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non longius] This, the reading of two inferior mss., is approved by H. and K. F. reads longe mille passibus (without non), so in VIII 36 he has a millibus longe XII. All the best Mss. have non longe, which makes no good sense.

proximam fossam] This was the first of the three fosses which the Romans had made. Its width was 20 feet; cf. 72. integunt cover over'.

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CHAP. 80. 16

ad utramque partem munitionum] i.e. at the lines of circumvallation and countervallation. 17 teneat] If the subordinate clause depends on a perf. participle which

itself belongs to a principal clause with present tense (iubet), the present subj. may be used as well as the more usual imperf. subj. Cf. 40 adhor. tatus...permoveantur but in 53 confirmatis militibus, ne permoverentur... reduxit. (From K.)

PAGE 43. 3 usque ad castra] F. following the best mss. has usque in castra, but

the Romans could hardly have penetrated the enemies' camp. 5 ab Alesia processerant] lit. 'had gone forth away from Alesia'. The

sense would have been slightly different without ab. Cf. Verg. Aen. XII. 162 procedunt castris.

CHAP. 81. 7 hoc spatio] 'during this interval'. For the position of the nom. Galli cf. 77 depopulata Gallia Cimbri magnaque inlata calamitate.

harpagonum] The meaning of harpago is shewn by Curt. IV. 2, ferreae manus (harpagonas vocant) quas operibus hostium inicerent praeparabantur. Pliny vil. 57, 17, says harpagonas et manus invenit Perikles Atheniensis. The Carthaginians used a somewhat similar kind of instrument for grappling the Roman ships, Liv. XXX. 10, cf. Caes. B. C.

I. 57.

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9 campestres munitiones] that part of the Roman lines which was in the plain of Les Laumes.

qua significatione]=ut ea signif., hence the mood of possent; for the tense cf. n. on 80. 15 educit) sc. eos to be supplied from suis.

ut superioribus diebus, ut] F. leaves out the first ut, taking sup. dieb. with the following clause: N., L., K. rightly retain it. 16 fundis, librilibus] K., I think wrongly, takes these words together

and explains them as=fundis quibus lapides libriles iaciebantur. librilia are said by Festus to be instrumenta bellica saxa scilicet ad bracchii

crassitudinem in morem flagellorum loris revincta. 17 ac glandibus Gallos] so K. glandes are leaden acorn-shaped bullets

thrown from a sling. Ovid Met. VII. 776 compares the speed of the hound Laelaps to the flight of excussae contorto verbere glandes. F. reads Gallos grandibus (without ac), referring the adjective to sudibus.

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CHAP. 82. 25 stimulis] cf. 73 end : for induebant cf. 73, quo qui intraverant se ipsi

acutissimis vallis induebant. 26 transfodiebantur] 'were impaled '. 27 pilis muralibus] The pila muralia were no doubt larger than the

ordinary pilum. Mr Long thinks they were only used to thrust with. 29 ex superioribus castris] Nap. thinks Caesar means the Roman camp

on Flavigny S.E of Alesia. G. takes it to mean the camp on M. Réa. 30 interiores] the besieged Gauls: Caesar has hitherto been describing

an attack upon the Roman lines by the Gallic army of relief. By priores fossas are meant the two inner fosses; it will be remembered that there were three altogether, cf. 72. The result of this unsuccessful attempt of the Gauls shows Caesar's wisdom in constructing so many lines of defence; had the Gauls in Alesia been able to advance up to the outer munitio which was being attacked from outside by their fellow-countrymen, the two forces by a simultaneous assault would probably have broken through the lines and inflicted a serious defeat on the Romans.

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CHAP. 83, PAGE 44. adhibent] more usually in or ad consilium adhibere as in 77. 5 erat a septentrionibus collis] Nap. thinks this is M. Réa N.W.of Alesia (cf. last chapter): G.,

less probably, takes it to be the high ground between the villages of Gresigny and Darcey, to the N.E. of Alesia.

virtutis opinionem] ‘reputation for valour'. quid quoque etc., they decide secretly among themselves on the plans they propose to adopt, and on the method of their execution’; for the form of the sentence

cf. 85 quid quoque ex parte. 15 ex quattuor ducibus] cf. c. 76.

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CHAP. 84. 24 cratis] All the mss. have castris, one or two a castris; the latter is

retained by L., but surely a castris proferre is an impossible construction (cf. B. C. II. 22 arma tormentaque ex oppido proferunt). The word egreditur apparently led the copyist to substitute castris for cratis.

musculos] Vegetius, IV. 16, says musculos dicunt minores machinas quibus protecti bellatores sudatum (palisade) auferunt civitatis; fossatum etiam apportatis lapidibus lignis ac terra non solum complent sed etiam solidant ut turres ambulatoriae sine impedimento iungantur ad murum. The musculi were chiefly used in repentinae oppugnationes B. C. III. 80; cf. also B. C. II. 10, where Caesar describes the construction of a musculus 60 ft. in length. 'It was a strong piece of woodwork. The base was quadrangular ; at each angle was a strong pillar; the pillars supported a two-sided roof sloping each way from a ridge. Under this the soldiers worked, and made holes in the wall of a besieged city'. Long. For the falces cf. n. on 22.

29 qui post tergum] 'which rose behind them as they were fighting'

pugnantibus is dative. 30 suum periculum] i.e. they see that their own escape from peril

depends on the safety of others.

CHAP. 85. 32 Caesar) It is supposed that Caesar placed himself on the hill of

Flavigny, which commands a view of the plain of Les Laumes.

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PAGE 45. submittit] Notice the omission of auxilium.

ad animum occurrit] an unusual phrase. Forcellini wrongly explains ad animum as=ad animum addendum. F. reads id animo. 3

de omni salute desperant] despair of safety altogether'. 6 iniquum loci ad declivitatem fastigium] lit. the unfavourable downward inclination of the ground exercises great influence'.

-testudine facta] This military manoeuvre is described by Livy XXXIV. 39 sublatis deinde supra capita scutis continuatisque ita inter se ut non modo ad caecos ictus sed ne ad inserendum quidem ex propinquo telum loci quicquam esset testudine facta subibant, cf. S.D.A. testudo'.

ea quae occultaverant] such as the lilia, stimuli, etc.

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CHAP. 86. Labienum] Nap. supposes that Labienus was posted on the hill of Bussy-le-Grand, N. of Alesia. 13 sustinere] ‘hold his ground'. ded. cohort. 'to draw off his troops

and make a sortie', i.e. to sally out of the outer lines and attack the

besieging army. 17 interiores] the Gauls within the Roman lines, cf. 82. 19 exscensu] so Madvig Adv. II. 259 for ex ascensu.

propugnantes] ‘their defenders'. 'propugno proprie est pugno defendendi gratia'.

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CHAP. 8. 25 pugnaretur) For the tense cf. n. on 9 priusquam posset.

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postquam...poterant] 'the imperfect denotes an abiding state'. K., who quotes B. C. III. 60 where the perf. visum est and the imp. dabatur are found in the same sentence after postquam. Tr. 'when the earthworks

now proved unable'. 30 una XL.) F. has undequadraginta. Vielhaber thinking XL. too

large a number proposes to read XI. A similar mistake in figures is supposed by some to have been made in B. C. II. 10, where for Lx. Lipsius would read ix.

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31 fors obtulit] chance threw them in his way'. Fors is the opposite

of ratio design', cf. Hor. Serm. I. 1. 2, seu ratio dederit seu fors obiecerit. Caesar has expressed himself so obscurely that one cannot gather whether Labienus himself removed these cohorts from the nearest praesidia (“Labienus got together 39 cohorts which he was fortunately able to draw from the nearest forts'. Long), or whether he made use of them on happening to fall in with them after they had been drawn from the guard-houses by some other officer.

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CHAP. 88, PAGE 46. ex colore vestitus] Caesar wore the scarlet paludamentum appropriated to the imperator. Cf. S. D. A. paludamentum'. 3 haec declivia et devexa] 'the descending slopes', apparently the slop

ing ground leading from the hill of Flavigny, whence Caesar came (cf. 85) to the plain. Then loca superiora must mean the high ground about M. Réa occupied by the enemy. Nipperdey unnecesarily altered

hostes to nostri. 5 excipit] “takes up'; the object eum may be supplied from the abl.

abs. K. however points out that excipere may be used intransitively;

follows immediately'. 6 rem gerunt] 'set to work'. K. qu. Sall. Cat. 60 pila omittunt,

gladiis res geritur. 8 appropinquant] The best mss. have appropinquabant and in the next

sentence verterunt.

CHAP. 89.

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necessitatium] Nouns of this class with consonantal stems usually make the genitive plural in -um, but a few nouns form exceptions to the rule, cf. R. § 445: civitatium is always found in Livy, sometimes in

Cicero. Kenn. § 24. 28 si posset] 'in the hope that he might be able’. 29

toto exercitui] the dative toto also occurs in VIII. 34. Cf. R. $ 372. The phrase praedae nomine is found again in vill. 4. "The soldier would get the value of his man by selling him to the dealers who followed the camp'. Long.

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CHAP. 90, PAGE 47. 6 in Remis] It will be remembered that the Remi were on terms of friendship with the Romans. Cf. 63.

Matiscone] Maçon on the Saône.

Bibracte] Caesar was obliged to leave Bibracte again on Dec. 31, in consequence of a fresh rising of the Gauls. Cf. viii.

2. litteris] This word should perhaps be struck out: if it is retained the sense must be 'when these things were known at Rome by a despatch'.

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13 dierum XX. supplicatio] 'a public thanksgiving for 20 days'. Cf. iv.

38, where we read that a supplicatio of the same length was granted to Caesar. In II. 15 Caesar says that he had been allowed a supplicatio of 15 days, adding with pardonable pride quod ante id tempus accidit nulli. Cf. S. D. A. 'supplicatio'.

redditur] For this Schneider needlessly proposed editur. Tr. 'is returned', as we say 'to return thanks'.

CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS

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