animi volupta

tisque causa; Cic. p. Rosc. Am. 134 animi et aurium causa. The best

MSS. have sine causa. 4 si illorum nuntiis] 'if you cannot be assured by messengers from

them (the Gauls) when every approach is guarded, take these (the

Romans) as witnesses that their (the Gauls') arrival is at hand'. 7 quid mei consilii est]=quid consilii mihi est='what (sort of) advice

have I to give?' Cf. Terence Hec. 643 quid mulieris uxorem habes ?

'what sort of a woman have you to wife?' 13 quid illi simile bello fuit] 'what similarity had that war (to this)?' 14 Cimbri] For the position of this word K. cf. 81 Galli.

fama nobiles potentesque bello] This is an instance of the grammatical figure called chiasmus, cf. Kenn. Appendix F.

ulla] to be joined with bella. 24 securibus] the axes carried by the Roman lictors. The word is used

to denote the sovereign power of Rome, as in Hor. Carm. Sec. 53 iam mari terraque manus potentes Medus Albanasque timet secures.

CHAP 78. 25 qui inutiles sunt] The indic. in a sentence of this kind is unusual.

K. refers to v II, scribit, ut iis legionibus, quae sunt apud eum, naves

instituat, cf. Kenn. § 193. 27 experiantur] The subject of this verb is of course not iż but the same

as the subject of constituunt. For descendant cf. n. on 33. 29

subeundam condicionem] 'submit to terms of surrender or peace'. 30. Mandubii] Alesia, it will be remembered, was a town of the Mandubii.

PAGE 42. recipi prohibebat] 'the necessary conclusion is that these unfortunate people died of hunger in the sight of both armies'. L.

CHAP. 79. colle exteriore] According to Nap. this is the hill of Mussey-la-Fosse, which forms the S.W. boundary of the plain of Les Laumes.

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